The Alabama shad (Alosa alabamae: clupeiformes: clupeidae) in the White River, Arkansas.
On 2 August 2006, we collected three juvenile (90, 91, and 95 mm total length) Alabama shad with a 3.6 by 1.8-m (3.2-mm mesh) straight seine at a depth of 1.1 m from the White River near Newport (Newport Reach) in Jackson County, Arkansas (35.62407[degrees]N, 91.29310[degrees]W). Habitat was a sloping sand-gravel bar over a mud-clay and gravelcobble substrate. Water temperature was 27.2[degrees]C and turbidity 0.890 m (Secchi disk). One specimen was released and two vouchers were fixed in 10% formalin and transferred to 45% isopropanol for deposition in the Zoology Collection of the University of Arkansas-Fort Smith (UAFS-2007).
Our specimens of A. alabamae are the first records from the White River drainage of Arkansas. A summary of previous records of 176 A. alabamae from Arkansas is in Table 1. it is likely that the juveniles we captured were spawned in the mainstem White River or one of its nearby tributaries. Spawning adults could only ascend the White River as far upstream as Batesville (35 km upstream from our collection locality) where further migration is blocked by a lock and dam. The only other spawning area in Arkansas is the Ouachita River system. Despite completion in 1985 of six locks and dams on the Ouachita River in Louisiana and Arkansas, A. alabamae moved upstream during 1997-1999 to spawn in the Little Missouri and Ouachita rivers (Buchanan et al., 1999; T. M. Buchanan, in litt.). Juveniles taken from the Ouachita River on 24 July 1998 were 47-50 mm total length, and specimens taken on 10 August 1998 were 103-131 mm total length. Our three specimens from the White River were of comparable size. interestingly, personnel from the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission sampled the Batesville site (White River below Lock and Dam 1) noted above on 6 July 2011 by electrofishing (day and night) and collected other clupeids including gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) and threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense) but no A. alabamae (K. Shirley, pers. comm.). Other fishes collected at the new site included (all common and scientific names follow Nelson et al., 2004): shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), longnose gar (Lepisosteus osseus), shortnose gar (Lepisosteus platostomus), D. cepedianum, cypress minnow (Hybognathus hayi), Mississippi silvery minnow (Hybognathus nuchalis), speckled chub (Macrhybopsis hyostoma), silver chub (Macrhybopsis storeriana), ribbon shiner (Lythrurus fumeus), emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides), mimic shiner (Notropis volucellus), blacktail shiner (Cyprinella venusta), steelcolor shiner (Cyprinella whippeli), bullhead minnow (Pimephales vigilax), river carpsucker (Carpiodes carpio), smallmouth buffalo (Ictiobus bubalus), black buffalo (Ictiobus niger), pealip redhorse (Moxostoma pisolabrum), channel catfish (Ictalurus puncta tus), flathead catfish (Pylodictus olivaris), brook silverside (Labidesthes sicculus), warmouth (Lepomis gulosus), orangespotted sunfish (Lepomis humilis), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), spotted bass (Micropterus punctulatus), white crappie (Pomoxis annularis), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), logperch (Percina caprodes), and freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens).
A great threat to continued survival of the Alabama shad is loss of spawning habitat in fresh water. The drastic decline of spawning populations in recent decades, particularly in more inland areas of the Mississippi River basin, make increased conservation efforts imperative. When a previously unknown area of successful spawning, such as the White River, is identified, it is critical to do everything possible to preserve that habitat, including maintaining flow regimes that would continue to create large sandbars and preserve accumulation of large woody debris along steep river banks (Mickle et al., 2010). In addition, we suggest that connectivity and effective passage for fish is maintained throughout drainages of watersheds in the state.
We thank the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission for funding through the State Wildlife Grant Funding Opportunity to WGL. We especially acknowledge J. Quinn, Statewide Stream Management Biologist (Arkansas Game and Fish Commission) for assistance. For field assistance, we thank J. Bunting, B. Crabb, A. J. Handcock, K. Layher, S. Phillips, and M. Spurlock. We also thank B. R. Kreiser (University of Southern Mississippi) for collection of data and K. Shirley (Arkansas Game and Fish Commission) for information concerning electrofishing.
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Submitted 1 April 2011. Accepted 11 May 2012. Associate Editor was Robert J. Edwards.
Thomas M. Buchanan, William G. Layher, Chris T. McAllister, * and Henry W. Robison
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Arkansas-Fort Smith, Fort Smith, AR 72913 (TMB)
Layher BioLogics RTEC, Inc., 72333 Camden Cutoff Road, Pine Bluff, AR 71603 (WGL)
Science and Mathematics Division, Eastern Oklahoma State College, Idabel, OK 74745 (CTM)
Department ofBiology, Southern Arkansas University, Magnolia, AR 71754 (HWR)
* Correspondent: email@example.com
Table 1--Records of the Alabama shad Alosa alabamae from Arkansas, 1879-2008. Specimen (a) Date Number River (county) of specimens USNM 22709 15 April 1879 1 Ouachita (Garland) USNM 36424 1884 3 Ouachita (Clark) USNM 62225 1892 1 Mulberry (Franklin) NLU 24173 5 August 1972 16 Saline (Ashley) (Ouachita) NLU 51696 18 September 1982 2 Little Missouri NLU 51720 24 September 1982 1 Little Missouri (Ouachita) USNM 351074 1997-1998 12 Ouachita (Hot Spring) UAFS 1551 21 July 1997 9 Little Missouri (Nevada) UAFS 1549 22 July 1997 1 Ouachita (Ouachita) UAFS 1595 4 April 1998 1 Ouachita (Hot Spring) UAFS 1596 22 July 1998 2 Little Missouri (Ouachita) UAFS 1598, 2019 24 July 1998 24 Ouachita (Ouachita) UAFS 1597 10 August 1998 19 Ouachita (Hot Spring) UAFS 1677, 1681 21 July 1999 24 Little Missouri (Clark) UAFS 1676, 2 August 1999 15 Little Missouri 1679-1680 (Clark) UAFS 1678 9 August 1999 7 Ouachita (Ouachita) B. R. Kreiser 2003 11 Little Missouri (pers. comm.) (Clark/Nevada) Bowen et al. 2008 24 Ouachita (Ouachita) (2008); B. R. Kreiser (pers. comm.) UAFS 2007 2 August 2006 3 White (Jackson) (a) USNM (United States National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.); NLU (University of Louisiana-Monroe Museum of Natural History, Monroe); UAFS (Zoology Collection of the University of Arkansas-Fort Smith, Fort Smith).
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|Author:||Buchanan, Thomas M.; Layher, William G.; McAllister, Chris T.; Robison, Henry W.|
|Date:||Sep 1, 2012|
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