The Arkansas endemic fauna: an update with additions, deletions, a synthesis of new distributional records, and changes in nomenclature.
Robison et al. (2008) provided the most recent compilation on the endemic biota of Arkansas. Their update brought to 113 (10 species of plants and 103 species/subspecies of animals) the total number of Arkansas endemic flora and fauna. However, several species were inadvertently overlooked. The following 19 species are added to the list of Arkansas endemics: two fungi, three gastropods, one araneid, two opilionids, two pseudoscorpions, one diplopod, three collembolans, two trichopterans, one coleopteran, one dipteran, and one hymenopteran. In addition, seven species (one pseudoscorpion, one collembolan, one bivalve, one ephemeropteran, and three trichopterans) are removed from the state list; a synthesis of new distributional records are added for two gastropods, one coleopteran, and one amphibian, and changes in nomenclature are provided for three gastropods and two coleopterans. This update brings to 126 the number of endemic species of the state.
LIST OF SPECIES
Material included.-The following is a listing of the species added (Table 1) and removed from the state endemic list, including a synthesis of new distributional records and changes in nomenclature for other endemic biota.
Table 1. Biota added to the state list of endemic species of Arkansas and counties of occurrence. Taxon County/Counties Reference Fungi Dictyostelium Stone Landolt et al. caveatum (2006) Cryptovalsaria Polk Vasilyeva & americana Stephenson (2007) Animalia Daedalochila Madison, Newton, Searcy Coles & Walsh bisontes (2006) Xolotrema Independence, Stone Walsh & Coles occidentale (2002) Marstonia ozarkensis Baxter Hershler (1994) Neoleptoneta arkansa Stone Gertsch (1974) Crosbyella distincta Boone Goodnight & Goodnight (1942) Crosbyella roeweri Benton Goodnight & Goodnight (1942) Apochthonius Washington Muchmore diabolus (1967) Apochthonius Stone Muchmore titanicus (1976) Aliulus carrollus Benton, Carroll, Searcy, Hoffman (1999) Washington Typhlogastrura Independence Christiansen & fousheensis Wang (2006) Pygmarrhopalites Newton Zeppelini et youngsteadti al. (2009) Pygmarrhopalites Newton Zeppelini et buffaloensis al. (2009) Cheumatopsyche Garland, Montgomery, Polk Moulton & robisoni Stewart (1996) Lepidostoma lescheni Logan, Montgomery Moulton et al. (1999) Heterosternuta Howard, Izard, Newton, Pike, Longing & ouachitus Randolph, Searcy, Sharp * Hazzard (2009) Atomosia arkansensis Hempstead Barnes (2008) Idris leedsi Johnson Masner & Denis (1996) * There are natural heritage records that also exist for Johnson and Pope counties (NatureServe 2009).
Additions to the State Endemic Fauna
Fungi, Mycetozoa, Dictyosteliaceae
Dictyostelium caveatum Waddell 1982
This cellular slime mold was described by Waddell (1982) from a single isolate found on bat guano in total darkness in Blanchard Springs Caverns, Stone County, Arkansas. It is considered to be a true Arkansas endemic found in a single Ozark cave to date (Landolt et al. 2006).
Cryptovalsaria americana Vasilyeva & Stephenson 2007
This fungus was described by Vasilyeva & Stephenson (2007) from specimens collected from the Ouachita Mountains Biological Station, 6.5 km west of Big Fork, Polk County, Arkansas. Collections of C. americana were taken from the living bark of hazel alder (Alnus serrulata).
Animalia, Mollusca, Gastropoda, Polygyridae
Daedalochila (syn. Millerelix) bisontes Coles & Walsh 2006
The Buffalo River liptooth, Daedalochila bisontes was previously thought to be D. (Millerelix) peregrina from specimens deposited in the Causey collection at the University of Arkansas-Fayetteville and the Hubricht collection at the Field Museum of Natural History-Chicago (Coles & Walsh 2006). It is considered imperiled (G2) in rounded global status (NatureServe 2009). The species inhabits limestone outcrops in the Ozarks, including Madison, Newton, and Searcy counties (Walsh & Coles 2002; Coles & Walsh 2006).
Xolotrema occidentale (Pilsbry & Ferriss 1907)
The Arkansas wedge, Xolotrema occidentale (syn. Triodopsis occidentalis) is known only from Independence and Stone counties, Arkansas (Pilsbry & Ferriss 1907; Walsh & Coles 2002). This snail is considered critically imperiled (G1) in rounded global status by NatureServe (2009) and a species of special concern in the state by the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission (Anonymous 2004).
Marstonia ozarkensis (Hinkley 1915)
The Ozark pyrg, Marstonia ozarkensis (formerly Pyrgulopsis ozarkensis) is known only from the type locality, the North Fork of the White River above Norfolk, Baxter County, Arkansas (Hershler 1994). Thompson & Hershler (2002) re-evaluated eastern North American species assigned to Pyrgulopsis and recognized them as distinct species of the genus Marstonia. Interestingly, Wu et al. (1997) lists a single site on the North Fork of the White River in Ozark County, Missouri for M. ozarkensis. However, efforts to relocate this species beyond the single reported location in Missouri have been unsuccessful (Natureserve 2009). This snail has also likely been extirpated in Arkansas (Wu et al. 1997). It is considered G1 in rounded global status (NatureServe 2009) and a species of special concern in Arkansas (Anonymous 2004).
Arthropoda, Araneae, Leptonetidae
Neoleptoneta arkansa (Gertsch 1974)
This troglophilic spider was described by Gertsch (1974) from Blanchard Springs Caverns, Stone County, Arkansas. Dorris (1985) included the species as Leptoneta arkansa in her checklist of Arkansas spiders.
Crosbyella distincta Goodnight & Goodnight 1942
This harvestman (an eyeless obligate cavernicole) was described by Goodnight & Goodnight (1942) from specimens collected in Wagler's Cave near Harrison, Boone County, Arkansas. It is considered critically imperiled (S1) in the state (NatureServe 2009).
Crosbyella roeweri Goodnight & Goodnight 1942
This harvestman species was described by Goodnight & Goodnight (1942). Specimens were collected in Tom Danforth Cave, Benton County, Arkansas. This is an eyed troglophile that is considered S1 in Arkansas (NatureServe 2009).
Apochthonius diabolus Muchmore 1967
Muchmore (1967) described A. diabolus from a single male specimen from Devil's Den Cave at Devil's Den State Park, Washington County, Arkansas. This obligate cavernicole is considered S1 in the state (NatureServe 2009).
Apochthonius titanicus Muchmore 1976
This pseudoscorpion was described by Muchmore (1976) from individuals collected from Blanchard Springs Caverns, 5.6 km east of Fifty Six, Stone County, Arkansas. Specimens were found under a piece of paper near "The Titans". This obligate cavernicole is considered S1 in Arkansas (NatureServe 2009).
Diplopoda, Julida, Parajulidae
Aliulus carrollus Causey 1950
This milliped was included as a state endemic by Robison & Allen (1995) but inadvertently overlooked and not included by Robison et al. (2008). The species was reported by Robison & Allen (1995) from Carroll and Washington counties. However, additional specimens have been reported from Benton and Searcy counties (Hoffman 1999). The species may eventually be found in adjacent states as the type locality (Blue Spring, Carroll County) is just south of the Missouri line (Causey 1950) and sites in Benton and Washington counties are close to eastern Oklahoma.
Hexapoda, Collembola, Hypogastruridae
Typhlogastrura fousheensis Christiansen & Wang 2006
This springtail species was described by Christiansen & Wang (2006) from Foushee Cave, Independence County, Arkansas. A single adult was collected by Norman and Jean Youngsteadt in May 1978. Additional adult specimens were collected 27 years later by the same collectors from bat guano in the same cave on 18 March 2005 (Christiansen & Wang 2006).
Pygmarrhopalites youngsteadtii Zeppelini, Taylor & Slay 2009
Specimens of this springtail species were collected from Tom Barnes Cave, Newton County, Arkansas (Zeppelini et al. 2009). This cave is located in the Ozarks within the Buffalo National River.
Pygmarrhopalites buffaloensis Zeppelini, Taylor & Slay 2009
The holotype was collected from Walnut Cave, Newton County, Arkansas (Zeppelini et al. 2009). This cave is located near the Buffalo River, about 26 km upstream from the cave where P. youngsteadtii was collected.
Cheumatopsyche robisoni Moulton & Stewart 1996
This caddisfly was described by Moulton & Stewart (1996) from specimens collected from Strawn Spring, 0.8 km east of Caddo Gap, Montgomery County, Arkansas. Additional specimens of C. robisoni were collected from other sites in Garland, Montgomery and Polk counties, Arkansas (Moulton & Stewart 1996). It appears this species is endemic to small, spring-fed streams in the Ouachita Mountain physiographic subregion. With additional collecting, C. robisoni may be found just across the border in LeFlore County, Oklahoma (along Rich Mountain) as specimens are available from sites just to the east. This species is considered critically imperiled (G1) in rounded global status (NatureServe 2009).
Lepidostoma lescheni Bowles, Mathis & Weaver 1994
A single male L. lescheni was collected from Slocum Spring on Mt. Magazine, Logan County, Arkansas, and described by Bowles et al. (1994). Additional specimens (both males and females) were collected from several sites in seep locations in the central Ouachita Mountain region of the state in Montgomery County (Moulton et al. 1999). A report (Weaver 2002) of the species from Missouri and Oklahoma is erroneous (S. R. Moulton II pers. comm.). However, additional collecting may reveal populations in similar seep areas of eastern Oklahoma. This species is considered G1 in rounded global status (NatureServe 2009).
Heterosternuta ouachitus (Matta &Wolfe 1979)
The species was originally described as Hydroporus ouachitus by Matta & Wolfe (1979). The subgenus Heterosternuta was elevated to generic status by Matta & Wolfe (1981). The species was originally reported from sites in the Ouachita Mountains (Matta & Wolfe 1981). However, Pippenger & Harp (1985) reported the range of H. ouachitus reaches into the Ozark Mountains (Janes Creek, Randolph County). More recently, Harp & Robison (2006) reported H. ouachitus from the Strawberry River system in Izard and Sharp counties. Additional specimens were reported from Long Creek (Searcy County), Beech Creek (Newton County), and West Lafferty Creek (Izard County) by Longing & Haggard (2009). Interestingly, Wolfe (2000) mentioned in couplets of keys to Heterosternuta beetles, H. ouachitus probably occurs outside of Arkansas; however, specimens have not yet been collected from adjacent states or elsewhere (S. D. Longing, pers. comm.). The species is considered imperiled (S2) in the state (NatureServe 2009).
Atomosia arkansensis Barnes 2008
This robber fly was described by Barnes (2008) from specimens collected in blackland prairie at Grandview Prairie Wildlife Management Area near Columbus, Hempstead County, Arkansas. The species is ranked S1 in the state (NatureServe 2009) due to its limited range.
Idris leedsi Masner & Denis 1996
A parasitoid wasp, Idris leedsi was described from a single female collected using yellow pan traps from Baker Spring, 35.4 km NW of Clarksville, Johnson County, Arkansas (Masner & Denis 1996). Scelionids are solitary primary parasitoids of eggs of various spiders (Johnson 1992).
Species Removed from the State Endemic Fauna
Villosa arkansasensis (Lea 1862)
The Ouachita creekshell was reported to be an Arkansas endemic by Robison & Allen (1995) from Clark, Garland, Howard, Montgomery, Pike, Polk and Saline counties. In addition, it was subsequently listed as an endemic by Robison et al. (2008). However, Galbraith et al. (2008) report specimens of V. arkansasensis from the Little River system of McCurtain County, Oklahoma. It is a species of special concern in Arkansas (Anonymous 2004).
Tartarocreagris ozarkensis (Hoff 1945)
This pseudoscorpion was described as Microcreagis ozarkensis by Hoff (1945) from specimens collected from Devil's Den State Park and Farmington, Washington County, Arkansas (Hoff 1945). The species (=M. ozarkensis) was included as an Arkansas endemic by Allen (1988), Robison & Allen (1995) and Robison et al. (2008). It is now known from additional localities in Arkansas (Clark and Pulaski counties) and Latimer County, Oklahoma (Muchmore 2001), and is ranked S1 in the state (NatureServe 2009).
Pseudosinella dubia Christiansen 1960
Christiansen (1960) described this troglobitic springtail from specimens collected from Devil's Den Kitchen Cave, Devil's Den Cave, and Granny Dean Cave, Washington County, Arkansas. It was again reported from Devil's Den Cave by Peck & Peck (1982). Subsequently, the species was reported from a cave in Dent County, Missouri, and a cave in Adair County, Oklahoma (Slay et al. 2009).
Dannella provonshai (McCafferty 1977)
This mayfly was originally described by McCafferty (1977) from specimens collected on the Mulberry River, Johnson County, Arkansas. Robison & Allen (1995) reported it was known only from the type locality and Robison et al. (2008) included D. provonshai in their list of endemics. However, the species has now been reported from Alabama, Kentucky, New York, and Tennessee (McCafferty & Webb 2006; NatureServe 2009; Ogden et al. 2009). In Arkansas, D. provonshai is ranked S1 (NatureServe 2009).
Helicopsyche limnella Ross 1938
Ross (1938) originally described this caddisfly from an unknown Arkansas county. Unzicker et al. (1970) listed seven sites for H. limnella in Benton, Crawford, Madison, and Washington counties. Robison & Allen (1995) included Benton, Clark, Crawford, Franklin, Garland, Hot Spring, Johnson, Madison, Montgomery, Polk, Saline, and Washington counties in the range of H. limnella. The species was also included in the Arkansas endemic biota list of Robison et al. (2008). However, H. limnella has now been reported from Missouri and Oklahoma (Moulton & Stewart 1996).
Ochrotrichia robisoni Frazer & Harris 1991
This microcaddisfly species was described by Frazer & Harris (1991) from specimens collected from Bear Creek at St. Hwy 7, 3.2 km south of Hollis, Perry County, Arkansas. The species is S1 in Arkansas (NatureServe 2009) and has been reported recently from Oklahoma (Moulton & Stewart 1996).
Paduniella nearctica Flint 1967
This caddisfly was originally described from specimens collected from Devil's Den State Park, Washington County, Arkansas (Flint 1967); additional records include Johnson County, Arkansas (Moulton & Stewart 1996). As such, it was included as a state endemic species by Robison & Allen (1995) and Robison et al. (2008). However, P. nearctica has now been reported from southern Missouri (Moulton & Stewart 1996).
New Distributional Records and/or Changes in Nomenclature
Daedalochila (syn. Millerelix) peregrina (Rehder 1932)
The White Liptooth was reported as Polygyra peregrina in Robison & Allen (1995) and Robison et al. (2008). However, Coles & Walsh (2006) found that the diagnostic characters used to define the genus Millerelix sensu Emberton (1995) were unreliable and placed member species into the senior genus Daedalochila Beck. The species is known from Izard, Marion, Newton, Searcy and Stone counties (Robison & Smith 1982). Walsh & Coles (2002) reported D. peregrina from Carroll County. This snail is G2 in rounded global status (NatureServe 2009) and a species of special concern in Arkansas (Anonymous 2004).
Patera clenchi (Rehder 1932)
The Calico Rock oval, P. clenchi was reported by Hubricht (1972) only from a rock slide on Mt. Nebo, Yell County, Arkansas. Robison & Smith (1982), Robison & Allen (1995) and Robison et al. (2008) reported P. clenchi as Mesodon clenchi from Izard and Yell counties. Walsh & Coles (2002) reported two new distributional records for P. clenchi in Searcy and Scott counties. It is considered G1 in rounded global status (NatureServe 2009) and a species of special concern in the state (Anonymous 2004).
Inflectarius magazinensis (Pilsbry & Ferriss 1907)
This Magazine Mountain shagreen is only known to occur on the north slope of Mt. Magazine in the Ozark National Forest of Logan County, Arkansas (Pilsbry & Ferriss 1907). It was listed as an Arkansas endemic by Robison & Smith (1982), Robison & Allen (1995) and Robison et al. (2008) as Mesodon magazinensis. Caldwell (1986) was unable to verify I. magazinensis from the south slope of Mt. Magazine; however, additional specimens were reported from the north slope by Walsh & Coles (2002). Its limited range makes it particularly sensitive to any habitat alteration and it is therefore listed as S1 in Arkansas (NatureServe 2009), as an endangered species in the state (Anonymous 2004), and as a threatened species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on 17 April 1989 (Anonymous 1989).
Heterosternuta sulphuria (Matta & Wolfe 1979)
This predaceous diving beetle was originally described as Hydroporus sulfurus by Matta & Wolfe (1979) and included as an Arkansas endemic by Robison & Allen (1995). The subgenus Heterosternuta was elevated to the generic level by Matta & Wolfe (1981). Specimens of this endemic species were originally collected from Sulphur Springs, Benton County, Arkansas (Matta & Wolfe 1979). Additional historical records include sites in Izard, Newton, and Searcy counties. More recently, however, Longing & Haggard (2009) reported new distributional records for H. sulphuria in Benton, Newton, and Washington counties, including the first report of the species from the entrance of a cave. With additional collecting, this dytiscid may eventually be found outside of Arkansas in adjacent states (S. D. Longing, pers. comm.).
Chordata, Amphibia, Caudata, Plethodontidae
Plethodon caddoensis Pope & Pope 1951
The Caddo Mountain salamander, Plethodon caddoensis was reported to be an Arkansas endemic in Howard, Montgomery, and Polk counties (Robison & Allen 1995). Trauth & Wilhide (1999) reported new geographic records for P. caddoensis from two sites in Pike County. This salamander is considered a species of special concern in the state (Anonymous 2004).
In summary, the present study brings to 126 species the number of endemic biota of Arkansas. Nineteen species have been added to the state list since the last update in 2008. In addition, seven species (one pseudoscorption, one springtail, one bivalve, one ephemeropteran, and three caddisflies) are removed from the state list and a synthesis of new distributional records is added for two endemic gastropods, one endemic coleopteran, and one endemic amphibian. Changes in nomenclature are provided for three endemic gastropods and two endemic coleopterans.
Appreciation is extended to D. Bowles (National Park Service), G. L. Harp (Arkansas State University), G. Leeds (U. S. Forest Service), S. D. Longing (UA-Fayetteville), J. C. Morse (Clemson University), S. R. Moulton, II (U.S. Geological Survey), F. Spiegel (UA-Fayetteville), S. Stephenson (UA-Fayetteville), and J. S. Weaver, III (New Hampshire) for providing information on Arkansas endemics. We also thank S. R. Moulton, II for critically reviewing the manuscript. Funding for MES was provided by the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission, The Nature Conservancy (Arkansas Field Office), and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Arkansas Ecological Services).
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Chris T. McAllister, Henry W. Robison and Michael E. Slay
RapidWrite, 102 Brown Street, Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas 71913 Department of Biology, Southern Arkansas University Magnolia, Arkansas 71754 and The Nature Conservancy, 601 North University Avenue Little Rock, Arkansas 72205
CTM at: email@example.com
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|Author:||McAllister, Chris T.; Robison, Henry W.; Slay, Michael E.|
|Publication:||The Texas Journal of Science|
|Date:||Aug 1, 2009|
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