The Architecture of Old Mission Peninsula and the Michigan Rural Property Inventory.
Assessing the degree of landscape change over time is a challenging undertaking even for experienced field historians, cultural geographers, planners, and landscape architects. Often asked to determine the impact of urbanization on rural landscapes--especially as it affects place identity--these professional groups have had to rely heavily on secondary resources, lengthy fieldwork, or first-hand accounts to recreate a base from which to measure change on the landscape. In this study, the researchers introduce the use of an archival resource titled the "Michigan Rural Property Inventory" (MRPI) to develop a picture of Michigan's rural architectural landscape in the late 1930s. Peninsula Township, located in Grand Traverse County, Michigan, served as the study site. Because the township is experiencing significant pressures from secondary and retirement home development, much of its historic housing stock is being threatened. To assess the amount of change that has occurred over the past sixty years, the MRPI was used to establish a foundation for determining vernacular architecture. The five variables found to be most useful in the characterization of housing styles on the MRPI cards include: house axis in relation to main service road, general footprint, year of construction, structure height, and roof characteristics. From this data, the housing style that represented each homestead could be predicted. Generally, the housing styles fell into one of two main categories: National Folk Style and Craftsman Style. Footprint information and roof characteristics further allowed the prediction of specific sub-categories within each of these main housing styles. Since the MRPI survey of Peninsula Township was conducted in 1939, field verification of the accuracy of the data interpretation was necessary. The field study affirmed that the aforementioned five variables were excellent approximates of the types of housing style that prevailed in rural areas of Michigan. Ultimately, the researchers hope that this study could be used to encourage future development
that enhances, rather than deviates from, the cultural history and identity of Old Mission Peninsula.
NOTE: This paper, presented in a session on Historical Preservation in the Geography Section of the Michigan Academy in 1999, was co-winner of the Ronald O. Kapp Undergraduate Award to the most outstanding paper presented at the annual meetings of the Michigan Academy that year. Ms. Lau is an undergraduate student at Michigan State University, majoring in civil engineering with a specialty in construction and architectural design.
As population growth soars and land resources become sparse, more builders, families, and individuals are feasting their eyes upon the higher latitudes of Michigan for untouched acres. Old Mission Peninsula, located in the northwestern region of Lower Michigan, is one such area rapidly gaining recognition as embodying this desired land.
Located just north of Traverse City, this 20-mile-long peninsula is divided into three regions--Upper, Middle, and Lower--by township and range lines ("Grand Traverse County, Michigan" 1999). Within its 28 square miles lies a history so precious that, once lost, can never be retrieved (Potter 1954). From the remaining traces of the missionaries who first set foot in Michigan in the 1830s to the telltale signs of the Arts and Crafts Movement, the history is woven into every aspect of the Peninsula, from the farms to the people, and, to the main focus of this study, the architecture.
Old Mission Peninsula was selected as the site of study for many reasons. Previous studies have been performed on the place identity and architectural resources of the landscape, thereby serving as precedents off which to build this research. A near-complete set of Michigan Rural Property Inventory cards was available for the Peninsula, in addition to current data and statistics. Finally, the area has a high susceptibility to rampant development for good reasons: it is not densely populated or urbanized, and it is set in a beautiful and natural environment.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Because development is an inevitable accompaniment to change, economic progress, and population growth, the study did not focus on preventing historical destruction. Rather, the purpose of the study was to discover ways to deal with expansion in a manner that would complement the preservation of the area's place identity. By mapping out the architectural styles of the original structures that once existed or exist on the Peninsula, it was believed that trends of housing formats could be diagrammed. With this resource, future building and house designs could be modeled off the architectural style prevalent to that particular region of the Peninsula. This way, new development would harmonize with the vernacular architecture more gracefully and augment the historic landscape with a contemporary twist.
THE MICHIGAN RURAL PROPERTY INVENTORY
During the Great Depression, when many surveyors, engineers, and land appraisers were unemployed, the Michigan State Tax Commission realized that there was a lack of data and guidelines upon which to establish assessment rates, particular in the rural areas. With the assistance of the Works Progress Administration (WPA Project S-110), the State Tax Commission created the Michigan Rural Property Inventory ("Rural Property Inventories" 1999). The purpose of the Inventory was to provide detailed information about one and a half million individual parcels of land in rural Michigan. From 1939 to 1942, cards were created for each piece of property within every county. Besides each tract's range, township, section, and parcel designation, the cards detailed such facts as ownership, utilization, land description, agricultural usage, woodlands, utilities, and a comprehensive building description.
These descriptions were both written and pictorial. Among the key points noted were exterior dimensions, building usage, the year of construction, foundation type, number of stories, wall siding, and roof line style. Pictorially, a footprint, or outline of the structure's foundation, was provided, along with a thumbnail sketch of the lot parceled and labeled by its specific use. From these two sketches, the house's location with respect to the lot and its orientation with respect to the main service road could be determined.
Accompanying the cards was a corresponding index map of Peninsula Township created in 1939. Based on township, range, and section delineations in the Congressional Land Survey, each section of land depicted the boundaries of individual land parcels, which were identified by letters of the alphabet. By matching each plot of land by its township and range orientation, section number, and plot letter, the author could locate the property profiled on the MRPI on the map. Currently, the original MRPI cards and maps are stored securely at the State Archives of Michigan, and are readily accessible to the public.
THE PRIMARY ARCHITECTURAL GENRES
National Folk Style
Predominant from 1850 to 1890, the National Folk Style architectural genre is identified by its graceful and simplistic make. As railroads made milled lumber more accessibles, houses adapted from a heavier frame to the more economical balloon or braced framing covered by wood sheathing (McAlester 1984). NFS houses generally have gable rooflines, wood siding, and no lavish detail. Six subtypes fall within this category (see Figure 1). The typical gable-front house is narrow and two stories high, with the gable-end of the roof facing the road above the entranceway. The gable-front-and-wing home appends a perpendicular side-gabled unit to the gable-front, forming an L-shaped structure. Commonly one-and-one-half stories high, the hall-and-parlor form is a two-room wide by one-room deep building with a side-gabled roof. The I-house is a two-story version of the hall-and-parlor with additional wings adjacent to the back or side. The massed-plan or side-gabled home is one story high and two rooms long and two rooms deep. While the side-gabled home is of a rectangular shape, the pyramidal subtype has a square layout, asymmetrical door placement, and pyramidal roofline (Westphal 1997).
Identifying features of the Colonial Revival era (1880 to 1955) commonly include symmetrical and paired windows) a centered door, and the long axis of the roof running parallel with the road. On the Peninsula however, many houses are of the asymmetrical subtype or the gambrel roof subtype (Westphal 1997). A full one-story porch, two-story layout, and hip or gable dormer windows distinguish the hipped roof with full-width porch subtype (see Figure 2). The hipped roof without full-width porch home is a two-story rectangular building with a hipped roof and no full-length porch. The side-gabled roof house is two-story high with a side-gabled roof. The centered-gable house has a centered front gable added to either a hipped or side-gabled roof. The one-story is patterned after the simple Folk styles and was most common during the 1920s and l940s (McAlester 1984).
The popular format of the Craftsman Style accompanied the Arts and Crafts movement (1880-1940) and was prevalent in houses built from 1905 to 1930 (Rifkind 1980), Low-pitched, gable, or hip roofs, exposed roof rafters, decorative beams, and tapered square columns bracing full- or partial-width porches are distinguishing characteristic of this genre (see Figure 3) (Westphal 1997). The front-gabled roof subtype and cross-gabled roof are generally one story in height. About one-third of the Craftsman houses are of the side-gabled roof subtype, which were one-and-one-half story high and found with porches and gable dormers (McAlester 1984). The hipped roof subtype is equally divided between one- and two-story heights, and normally lacked typical Craftsman details,
Victorian architecture has several subcategories, but the ones that are present most frequently on the Peninsula are those that appeared in the period between 1870 and 1910, The Folk Victorian category is identified by flat trim appended to a National Folk house form and a symmetrical facade (see Figure 4). Subtypes of this sub-category include the front-gabled roof, gable-front-and-wing, side-gabled roof, one- and two-story, and the pyramidal building (McAlester 1984). Victorian Shingle houses are marked by exterior walls and roofing of continuous wood shingles, an asymmetrical facade, and irregular porch lines (see Figure 5). Hipped roof with cross-gables, side-gabled roof, front-gabled roof, cross-gabled roof, and gambrel roof are all subtypes of this category. Victorian Stick houses are characterized by a steep gabled roof and large geometric forms in the trusses of the gables or on the woodwork (see Figure 6). The principal subtypes include the gabled roof and the town house. The Queen Anne subtype is m arked by a steeply pitched, irregular roof line, a front-facing gable with an asymmetrical facade, textured shingles on the walls, bay windows, decorative porches, and turrets (see Figure 7). Shape subtypes include the hipped roof with lower cross gables, cross-gabled roof, front-gabled roof, and the town house.
Not a formal architectural genre, vernacular architecture is a category under which fall houses that are built in a manner indigenous to a particular region. The style is singular in that, although it may have characteristics of several observed genres combined, the houses are designed with eccentricities that make it unclassifiable.
METHODOLOGY, TRADITIONAL AND NEW
Conventionally, in order to map out architectural landscapes, researchers were required to spend extensive periods of time performing prodigious and tedious fieldwork. They literally had to visit every individual structure to visually determine and record its structure style.
As a result of the limited amount of time and resources available, it was not possible or convenient to commit to the days of field study typically mandatory to designate architectural styles to every structure on the Peninsula. Instead, the researchers chose to take full advantage of the neglected Michigan Rural Property Inventory. With such precise detail and historical accuracy, the MRPI could not be ignored as an imperative resource to this architectural study. In fact, after a careful examination of the abundance of information provided on the cards, it was hypothesized that the actual architectural style of each house could be determined solely with the use of these cards; no fieldwork was necessary.
This methodology was both novel and unheard of in the field of traditional architectural research: an extensive study that did not depend on first-hand data collection seemed impossible and would surely be inaccurate and inconclusive. However, with a nearly complete set of the Rural Property Inventory cards for Old Mission Peninsula, a systematic procedure to evaluate the architectural style and genre of each and every structure on the Peninsula could be devised.
Further aiding the evaluation was the background knowledge that the majority of the houses on the Peninsula were built in four general genres: National Folk Style, Colonial Revival, Craftsman Style, or Victorian Architecture (Westphal 1997). Each of these architectural styles had certain trademark characteristics that enabled one to easily classify structures when out in the field. But, to the researchers' advantage and delight, with scrutiny and some manipulation, these characteristics could likewise be extracted from the MRPI.
The procedure had many advantages over the conventional method. First, it utilized a readily available resource that maintained historical accuracy, unlike the structures themselves that were undoubtedly altered over time from their original state. Second, the amount of time and expenses of such an extensive undertaking was severely diminished. As stated earlier, the greatest advantage was the elimination of tedious and lengthy fieldwork.
By learning and understanding the primary characteristics that were unique to each genre, the researcher was able to compile a list of variables or clues available on the Inventory cards that would be most valuable in enabling the prediction of architectural styles. These variables included
* The house axis in relation to main service road;
* The general footprint or outline of the house;
* The year the house was built;
* The structure height; and
* The roof characteristics.
House orientation in relation to the road identified the building face and distinguished between side-gabled and front-gabled houses, The footprint of the building revealed the general exterior floor plan of the house, and traced the structure's layout, wings, lean-to additions, porches, and turrets. The age of the house divulged which housing era was prevalent at the time of construction. Structure height disclosed the number of stories of the house and proved valuable in differentiating between subtypes: e.g., National Folk Style (NFS) hall-and-parlor homes, which were one- to one-and-one-half- story high, and NFS I-houses, which were two story-high. Roof characteristics explicitly stated the roof style and line of the building, i.e., if the roof was gable, hip, pyramidal, or gambrel. Other secondary characteristics that were helpful in determining housing style include the basement lines, wall siding, and porch structure.
With the hypothesis that the architectural style and genre may be predicted based on these five main variables, the researcher was ready to investigate the available set of Rural Property Inventory cards for Peninsula Township. The set contained more than 550 cards organized by township and range numbers. For the upper third of the Peninsula, all profiles fell under Township 30 North Range 10 West. The middle region was within T29N R10W, and the lower part was located within the region of T28N R10W and T28N RI1W.
First, the researcher would note the year each structure was built on the map, information which was later used for the visual interpretation and observation of trends. Then from the aforementioned five variables, the house genre and subtype would be predicted and noted on the Inventory card. For example, if the structure was built in 1890, was two stories high with a gable roof and the footprint depicted a rectangular building with the length perpendicular to the road, then a reasonable choice would be National Folk Style and the subtype would be gable-front. If the Inventory card had only a land description, it signified that the parcel was utilized for agricultural purposes, and a "N/A" would be noted on the map in place of a year. Structures that were designated as hotels, schools, and churches were marked as being of a vernacular subtype. Approximately 425 buildings had their architectural era and subtype evaluated.
To test the accuracy of the architectural style predictions from the Rural Property Inventory Cards and to ensure that the study was heading in the proper direction, a trip to Old Mission Peninsula for reference and verification was necessary. It was not the traditional field study in which every structure was tracked down and compared to the cards. Instead, one section was randomly picked from Township 28 North Range 10 West, T28N R11W, T29N R10W and T30N R10W for a total of four sections. Using the footprints and landscape sketches provided on the MRPI cards, the authors traveled to each chosen section and located each parcel within the section. An approximation of the building's location within the land parcel shown on the footprints defined a target area of where the structure should be standing. Upon finding the structure, the primary researcher would observe and note on the corresponding MRPI card the actual architectural style next to the predicted style for later comparison. Each building was also ph otographed for documentation purposes.
Using newfound discoveries obtained from the field study, the researcher then reviewed all the MRPI cards, revising some of the predictions. By performing the field study, the experimenter gained a keener ability to visualize houses from the Inventory cards, how certain features fit into the structure, and the structure's orientation. On enlarged land layout maps of the three Peninsula divisions, each of the 425 structures was marked with a designated color at its approximate location with respect to the parcel. Red marks were made for those houses of the National Folk Style era, blue for Craftsman Style, green for Victorian Architecture, brown for Colonial Revival, and orange for Vernacular structures. In addition, stickers depicting every subtype that fell within each main group were adhered next to the circular marks, along with the year of the structure's construction. Tracts with no structures were marked again by "N/A", and structures that were discovered from the field study to be no longer in existen ce were signified by a black "X." With this visual depiction of the data, interpretation was ready to begin.
As each structure was marked, its genre and housing subtype was tallied in a spreadsheet consisting of three tables, one for each of the three Peninsula regions. With the number of structures that were profiled and the number of architectural sub-categories, there was an overwhelming abundance of data to analyze. After careful examination, the data was summarized into one manageable table (see Table 1). However, the table was limited to listing only the number of structures found in each era, and data could not be easily interpreted. Four accompanying charts were constructed, one for each of the three parts of the Peninsula and one for the entire Peninsula (see Charts 8, 9, 10, and 11).
Observations from the Field Study
The condensed field study produced several key points. The MRPI cards provided astonishing accurate detail in terms of describing the structures. This accuracy in dimensions, building layout, structure additions, and construction materials was critical in certifying that the building present was indeed the building that was documented on the profiles six decades ago.
National Folk Style houses were patently predominant throughout the entire Peninsula. Even houses that were constructed well after 1890 frequently appeared in this style. Consequently, many buildings. that were originally predicted to be of a later genre were revised to National Folk Style. Craftsman homes were found more often in the lower regions of the Peninsula and along main roads. Victorian buildings were located primarily along the shoreline and resort areas and very rarely in the rural stretches of the Peninsula. Colonial Revival homes had visible influence from the National Folk Style and were evenly dispersed along the Peninsula.
Finally, it was observed that new development was rapidly spreading upwards on the Peninsula. Larger and more modern houses that were visibly incongruous to the indigenous landscape had replaced many historic houses. Land parcels that were profiled as being used for strictly agricultural purposes had been rezoned and divided to build generic subdivisions, In addition, an expanded road system now snaked its way through the landscape.
Accuracy of the New Methodology
Before architectural trends and patterns could be recorded, the reliability of the new method had to be ascertained. This reliability was based on the accuracy determined by the field study. The field study focused on approximately 56 houses. Of those, eight were either demolished or deteriorated to the point where they were unidentifiable. From the remaining 48 structures, 33 had both the architectural format and sub-category correctly predicted from the MRPI cards. Six incidents required slight revisions to the original inference; for example, a house that was thought to be a side-gabled Craftsman was instead a side-gabled National Folk.
The nine remaining structures were incorrectly predicted in terms of architectural era and subtype. Some of these buildings had been built in an unusual manner; e.g., the entry door was away from the main service road, resulting in a side-gabled rather than front-gabled home. In the majority of the cases, these structures were built in the Vernacular format; consequently, the researcher had mistakenly attempted to classify them into one of the four genres without knowing of the impossibility.
If the five structures that were of the Vernacular format and the eight that no longer existed were excluded from the data, then, of the remaining 43 buildings, 39 had their architectural format fairly well predicted based on the MRPI alone. Table 2 and Chart 5 summarize the accuracy of the MRPI cards.
ARCHITECTURAL TRENDS WITH RESPECT TO LOCATION
With the accuracy of the MRPI at 91%, the researcher reasoned that the colored markings and illustrative labels on the map adequately reflected the Peninsula's architectural landscape.
A quick skim of all the maps covering the three regions of Old Mission Peninsula revealed similar trends observed from the field study. National Folk Style homes were most predominant in all three regions of the Peninsula. Victorian homes were found primarily on the coasts of the East and West Arms of the Grand Traverse Bay, in the resort areas, and in Old Mission Harbor. Houses were clustered most along the main roads, most likely for easier access for transportation, and for social purposes.
Considering each region of Peninsula as an individual entity led to more in-depth findings,
Upper Region: Township 30N Range 11W
While the Craftsman Style has its lowest percentage in this region of the three divisions, buildings of the Colonial Revival era, the second format to originate following the National Folk Style, has its highest percentage. There are also a relatively large number of Vernacular structures in this area due to Old Mission Harbor, where several hotels and stores are located (see Chart 2).
Middle Region: Township 29N Range 10W
Moving further south, the percentage of Craftsman structures increases steadily. The amount of structures in this region is significantly higher than the Upper Region. The majority of Victorian homes are located around Old Mission Point (see Chart 3).
Lower Region: Township 28N Range low-11W
In this region, the greatest diversification of architectural formats occurs. The percentage of Craftsman homes increases once more while that of National Folk Style decreases substantially. Also, the number of Vernacular and Colonial Revival houses grows significantly, leading to a more equal distribution of structure styles (see Chart 4).
In the northern two regions, National Folk Style homes are most common for many reasons. The earliest settlers of this Peninsula arrived from the north by way of the Straits of Mackinac and the Great Lakes, and the best harbors for large ships were located in the northwest and midwest thirds of the Peninsula. The first region settled was the Upper in 1834, and the current motif of the mid-1800s was the National Folk Style. As settlers gradually migrated south or arrived at Bowers Harbor on the west side of the Peninsula, they gradually adapted other forms of housing layouts. Meanwhile, as time passed, news of the latest trends in home construction did not travel quickly to the isolated, northern regions of Old Mission Peninsula. As a result, as other eras began elsewhere, the NFS format remained the standard.
In the Middle section, Craftsman homes grew in popularity as roads become more passable. People who headed north from the young and prospering Traverse City brought with them the latest, contemporary trends. As these new residents and their respective houses meshed into the already-settled National Folk Style environment, the architectural landscape began to show signs of variety.
The Lower region was the area where many newcomers from the cities immediately settled upon relocating to the Peninsula in the early- to mid 1900s, While the northern half of Old Mission Peninsula consists primarily of NFS and Colonial Revival homes, the southern portion was the location of much new construction as the MRPI was being conducted in the mid-i 930s. This new construction included a high percentage of Craftsman and a slight resurgence in Victorian Era homes, as these structures were perceived as being more attractive and artistic than those of the National Folk Style.
TRENDS WITH RESPECT TO ARCHITECTURE
This study was not limited to observing architectural trends based on location. The potential to delve deeper into the rationale behind the architecture may be found in evaluating trends in terms of the architectural category. Several reasons for why National Folk Style is most prominent may be considered beyond the fact that it was one of the earlier genres to appear on Old Mission Peninsula. Most of the original settlers worked as farmers and often did not have the time or resources to build fancy and elaborate homes. NFS homes were not only simplistic and spacious, but also cost resourceful to build. As a result, they were well suited for the farming community and middle-class workers.
Craftsman homes are found in the more suburban regions of the Peninsula and less in the farming regions. It is conceivable that they were built on what were originally large plots of land that contained individual NFS homesteads; as land was further subdivided for the expanding population Craftsman and even Victorian structures filled in the rural tracts. Craftsman houses are compact, unlike NFS or Colonial Revival structures whose expansive sizes were favorable for large farming households.
Colonial Revival buildings are distributed evenly on both farmland and along the coasts on all three divisions of the Peninsula. These houses remained ubiquitous because of their appeal to all social groups: farmers, workers, permanent residents, and summer visitors. While spacious, they did not have the extravagance of Victorian homes and were more economical to build than their counterpart.
Consequently, these magnificent and elegant Victorian structures were homes primarily for the wealthier upper class. They are often situated along the bay, near the resort areas. Because of their high cost, they were largely relegated to the resort communities. Victorian Architecture continues to grow in popularity among the many retirees and city dwellers currently relocating to the Peninsula) especially in the southern regions of Old Mission.
Also in the lower portions of the Peninsula are many houses of a Vernacular style. One probable explanation was that residents began to modify or add on to the original buildings) altering the styles dramatically. Another explanation was that much new development appeared as the Craftsman era ended and people began to stray away from customary formats and opt for the more unique designs.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
The primary purpose of this study was to introduce the Michigan Rural Property Inventory as a reliable and invaluable tool to mapping out architectural landscapes. In fulfilling this objective, the validity of the MRPI was tested) and general housing trends found on Old Mission Peninsula were mapped. Ultimately, the MRPI may be used as a reference to how new development may enhance an area's place identity.
It was hypothesized that with the use of the MRPI, a building's architectural style and subtype can be predicted with relatively high confidence, without the need for a prodigious field study. Five variables available on the MRPI that were found to be essential to the evaluation were the house's axis in relation to the main road exterior footprint) and year of construction, structure height, and roof line were essential to the evaluation. After conducting much preliminary work with the Inventory cards and executing an abridged field study, the researcher was able to verify this hypothesis.
In fact, the new and original method achieved a 91 percent accuracy rate. Instead of an extensive field study, the new method simply entailed familiarizing one's self with architectural genres, which would be necessary in a traditional procedure anyway, extracting data from the Michigan Rural Property Inventory cards, and applying this information to determine the most probable format and subtype of a structure. Benefits of this method include significant reduction in time, resources, and costs, and the elimination of a field study. However, one downfall of using the MRPI must be noted. Some housing formats, as the Victorian Stick style for example, are distinguished by traits found on the actual building facade and impossible to foretell from the MRPI. The extent of the classification of these infrequent structures is therefore limited.
In terms of trends of architectural formats of the buildings on the Peninsula, National Folk Style is most prevalent, especially in the northern regions. Structures in this older style were both practical and economical to build. Craftsman homes are the next most frequent. These charming and compactsized structures grew quickly in popularity as a result of much publicity from the Arts and Crafts Movement of the early 1900s. Colonial Revival buildings are evenly distributed about the Peninsula, but are less infrequent than the aforementioned two styles. Because the MRPI was conducted in 1939, it does not reflect the full extent of the prevalence of this genre, as it was prominent until the 1950s. Meanwhile, Victorian homes are concentrated along the coastal and resort regions of Old Mission Peninsula. Many recently constructed houses are affecting this elegant and spacious style. Finally, Vernacular style homes are found mostly in the lower regions of the Peninsula.
Numerous future research theses may stem from this study. Continuing along the evaluation of architectural trends, one might look into the periods of migration based on time, the conversion of land usage, or defining which architectural style should be used in specified areas of the Peninsula. Research may even turn its focus to the lifestyles of those who resided or reside on the Peninsula. Potential topics include their ethnicity, occupations, ancestral heritage, or motivation.
In conclusion, the Michigan Rural Property Inventory is a very reliable and factual source of historical information that may be used as a substitute to traditional and tedious field studies. Its widespread potential opens doors to countless future research possibilities.
"Grand Traverse County, Michigan." 1999. In Michigan Profiles (Grand Traverse County) [database online]. Washington, D. C.: United States Census Bureau, 1996 [cited 05 February 1999]. Available from [less than]http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/daramap/cnty?26=055[greater than].
MCALESTER, VIRGINIA, AND LEE MCALESTER. 1984. A Field Guide to American Houses. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.
MICHIGAN STATE TAX COMMISSION. 1939. Rural Property Inventory for Grand Traverse County, Peninsula Township. Works Progress Administration Project for the state of Michigan 1935-1939. Lansing, Mich.: State Tax Commission.
POTTER, ELIZABETH V. 1954, The Story of Old Mission Peninsula. Ann Arbor: Edwards Brothers, Inc.
RIFKIND, CAROLE. 1980. A Field Guide to American Architecture. New York: Penguin Books USA, Inc.
"Rural Property Inventories." 1999. In Archival Circulars (Circular No. 16) [online]. Lansing, Mich.: State Archives of Michigan, 1998 [cited 02 February 1999]. Available from [less than]http://www.sos.state.mi.us/history/archive/circular.html[greater than].
WESTPHAL, JOANNE M. 1997. Architecture and Site Design Guidelines for the Old Mission Peninsula. East Lansing, Mich.: Michigan State University.
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|Author:||LAU, WANDA W.|
|Date:||Apr 1, 2000|
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