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The 89th Annual Academy of Science Meeting Tuskegee University Tuskegee, AL February 22-24, 2012.

A MODEL DRIVEN ENGINEERING APPROACH TO THE DESIGN OF MAZE ROBOT. NITHIN YAMA, AND YUJIAN WU, AND LI JIANG, TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY, TUSKEGEE, AL 36088.

In this paper, we apply model driven engineering approach to designing solutions a mobile robotics of maze. The primary objective of this project is to realize a robot that is able to travel through the maze correctly. To reach this goal, a UML meta model is developed to describe the static structure of the entities such as control entity, boundary entity and behavior entity of the system. We use Petri Nets to precisely describe the system execution behaviors. Therefore, we can ensure the correctness of the robotic maze project by integrating both methods is the selected robot setting is implemented on a low cost educational version of Lego Mindstorm NXT toolkit in Java. The Java platform is embedded with 1eJOS NXJ taht is compiled with the necessary APIs of the accessories of Lego Mindstorm NXT toolkit.

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF MULTI-SENSOR BASED AUTONOMOUS ROBOT SYSTEM. MIGUEL CABRAL, COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT, TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY, TUSKEGEE, AL 36088. FAN WU COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT, TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY, TUSKEGEE, AL 36088. LI JIANG, ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY, TUSKEGEE, AL 36088.

Developing autonomous mobile robot system has been a hot topic in AI area. Many ideas have been proposed and applied to autonomous robots. For example, Stanford Research Institute International AI Center developed Saphira; Carnegie Mellon University Robot Institute developed Teambots. Today autonomous robots are attracting more and more attention worldwide in both academia and industry. The study of robotics has increased considerably in the last decades and thanks to ongoing research both in the industry and education, robots have become commercially available to the general public. Contests of football robotic teams, and similar, are held annually and autonomous robots, as pets and home devices, such as dogs and vacuum cleaners, are already available commercially. Designing a robot's behavior is a challenging task that researchers have been working for a long time. The behavior-based approach to robot control has been the basis for many implemented robotics systems Path finding is an important issue and one of the most fundamental problems in mobile robotics. It is to find a most reasonable collision-free path for a mobile robot to move from a start location to a destination in an environment with obstacles. In this paper, we describe our experience in designing and implementation of a multi-sensor based autonomous exploration robot system. With the goals of path finding in complex ground environment with different obstacles, a novel path finding method integrating line tracking and obstacle avoidance algorithms was proposed and implemented. The path finding algorithms have been successfully validated on the autonomous robot system.

ELECTROMETER. JESSICA R. CRIST, WETUMPKA HIGH SCHOOL, WETUMPKA, ALABAMA 36092

The purpose of this experiment is to test common plastic objects and determine if static charge is produced during normal use. Procedure: with the electrometer on, rub plastic bag for three seconds at one foot away. Record the findings as LED stays on, LED dims, LED goes off this will remain the standard throughout the testing. With the electrometer on, rub plastic bag for three seconds at two feet away. Record the findings. With a tape dispenser, pull one inch of tape one foot away. Record the findings. With a tape dispenser, pull one inch of tape two feet away. Record the findings. With a hair brush, brush hair at one foot away. Record the findings. With a hair brush, brush hair at two feet away. Record the findings. Data gathered is built into bar graph. The information is analyze and based on LED reaction type and correlation to distance from electrometer. An electrometer can detect charges from one to two feet away when a plastic object is used in a common process and it has been observer that static charge is produced during normal every day use. Plastics are common products used in everyday life that produce static electricity. Distance from electrometer determined intensity value of disproportional positive to negative voltage differential and through a two step method kept constant results with varying distance to the meter. Many elements of our life today create static electricity and some of these could be avoided by alternative design and manufacturing substitutions.

HIGH PERFORMANCE NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER IN CAPILLARY POROUS MEDIA USING PROGRAMMABLE GENERAL PURPOSE GRAPHICS PROCESSING UNITS. HIRA NARANG, COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT, TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY, TUSKEGEE, AL 36088. FAN WU*, COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT, TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY, TUSKEGEE, AL 36088. ASWAD SHAKUR, COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT, TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY, TUSKEGEE, AL 36088.

Heat and mass transfer simulation in capillary porous media plays an important role in various biological, engineering and industrial phenomena. To analyze physical behaviors of such phenomena, we have to model them as heat and mass transfer equations with appropriate initial and boundary equations. However to obtain numerical solutions to heat and mass transfer equations on a refined grid or complex geometries with prevalent computing environments is much time-consuming. In this paper, therefore, one of acceleration techniques developed in the graphics community that exploits the power of a general purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU) is applied to the numerical solutions of these equations. Implementation on GPGPU takes advantages of GPGPU computing power and improves the performance of most time-consuming part of the simulation and calculation. The nVidia CUDA programming model provides a straightforward means of describing inherently parallel computations. This paper improves the computational performance of solving heat and mass transfer equations numerically running on a GPGPU. We simulated heat and mass transfer with different boundary and initial conditions using the novel CUDA platform on nVidia Quadro FX 4800 and compared its performance with an optimized CPU implementation on a high-end Intel Xeon CPU. The experimental results show that GPGPU can perform heat and mass transfer simulation accurately and significantly accelerate the numerical calculation with the maximum observed speedups 20 times. Therefore, the GPGPU implementation is a promising approach to acceleration of the heat and mass transfer simulation.

HOLOGRAM COMPUTER USING A FPGA. ALXAVIER PEEBLES, DEPT. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, ALABAMA A&M UNIVERSITY, NORMAL, AL. 35762.

Today technology gets old as soon as it comes out. Computers are magnificent to have and will be use more throughout life. Whether it's a desktop, a portable laptop, or a computerize tablet, all are require to be carried with you. What if there was a computer you did not have to carry around the house or the office, what if you did not have to stay stationary for you to do work on a computer, and what if you can call a computer at will at the sound of your voice? This talk will give insight about the new age technology that will evolve the computer to a new state (using a Kinect box, a CPU, a projector, and a FPGA). The purpose of this project is to enhance technology to new heights that will make it possible for anyone to have a hologram touchscreen monitor and keyboard pop up at the sound of their voice.

MODEL BASED DESIGN OF THE CLAW CAR ROBOT / ANDRE LA YNE; ADRIA MASON; YUJIAN FU DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING & COMPUTER SCIENCE ALABAMA A&M UNIVERSITY NORMAL, AL, UNITED STATES

Robots are intricate systems and applied in many aspects of today's society. They perform in various types of areas such as food production, clean room environments, foundries, assembly lines, and national defense. It is highly desirable to design and develop robust robotics systems. This project aims at developing an autonomous robot using object oriented modeling and implementation. Object oriented software development (OOSD) methodology has been widely used in the design of safety critical and mission critical systems (e.g. aeronautic systems, missile defense systems, etc). Unified Modeling Language (UML), a typical OOSD method, is a standard visualization language for object oriented system development. In this project, we use a class diagram to represent the structure and relations of classes and definitions. The dynamic behavior is modeled in the state machine diagram. In this project we design and implement a robust Claw Car Robot using UML model and LEGO NXT Mindstorm tool kit in Java programming language. The Claw Car Robot will continue to move forward on the color--white. However, once the object is detected based on a specified color--black, the robot will close the claw and clasp the object in its path. As the Claw Car Robot passes over white again, the Robot continues in this same state until the color--black is detected again. Once black is detected again, the robot will open the claw and release the object. In addition, almost simultaneously, the Claw Car Robot will end its program, as designed. LEGO Mindstorm NXT tool kit is a low cost highly integrated educational robot setting with several provided platforms. To use Java, a LeJOS plug in package provides several APIs for all the interfaces of each sensor, motor, and NXT controller. This tool kit is very convenient for the design and implementation of robotics systems, and has been widely adopted in institutions for educational and initial research purposes. Through the use of UML, we were able to develop a reliable autonomous robot to meet our objectives and reach pedagogical goals. The Claw Car robot was implemented based on the UML model to ensure the reliable and robust robot system. Besides, OCL constraints are defined for the robot system.

QICHAO LIU, DEPT. OF CIS, UNIV. OF ALA. BIRMINGHAM, AL 35294. MARJAN MERNIK, FACULTY OF EE AND CS, UNIVERSITY OF MARIBOR, MARIBOR, SLOVENIA. BARRETT It BRYANT, DEPT. OF SE, UNIVERSITY OF NORTH TEXAS, DENTON, TEXAS 76203

Agile software development is becoming popular in the industry area due to its good features for constructing software system. This paper is illustrating the necessity of conducting model evolution research in agile software development

STOCHASTIC RAY TRACING. R. PHILLIP BORDING AND LIANGJIE HE, WAVE RESEARCH, HUNTSVILLE, AL 35758

The earth interior is a complex body with many geological features and is difficult to image. The simulation of elastic waves within this complicated media requires the solution of a time varying three dimensional partial differential equation. The wave equation can be simplified using a method based on a high frequency approximation and separation of variables. The resulting ray approximation equation allows the construction of tomographic methods. These travel time tomographic schemes use the ray paths to compute model travel times which are then compared to actual data travel times. So the ray path is critical to solving for earth parameters. Rays can be generated by projection into the media and propagated using Snell's law at material interfaces. These initial value shooting methods can fail if the rays take awkward angles. The two point bending method uses known starting and ending points and searches for all the suitable interface points. This talk will examine the stochastic ray tracing methods--a very powerful search method to solve path of least time--Fermat's principle. Examples of layered media and more general complex earth models will be provided. The Monte Carlo method by Liangjie He for generating the ray bending points will be presented, and the resulting FPGA compute engine used to accelerate the process will be discussed. The general method will be extended from scalar P waves to the more general vector elastic waves. These elastic waves--rays allow for full 3D inversion of earth parameters.

UML BASED DESIGN OF OBJECT DETECTION ROBOT LORENZO JONES, JANISE FOWLER, YUJIAN FU

Robots are often used to increase human productivity and decrease human error. Therefore, a robot itself cannot contain bugs and errors and demonstrate fault behaviors. In this project we will design and develop an intelligent, multifunctional robot using object oriented software development (OOSD) approach and Unified Modeling Language (UML) to provide a correct and reliable robot. UML is a standard graphical-based design language that has been widely used in the software-intensive system design. In this project, the static structure and class relationships are represented by a class diagram, while dynamic behaviors are described by a state machine diagram. System properties of correctness and reliability are described by OCL (Object Constraint Language) and the robot is validated against the properties. Due to limited resources, this object oriented based robot is implemented on the LEGO Mindstorm NXT tool Kit, a low cost, multiple platforms, and high integrated educational robot. The robot will have several different functionalities which are: detect, select, and grab objects, as well as, follow a line on an obstacle course. The system is assembled with several sensors the light sensor, sound sensor, and ultrasonic sensor. In order to implement these functionalities we implemented Behavior Programming. Behavior Programming sequencing the concurrent behaviors in an interleaving way by prioritizing each behavior defined in a class. In conclusion, through our case study on the LEGO Mindstorm NXT tool kit, we found that OOSD, UML model and OCL can be used to successfully design and develop correct and reliable robotics systems. In addition, we also claim the robotic system can be easily maintained and extended.

Engineering and Computer Science Poster Abstracts

A MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING FOR SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS. ARBIN EBRAHIM AND MICHAEL MENSAH, DEPT. OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY, TUSKEGEE, AL 36088

The amount of power produced from a photovoltaic (PV) system mainly depends on factors such as ambient temperatures and solar irradiances. PV system should be designed efficiently and operated at the maximum power point (MPP) in order to offset the initial high cost of installment. This thesis presents a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm to draw optimum power from the PV panel under real climatic conditions by adjusting the duty cycle of the converter. The proposed MPPT controller is based on the perturbation and observed (P&O) method. The experimental results show that the PV power system, using the proposed MPPT algorithm, is possible to adapt the load to the PV panel and able to accurately track maximum power point no matter what the variations in the climatic conditions.

DEMONSTRATION OF RECONFIGURABLE DIGITAL DESIGN PROCESS ON FIELD PROGRAMMABLE GATE ARRAY HARDWARE (FPGA). SHEALIA BURTON*, *RACHEL HALL. DEPT. OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, ALABAMA A&M UNIVERSITY, NORMAL, AL 35762.

The overall project entails a Matrix Processing Stream that will build a set of operations that take inputs from registers and replicates a vector dot product. The dot product is an algebraic operation that takes two equal-length sequences of numbers and returns a single number obtained by multiplying corresponding entries and then summing those products. Two 4-bit positive binary numbers are put through various calculations and stored to memory to produce a binary tree of adders. Using Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL) as the primary software tool, the user can program basic logic gates on a Xilinx Spartan3E-1200 Field Programmable Gate Array chip. The main software program used was an Integrated Software Environment (ISE) Webpack from XILINX, Inc. This computer-aided design tool both simulates and synthesizes a design to a NEXYS 2 Digilent Circuit Board and with this board; this design can be encoded to the FPGA. Live demonstration of this FPGA hardware will be provided.

PID SPEED CONTROLLER FOR DC MOTOR. SHATORI S.S. MEADOWS, DEPT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE STUDENT, TUSKEGEE, AL 36088. DR. ARBIN EBRAHIM, DEPT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: RESEARCH ADVISOR, TUSKEGEE, AL 36088.

The theory behind control design can tend to be intricate for many to understanding. Therefore, being able to design and test controllers can reinforce the important concepts and develop a wider knowledge in the field of control design. This project presents a technique for the speed control of a DC motor using a PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) controller respectively The simulation investigation into this design is done using Matlab/Simulink software, where the PID controller design is based on root locus method, to determine the degree of stability. The torque controlled motor is coupled to the DC motor whose speed is being controlled such that the torque being generated acts as a disturbance at the output where the desired output speed is produced. The objective of this project is to obtain a desired speed profile for the motor, producing a desired output speed. The effects of varying the gains of the PID controller on the output response are analyzed, and finally the simulation results are examined and compared.

Health Sciences Paper Abstracts

ALABAMA SCHOOL NURSE RESEARCH NETWORK (ASNRN): APPLICATION IN IDENTIFICATION OF NURSING RESEARCH TOPICS. ELLEN B. BUCKNER, SHERRY D. MARBURY, CONSTANCE HENDRICKS, JOYCE JETER, DIANA COLLINS, MELISSA LEWALLEN, OLIVIA MAY, LYNX MCCLELLAND, JANICE PHELPS, LISA TUBBS, AND LAURA WILLIAMS. UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA, ALABAMA STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, AUBURN UNIVERSITY, AUBURN CITY SCHOOLS, SARALAND CITY SCHOOLS, MADISON COUNTY SCHOOLS, UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA, UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA IN HUNTSVILLE, UNIVERSITY OF NORTH ALABAMA.

The Alabama School Nurse Research Network (ASNRN) was founded in 2010 by nurses organized to facilitate a school nurse research agenda for Alabama and provide school nurses with an avenue to promote evidence based research. The goal of ASNRN is to provide collaboration in identifying research questions, designs of research and testing of interventions. ASNRN recognizes and provides the opportunity for nurse educators and others outside clinical practice as well as school nurses to implement research that will promote school health. The purpose of this presentation is to identify current and future studies which can be facilitated by the ASNRN. 1. The first study conducted was a tool development study of self-injury in adolescents. 2. A second study is in the planning stages to describe nursing students' perceptions of the role of the school nurse following a clinical experience in school nursing. 3. Studies are under consideration to target the predominant school health problems in Alabama: asthma, ADD/ADHD, and allergies. 4. Health screenings can be tracked, potentially reducing health risks such as obesity, and 5. Studies of disaster preparedness were proposed following the 2011 tornados in Alabama. Additional topics will be invited. Nurses must be proactive in identifying these opportunities for making a difference in the health of Alabama's children. The ASNRN was funded by a grant from the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) and the American Nurses Foundation (ANF).

ALABAMA SCHOOL NURSE RESEARCH NETWORK (ASNRN): APPLICATION IN THE SECONDARY ANALYSIS OF STATEWIDE SCHOOL HEALTH DATA. SHERRY D. MARBURY, ELLEN B. BUCKNER, TODD HARLAN & CAROLYN PADOVANO. ALABAMA STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA, RTI INTERNATIONAL.

In 2009, the Alabama Department of Education (SDE) implemented a statewide electronic health records system linked with educational attendance records. The existence of a statewide electronic health record (EHR) allows researchers to make recommendations from data based studies. The purpose of this proposed study is to integrate school health data for development of strategic planning for school health. Healthcare informatics has made the capture and analysis of health data and the delivery of healthcare information more achievable and less costly. Such analysis would allow us to evaluate the given information and decide if this information is appropriate for the desired outcomes, it also could allow us to gather that information and place it in manageable sections. The current EHR system utilized to collect the data is the first in Alabama and one of a very few in the nation to have the capacity to link school health to absenteeism and track educational outcomes. Because we will have access to longitudinal and population data, changes measured over time will reflect clinical health indicators. The approach will strengthen the measurement of nurse sensitive indicators of school health. They can facilitate school nurse-initiated studies to improve child health. The ASNRN is funded by a grant from the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) and the American Nurses Foundation (ANF).

Application in Psychometric Development of A Self Injury Scale: A Collaboration Effort with Alabama School Nurse Research Network. Kimberly A. Williams, Community-Mental Health Nursing (CMN) Department; Ellen Buckner, Adult Health Nursing (AHN) Department; Katherine Bydalek, Adult Health Nursing (AHN) Department; University of South Alabama; 5721 USA Drive N. RM 3059; Mobile, AL 36688-0002; Madhuri S. Mulekar, Department of Mathematics and Statistics; ILB 325; University of South Alabama; 307 North University Blvd; Mobile, AL 36688-0002; Karen Hamilton, Community-Mental Health Nursing (CMN) Department; 5721 USA Drive N. RM 3059; Mobile, AL 36688-0002; Sherry Marbury; Alabama State School Nurse Consultant; State of Alabama Department of Education; P.O. Box 302102; Montgomery, AL; 36130-2101

The psychometric development of the self injury tool involved literature reviews, expert reviewers, focus groups, and nurses who use the tool and hypothetical history and physical exams cases to test for reliability. Results from focus groups and experts in psychiatric mental health nursing (PMHN) have established initial content validity. A pilot study using a small cohort of school nurses for test-retest reliability using the tool and hypothetical cases demonstrated feasibility. Continued development is planned and is to involve a statewide study. It is hoped that the tool that will assist with early identification of self-injury in the school and primary care settings for referral to mental health services for diagnosis, treatment, and nursing intervention Acknowledgement of Support University of South Alabama, College of Nursing Alabama School Nurse Research Network Alabama Department of Education American Psychiatric Nurses'Foundation Sigma Theta Tau, Zeta Gamma Chapter American Nurses' Foundation Natinal Association School Nurses

Diffusion of innovations: what worked, what didn't in two health care settings. M. Peggy Hays, College of Nursing, Univ of Ala/Huntsville, Huntsville, Al 35899.

Diffusing any nurse-sensitive innovation into a health care setting is a challenge. It has become even more so with the current demand for evidence-based practice to ensure greater patient safety and improved clinical outcomes. Rogers' framework for innovation diffusion guided this comparative analysis of what worked and what didn't in two varied health care settings. They contrasted in locales, a hospital in a rural area and a long term care facility in a mid-size city, and in the types of innovations, but the facilities were similar in size. The purpose in both studies was to incorporate a framework that would involve the nursing staff in the planning of the research design, the delivery of the intervention process, and the impact on the selected clinical outcomes. The conclusion is that establishing transparency throughout the diffusion process will facilitate the early acceptance and implementation of nurse-sensitive interventions, and thereby the desired measured outcomes.

POMEGRANATE: WILL A POMEGRANATE A DAY KEEP FORGETFULNESS AWAY? ASSESSING THE EFFECTS OF POMEGRANATE SUPPLEMENTATION ON WORKING MEMORY AND BLOOD PRESSURE WILL PANNELL ALTAMONT SCHOOL, BIRMINGHAM, AL

With 1 in 4 older Americans complaining of memory loss and studies suggesting hippocampal free radical damage as a cause of the loss, it is plausible that a diet rich in antioxidants would improve memory. The pomegranate has been shown as beneficial to memory in animal studies. This project examines the effects of pomegranate supplementation on working memory and blood pressure in adults age 60+. After a thorough assessment of medication histories, Mini Mental Status Exams (MMSE), and blood pressure (BP), 36 adults, ages 60+, were accepted in the supplement group agreeing to take 500 mg of pomegranate extract daily for 100 days. 32 adults, of similar age and education, served as controls. All adults scored at least 27 on MMSE and gave informed consent. A computer working memory test which measured percent accuracy and processing speed was administered x3 at baseline, Day 60, Day 100. (BP) was measured at same intervals. Using SPSS to measure improvement, supplement participants had significant improvement in accuracy and processing speed. For those hypertensive at baseline, 68% of supplement participants had a 9 point or greater improvement in systolic pressure. Pomegranate supplementation seems to improve working memory and, for some, improves systolic blood pressure. I would like to thank Dr. Sylvie Mrug for her guidance re: statistical analysis, Dr. Allan Pannell for his medical expertise, and Dr. Lee Blackmon for serving as my supervising scientist.

WIRELESS RURAL HEALTH SCHOOL SCREENING AS FRONT LINE OBESITY SCREENING. BARBARA WILDER*, CONSTANCE HENDRICKS, JENNIFER SCHUESSLER, AUBURN UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF NURSING, AUBURN, AL; LAWANDA GRAY, MACON COUNTY SCHOOLS, TUSKEGEE, AL; TANESHIA KING-ROLAND TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF NURSING, TUSKEGEE, AL

KidCheck is a healthcare project initiated by Alabama's Governor Bob Riley to provide a comprehensive health screening for school-age children. In May 2008, Governor Riley's Alabama Rural Action Commission (ARAC) partnered with Community Health Charities of Alabama (CHCA) to assist in the implementation of KidCheck. The KidCheck Initiative was a new school-based health initiative that provides the opportunity for interested school systems to provide free health screenings to students. Auburn University School of Nursing (AUSON) has been an active partner with KidCheck since its inception as a Community Outreach Project. There are no government funds supporting this initiative, so AUSON provides support for the screening equipment and supplies and for faculty time and travel to supervise student nurses during the screenings. The success of this initiative is recognized throughout the state with increasing requests to expand to additional schools and help address a major health care needs and more specific health concern of childhood obesity. KidCheck is a win-win for all parties and is an essential outreach service for these children. The nursing students gain valuable practice with their health assessment techniques and exposure to a diverse group. Through KidCheck, schools partner with area college nursing programs and organizations from across the state to administer the screenings. After the screenings, parents receive a report and are provided assistance for children needing additional care. Those who are uninsured and are not eligible for Medicaid or All Kids can be covered through the Alabama Child Caring Foundation. Screenings are made available to all kindergarten to 12th grade students. Any health problems that children may experience that could interfere with their learning will be referred to the appropriate agency. After the screenings, parents receive a computer generated screening findings report and are offered referral assistance for children needing additional follow-up care. This is an innovative way to bring community partners together to improve the health of children. The long term objective of this outreach project is to help provide the infrastructure and sustainability of AUSON as a strategic partner with KidCheck and continue to identify and address the health barriers to learning of Alabama's school-aged children. The presentation shares how three stake holders worked together to care for the Macon county school children in an effort to promote health as an early intervention.

Health Sciences Poster Abstracts

COMMUNITY-DWELLING OLDER FORMER HEAVY ([greater than or equal to]32 PACK-YEAR) SMOKERS ARE AT INCREASED RISK FOR INCIDENT HEART FAILURE DESPITE PROLONGED (>15 YEARS) ABSTINENCE. AMIYA A. AHMED, KANAN PATEL, ALI AHMED, CENTER OF AGING, UNIV. OF ALA., BIRMINGHAM, AL 35294. INMACULADA B. ABAN, DEPT. OF BIOSTATISTICS, UNIV. OF ALA., BIRMINGHAM, AL 35294.

Purpose: According to the US Surgeon General, after 15 years of abstinence, the cardiovascular risk of former smokers becomes similar to that of never-smokers. However, whether the health benefit of prolonged smoking cessation varies by the amount and duration of past smoking remains unknown. We analyzed a public-use copy of the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) data obtained from the NHLBI to examine the risk of incident heart failure (HF) among community-dwelling, older former heavy smokers who quit smoking over 15 years ago. Methods: Of the 5795 CHS participants [greater than or equal to]65 years of age, 5521 were free of HF at baseline, of which 5338 had data on baseline smoking. Of these, 3854 were either never-smokers (n=2557) or former smokers who quit smoking over 15 years ago (n=1297) Former smokers were categorized into quartiles (Q) of pack-years (PY) of prior smoking and those in the highest quartile were considered heavy smokers. Incident HF was centrally-adjudicated during >12 years of follow-up. Cox regression models were used to estimate associations of Q-PY (vs. never-smokers). Results: Participants (n=3854) had a mean age ([+ or -]SD) of 74 ([+ or -]6) years, 59% were women, and 14% were African American. When taken together, former smokers had a similar risk of incident HF to that of never smokers. However, when categorized by PY of smoking, former heavy ([greater than or equal to]32 PY) smokers had a significantly increased risk of incident heart failure Conclusions: After over 15 years of abstinence, the risk of new HF among most former, older smokers becomes similar to that of never-smokers. However, this health benefit may not extend to former heavy smokers.

SIMULATION IN MENTAL HEALTH NURSING EDUCATION: A REVIEW OF THE EVIDENCE. BEVERLY J. MYERS, RN, MA, PHD, LUCILLE IRBY, RN, DON, STELLA ERVIN, RN, MSN, YOLANDA SMITH, RN, MSN, NURSING PROGRAM FORTIS INSTITUTE, BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA.

AIM. The aim of this presentation is to review the evidence for using simulation in mental health nursing education. Background: Many nurse educators report that using simulation, such as interactive computer-generated case studies, enhances the development and learning of crisis intervention, psychosocial assessment, and therapeutic communication skills essential for an effective mental health nursing practice. Although endorsed, the effectiveness of simulation in mental health nursing education remains unclear. Review Methods: A systematic review of studies published between 1997 and May 2011 was performed using the CINAHL, EBSCO, ERIC, MeSH, Medline, NCBI, MeSH, ProQuest and PubMed databases. The primary search terms were 'human simulation', 'mental health', 'psychiatiic nursing', 'nurse education', 'quantitative research' qualitative research' and 'experimental designs: Inclusion Criteria: Publication in a peer-review journal. Findings. Eleven research studies and 8 relevant literature reviews were included. All 8 literature reviews reported the use of simulation enhanced the development and learning of critical thinking skills, decreased fear and anxiety, reinforced awareness of self and others and increased self-confidence. In contrast, 3 research studies reported no significant differences existed between simulation-based and traditional teaching methods, 2 reported students found interactions with standardized patients intimidating and 2 reported using 'hearing voices simulations' enhanced empathy and decreased stigmatizing perceptions. Conclusion: Future research is needed to determine the effectiveness of simulation in mental health nursing education.

SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF HUMAN HEALTH RISKS: ALABAMA--A CASE STUDY. RONALD N. HUNSINGER, PH.D. AND BENJAMIN a MEADOWS, B.S., DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES, SAMFORD UNIVERSITY, BIRMINGHAM, AL 35229

In 2004, the World Health Organization raised the question concerning how human health risk factors are distributed across socioeconomic status, both at national and local levels (WHO, Poverty, 2004). Many studies are needed to fully address this issue, which we propose is related to the bigger question of "How Can We Better Characterize the Risks of Poverty Using Empirical Research?" In this study, we examined the case of Alabama and its wide social strata and known high rates of human health problems. Specifically, we analyzed the mortality rates for five leading health risks, i.e., heart disease, stroke, diabetes, breast-and prostate-cancer. These mortality rates were taken from epidemiology data bases maintained by the Alabama State Department of Health for the five poorest-, five median-and five highest-economically ranked counties in Alabama. Socioeconomic data from these selected counties were obtained from the state health department's vital statistics records and from the US Census Bureau files. Indices of poverty included median household income (MHI), per capita income, sex, race, education level. Disease mortality rates (deaths per 100,000) proved to be significantly higher in the poor Alabama counties for all five diseases examined as compared to the highest-economically ranked counties. Furthermore, in a follow-up linear regression analysis, MHI was significantly correlated with all five diseases at the P<0.05 or lower level. Our study suggests that while economic definitions of poverty may be relative and geographic in nature, the major disease mortalities are a significant indicator of what it means to be poor. This work was supported by a grant from the Teagle Foundation.

Industry, Environmental, and Earth Science Paper Abstracts

CEO PAY AND THE RECESSION: HAS A SLOWED ECONOMY REDUCED CEO PAY? JANIE R. GREGG, COLLEGE OF BUSINESS, THE UNIVERSITY OF WEST ALABAMA, LIVINGSTON, AL 35470

At a time in our country when unemployment is hovering at the double digit mark, one has to wonder how this deep recession has affected CEO pay. Are CEOs taking cuts in their pay when they have to lay off employees, or are there indicators that CEOs are laying people off so they can keep their pay at pre-recession rates? This and other questions will be addressed in this session.

UNITED STATES ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS REGULATORY AUTHORITY OF RIPARIAN STREAM BUFFER: CASE STUDIES FROM ALABAMA. TAYLOR M. BELL, STUDENT, UNIV. OF ALA. AT BIRM., BIRMINGHAM, AL 35233.

Streams exist throughout the United States in urban and in rural environments. Every stream that exists has a riparian stream buffer. The riparian stream buffer is one of the most important features of a stream. In this paper, the importance of riparian stream buffers will be emphasized and the attributes will be explained. This paper will focus on rural riparian stream buffers as well as case studies of riparian stream buffer from the Army Corps Engineers in mitigation areas and mitigation banks. Acknowledgements: I would like to thank Dr. Scott Brande (Associate Professor in Chemistry, University of Alabama at Birmingham) for his teaching, guidance and mentoring during my geological studies at UAB and his continued encouragement in pursuance of professional publications.

URBANIZATION OF MADISON COUNTY, ALABAMA AND FARMERS PERCEPTION. TESHOME GABRE, CONSTANCE WILSON, GETE BEKELE, AND MOSES EBEN, DEPT. OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING, ALA. A&M UNIV., NORMAL, AL 35762.

In the last 30 years, Madison County has grown at alarming rate. Between 1980 and 2010, Madison County population has grown by 70%, its civilian labor force by 87.1%, and housing stock by 52.2%. As the County grows demographically and economically, it has also increased the degree of its urbanization and loss of its prime agricultural land. The purpose of this study is to examine the challenge faced by the farming community and urbanization of the County. A survey was developed and mailed to Madison County farmers in order to get their perception on the loss of agricultural land to residential units, commercial and industrial centers, institutions and roads. A total of 170 surveys were mailed to all the farmers in the County. Among 170 survey recipients only 25% of the farmers responded. Statistical Packages for Social Sciences was used to analyze the data. Our study shows 100% of the respondent believed that Madison County has lost more of its agricultural land to urbanization in the last 10 years; and 92.9% of them indicated that the pressure to convert agricultural land to urban uses is faster than ever. They also indicated that if land conversions continue at the present rate, within 40 to 50 years, Madison County will cease from producing food and fibers. This shows that farmers are concerned about the future of agricultural lands and their farm operations.

Industry, Environmental, and Earth Science Poster Abstracts

ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL LAND LOSS AND CONSERVATION PRACTICES IN MADISON COUNTY, ALABAMA, MOSES EBEN, ADVISORS: RUSSEL FRICANO AND TESHOME GABRE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING, AAMU, NORMAL, AL 35762. MOSES EBEN

The conversion of farmland and green fields to residential subdivisions, parking lots and other urban uses poses significant impacts on future crop production. Maintaining well-managed farms and preservation of farmland is complicated due to the dollar value often placed on farmland. Resisting this change becomes more difficult in an area experiencing rapid growth. Madison County, Alabama, is no exception to this phenomenon. The population of Madison County in 2010 was 312,734. Between 1980 to 2007 Madison County had experienced a population growth of 58.8 %, a civilian labor force increase by 43.6 %, and housing units by 94.4 %. Conversely, between 1982 and 2007, land in acres decreased by 31.95 %; selected crops, as wheat decreased by 70.84 %, soybeans 78.79 %, and operators of farms in acres decreased by 31.95 %. In addition to that a survey was sent to agricultural stakeholder in Madison County to assess the implementation of agricultural land conservation practices and policies. This study examined the survey responses of conservation and implementation methods, and compared them with those methods presented in the literature to determine how conservation practices could be augmented. The study also assessed stakeholder perceptions of the effectiveness of these methods and discussed urban planning policy implications, uncovered the need for additional conservation tools, as well as a comprehensive plan with agricultural focus to save vital farmland for the future.

ASSESSMENT OF STREAMS IN THE VICINITY OF BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA FOR ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICALS. BRYAN STUART ARWOOD AND ROBERT ANGUS, BIOLOGY DEPT. UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA AT BIRMINGHAM, BIRMINGHAM, AL 35294-1170.

Many recent studies have identified emerging threats to freshwater ecosystems and the life they sustain. One source of mounting concern is a group of compounds that interact with the endocrine systems of humans and wildlife. Known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), these natural and synthetic chemicals may mimic or interfere with the action of natural hormones--thus disrupting the endocrine system. Fish serve as a useful indicator of the health of an aquatic ecosystem. To this end, streams and aquatic organisms in the vicinity of Birmingham, Alabama will be sampled and tested for the presence and biological activity of EDCs. In this project, the yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay will be used to determine whether water samples collected downstream of several wastewater treatment plant outfalls contain estrogenic compounds in concentrations sufficient enough to cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. Water samples that test positive for estrogenic activity in the YES will be analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and the predominant estrogenic components identified. At sites where estrogenic activity sufficient to cause potential endocrine disruption is present, specimens of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and largescale stoneroller (Campostoma oligolepis) will be collected and evaluated for biomarkers of endocrine disruption. Project funding has been generously provided by the Alabama Academy of Science and the Birmingham Audubon Society.

Physics and Mathematics Paper Abstracts

"AN INVESTIGATION OF GALEX SOURCES INVOLVING ALL OLD OPEN CLUSTERS" AUTHORS: TAYLOR GARBER, DR. R.M. BLAKE

Multi-wavelength approaches to understanding stellar populations in star clusters, enables a greater range of tests for theories of stellar evolution. In this regard, the Galaxy Large Area Explorer (GALEX) satellite has performed a ultraviolet all-sky survey to facilitate studies of external galaxies and stellar populations in the Milky Way. One key population of the disk of the Galaxy are the old open clusters, which are greater than 1 Gyr old and contain the disks' oldest stars. Thus far only one old open cluster has had GALEX sources identified, the canonical cluster M67. We have searched the GALEX database for other clusters and found multiple other clusters with GALEX sources, approximately 24 other clusters including our previous examination of NGC3680. We examine where these stars lie on the cluster color-magnitude diagram and the relation to blue stragglers and binary stars. We present the first ever UV color-magnitude diagrams of several of these clusters.

ALGAN/GAN HETEROJUNCTION FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTOR BASED ELECTRICAL BIOSENSOR. RESHAM THAPA*, SIDDHARTH ALUR, KYUSANG KIM, FEI TONG, YOGESH SHARMA, DEPT. OF PHYSICS, AUBURN UNIV., AUBURN, AL 36849. MOONIL MM, DEPT. OF PATHOBIOLOGY, TUSKEGEE UNIV., TUSKEGEE, AL 36088. CLAUDE AHYI, DEPT. OF PHYSICS, AUBURN UNIV. AUBURN, AL 36849. JING DAI, JONG WOOK HONG, MATERIALS RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER, AUBURN UNIV., AUBURN, AL 36849. MICHAEL BOZACK, JOHN WILLIAMS, DEPT. OF PHYSICS, AUBURN UNIV., AUBURN, AL 36849. AHJEONG SON, DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, AUBURN UNIV., AUBURN, AL 36849. AMIR DABIRAN, SVT ASSOCIATES, INC., EDEN PRAIRIE, MN 55344. AND MINSEO PARK, DEPT. OF PHYSICS, AUBURN UNIV., AUBURN, AL 36849.

Field--effect transistor (FET) based biosensors provides simpler alternatives to conventional biosensing techniques such as optical, electrochemical, mass spectrometry etc. because of their label-free capability, higher sensitivity without the complicated detection schemes and instrumentations. In addition, possibility of the real time and fast analysis, miniaturization, monolithic integration capabilities with the electronic devices etc. makes them very promising for the commercial application. Due to their superior material characteristics such as inertness in the electrochemical buffer, wider energy bandgap, higher sensitivity etc.; A1GaN/GaN heterostructure based field-effect transistors are well suited as a biosensor as compared to the silicon (Si) based FET. In A1GaN/GaN FET. intrinsic charge of the biomolecules at the biofunctionalized gate electrode alters the surface potential and thus the 2 dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density at the heterointerface. The change in the surface potential modulates the drain current of the transistor and is the basis for the sensing mechanism. In this investigation, we have used A1GaN/GaN heterojunction field-effect transistor as a sensor platform for the detection of the DNA hybridization event. Device fabrication was performed with the MESA isolation, ohmic and Schottky contact metallization, followed by dielectric encapsulation except for the gate region. Probe DNA was immobilized at the gate electrode and subsequently hybridized with the complementary DNA. As a control, completely mismatched and 3 base pair mismatched DNA were used and device output characteristics were measured. XPS and fluorescence imaging were used to confirm the surface functionalization and probe DNA immobilization events.

AN INVESTIGATION OF NAMOSTRUCTURED FILMS FORCHEMICAL AND BIOSENSORS, MICHAEL CURLEY, TATIANA KUKHATREVA, ASHWITH CHILVERY, JOHN CORDA, PHYSICS DEPARTMENT, ALABAMA A&M UNIVERSITY, NORMAL, AL 35803

This research is focused on the fabrication of thin films and SERs testing of these thin films for different applications. The tasks include the fictionalization of the nanoparticles with two-photon material to be used as an indicator dye. The process of reducing the size and increasing the uniformity of the nanoparticles has been demonstrated. They were embedded in ceramic nano-membrane noble nanoparticle and characterized the substrate using Atom Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). We applied nanostructured substrate to measure SERS spectra of 10-6 Mol/L Rhodomine 6G, e-coli bacteria and RDX explosive. Our results showed that silver coated ceramic membrane can serve as appropriate substrate to enhance Raman signal. In addition, we demonstrated that the home-made colloidal silver can work for enhancement Raman spectra for bacteria. We have compared Raman spectra of R6G on substrate and nanofluid of silver absorbed by R6G molecule. We have observed several strong Raman band--613cm-1,768 cm-1,1308cm-11356 cm-1,1510cm-1, which are corresponding to R6G vibrational mode v53,v65,v115,v117,v146 respectively using ceramic membrane coated by silver. The Raman spectra of R6G absorbed by silver nanofluid showed strong enhancement of Raman band 1175cm-1 and 1529cm-1, 1590 cm-1 They correspond to vibrational frequency mode--D103,u151,152. We compare Raman spectra of e-coli bacteria absorbed by silver nanofluid and Fourier Transfer Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and demonstrated good agreement of vibrational frequency--1090cm-1 1456cm-1, 1543cm-1 1593cm-1, 1710cm-1.

AN INVESTIGATION ON COST-EFFECTIVE FABRICATION OF ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS. A.K.CHILVERY, A.K. BATRA, DEPT OF PHYSICS, ALABAMA A&M UNIVERSITY, AL 35762.

Organic solar cells hold the potential of low-cost production as compared to inorganic solar cells, as well as the increase in efficiency. To realize these possibilities, the key is to fabricate most of the functional films in requisite structures via ambient solution-processed techniques. The PEDOT:PSS films, which are commonly used as an anode layer in organic electronic devices, were deposited on large-area ITO glass substrates under optimized conditions. The spin-, spray-, brush-and brush+spray-coating techniques were utilized to examine then suitability in the fabrication of organic solar cells (OSCs). The films were characterized for their morphology, molecular structure, optical and electrical properties and results compared with existing data. A smooth and thin films of PEDOT:PSS were obtained by 'Spray+Brush' coating method with attractive sheet-conductivity having noteworthy potential in fabricating OSCs with different architectures.

CAN NON-NEWTONIAN FLUIDS STOP A BULLET? DALTON L.A.CAPE, WETUMPKA HIGH SCHOOL, WETUMPKA, AL 36092

This year for my science fair project, I am continuing research on a project I performed my freshman year. In my previous project, "Can A Liquid Act Like A Solid", I found that there are substances that display both liquid and solid properties. These substances are called non-Newtonian fluids, or oobleck, because they do not behave in the way Newton's Third Law of Motion states, which is "for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction". My hypothesis is that if the non-Newtonian fluid is shot with different fire arms then it will be bulletproof I believe it will stop lower powered firearms with ease. I am skeptical about higher powered rifles and shotguns with heavy loads as ammunition. To test my experiment, I nailed a target to a tree and then placed a bag of oobleck over it. I used several different weapons ranging in power to receive a wide variety of results. Whenever firing the weapons, I used ear plugs and wore glasses for safety reasons. In the end, I found that my hypothesis was correct in that the oobleck did stop low powered firearms. However, higher caliber firearms went straight through it. Also, through my research I found out that oobleck has other uses such as companies are now putting it into motorcycle suits, rodeo vests, and many other products to cushion falls and prevent injury.

COMPLEX-VALUED FUNCTIONS AND THE MEAN VALUE THEOREM. MOHAMMED A. QAZI, DEPT. OF MATHEMATICS, TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY, TUSKEGEE, AL 36088

The mean value theorem for real-valued differentiable functions defined on an interval is one of the most fundamental results in Analysis. When it comes to complex-valued functions the theorem fails even if the function is differentiable throughout the complex plane. We illustrate this by means of examples and also present some results of a positive nature.

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF VISUAL BASIC BASED AUTOMATIC DIAMETER CZOCHRALSKI CRYSTAL GROWTH SYSTEM. *RATA SURABHI, ASHOK K BATRA AND M.D.AGGARWAL, DEPT. OF PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY AND MATHEMATICS,ALABAMA A & M UNIVERSITY, NORMAL, AL 35762. PRAVEENA KOMMIDI, INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY, J.F. DRAKE STATE TECHNICAL COLLEGE, 3421 MERIDIAN ST N HUNTSVILLE, AL 35811.

Czochralski crystal growth is one of the widely used methods for growing bulk single crystals with high quality and homogeneity from congruent melts with faster growth rates. A wide number of electronic, piezoelectric and optical materials can be grown using this technique. The present paper discusses the design and development of a Czochralski crystal growth system with Automatic diameter control. This system employs continuous weighing and estimating the growing crystal diameter as well as conventional pulling and rotation mechanism using computer controlled stepper motor. A feedback loop is incorporated for controlling the temperature of the system using a computer controlled Visual basic V6.0 based control algorithm. *work supported under NSF HBCU RISE project FIRD 0927644.

ELECTRONIC TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF NANO-COMPOSITES. A K CHILVERY, A K BATRA, JASON STEPHENS, AND ALAYNA FIELDS, ALABAMA A&M UNIVERSITY

Multi-walled carbon nano-tubes:polyvinylidene fluoride nano-composite films were fabricated via solution-casting technique. The electrical and dielectric characteristics of composite films were measured. Using forgoing parameters, electrical transport mechanism has been proposed based on thermal activation. The potential applications of composite films in high-dielectric materials will be discussed.

FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HYBRID SOLAR CELLS BASED ON CONJUGATED POLYMER AND ZNO NANORODS. FEI TONG, KYUSANG KIM, DANIEL MARTINEZ, RESHAM THAPA, AYAYI AHYI, JOHN WILLIAMS, DONG-JOO KIM, MINSEO PARK, AUBURN UNIVERSITY. SUNGKOO LEE, EUNHEE LIM, KYEONG K. LEE, KOREA INSTITUTE OF INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY, KOREA.

In this presentation, we report the fabrication and characterization of hybrid solar cells based on conjugated polymer and ZnO nanorods. Such hybrid photovoltaic devices were fabricated on ITO coated PET substrates and ITO coated glass substrates, respectively. After ZnO seed layer--40 nm was sputtered on the substrates, the ZnO nanorods were synthesized via a low-temperature aqueous solution process. The ZnO nanorods with an average diameter of 40-50 nm and average length of 300-400 nm plays an important role in rapid collection and transportation of the photo-generated electrons. The bulk heterojunction organic layer with a blend of Poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) was spin coated at a low spinning rate of 400 rpm on top of the ZnO nanorod array structure. The organic photoactive layer was slowly dried at room temperature in air to promote its infiltration into the ZnO nanorod array. As a top electrode, silver was sputtered through a shadow mask on top of the photoactive layer. The photovoltaic measurements were performed under 100 mW/cm2 of illumination from the Apex 150W Xeon lamp with an Air Mass 1.5 G filter. The photovoltaic J-V characteristic of the hybrid solar cell device will be presented. This work was supported by Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH).

IS PROCRASTINATION KILLING YOU? DANIEL A CAPE, WETUMPKA HIGH SCHOOL, WETUMPKA AL 36092.

Many students procrastinate for a variety of reasons. If taught the destructive effects and countermeasures of procrastination, students may better themselves. The purpose of this experiment was to determine students' views on their own procrastination. My hypothesis was if a student procrastinates to finish an assignment, then the student will receive a lower grade on the assignment because of the stress placed on a student to complete work in a much shorter period of time. Procedure: create a survey, survey students, then compile results of the survey. With my research. I concluded my hypothesis was correct. While many students, few of the students surveyed truly believe that procrastination affects their grades. Because of stress created by procrastination, students experience a variety of consequences that harms their grades and harms their health.

MAGNETIZED DUSTY PLASMAS--A PATH FORWARD FOR LABORATORY PLASMA ASTROPHYSICS EDWARD THOMAS, JR., ROSS FISHER, KEITH WOOD, SPENCER LEBLANC, PHYSICS DEPT., AUBURN UNIV., ROBERT MERLINO, DEPT. OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY, U. IOWA, MARLENE ROSENBERG, ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING DEPT., UNIV. OF CALIFORNIA--SAN DIEGO

A dusty (or complex) plasma is a four-component plasma system in which the ions, electrons, and neutral atoms of a plasma have an additional charged species present--charged microparticles. The presence of these micrometer-sized "dust" particles alters the dynamics of the system and introduces a wide variety of new phenomena into a plasma. Dusty plasmas were first studies as an astrophysical phenomenon, e.g., comet tails and planetary rings. For the last two decades, dusty plasmas have emerged as a rapidly growing laboratory science with important applications for industrial and basic plasma studies. However, the vast majority of these investigations have been performed in an unmagnetized plasma environment. In Sept., 2011, the Auburn University Plasma Sciences Laboratory was awarded funding for the development of a new, mid-scale, multi-user research instrument for the study of magnetized dusty plasmas. This core of this new facility, which is slated to being operation in mid-2013, is a state-of-the-art, high magnetic field (>4 Tesla), superconducting magnetic system that can be operated in a variety of field configurations. This presentation will discuss the development of the Magnetized Dusty Plasma Experiment (MDPX) device and the basic physics and laboratory plasma astrophysics studies that can be performed using MDPX. This work is supported by NSF Grant Number PHY-1126067

MODELING A@C60 ATOMS: DIFFUSE VERSUS SQUARE-WELL CONFINING PSEUDO-POTENTIALS. JONATHAN L. KING, JOSHUA C. OGLESBY AND DR. V. K. DOLMATOV, UNIV. OF N. ALA., FLORENCE, AL 35632.

It is shown that discontinuity of a square-well potential, which often used for modeling A@C60 atoms, does not result in any artifacts in photoionization spectra of A@C60 atoms. Moreover, it is demonstrated that calculated photoionization spectra are largely insensitive to the degree of smoothness of the confining potential at C60 borders, in a reasonably broad range of its (the degree's) values. All this has been proven by comparing results of calculations of the H@C60 and Xe@C60 photoionization spectra obtained by approximating the C60 potential by a square-well or diffuse potentials; the latter is modeled by a combination of two Woods-Saxon potentials.

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SOLAR ENERGY LOSSES DUE TO ABSORPTION AND SCATTERING IN FOG AND CLOUDS. A.K. CHILVERY, M. P. SCHAMSCHULA AND RAJA SURABHI, DEPT. OF PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY AND MATHEMATICS, ALABAMA A & M UNIVERSITY, NORMAL, AL 35762.

Solar irradiance reaching solar panels varies due to the presence of particles in the atmosphere. In this report, we simulated several parameters affecting the radiation's path, thereby proving ways to estimate the total number of KWh's generated by a solar panel on a particular day. The absorption and scattering spectra of the water droplets originating from the clouds are investigated for traces of UV and IR spectra, which are also the ingredients for any photovoltaic action. The MATLAB simulation of four different cloud scenarios enables estimation of energy losses, energy generated and the profit margins.

TEACHING WITH TECHNOLOGY: SCILAB VS. MATLAB. CHADIA AFFANE AJI, DEPT. OF MATHEMATICS, TUSKEGEE UNIV., TUSKEGEE, AL 36088.

Technology is a vital tool for teaching and learning mathematics effectively. Nowadays, powerful computers and brilliant software such as MATLAB and Scilab offer opportunities to clearly explain the key concepts of mathematics, science, and engineering. MATLAB is a powerful computing and graphing tool. The MATLAB graphics system includes two-dimensional and three-dimensional data visualization accessible through numerous built-in MATLAB commands that require little programming skills. Usually, we don't need high-powered software as MATLAB to enhance the learning of mathematics. Scilab, the alternative free open-source to MATLAB, allows interested teachers to explain math concepts through experiential learning. In this presentation, I will demonstrate some of the basic features of MATLAB and Scilab software and explain some differences between them.

THE OPTICAL AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF PEDOT:PSS / MWCNT COMPOSITES FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC DEVICES. A K CHILVERY, A K BATRA, AND CHEYENNE B SINGLETON, DEPT OF PHYSICS, ALABAMA A&M UNIVERSITY.

The effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in PEDOT:PSS are investigated for better characteristics. Optical characterization of PEDOT:PSS with and without MWCNT's reveal that those incorporated with MWCNT has better refractive indices and optical bandgaps. The electrical characterization shows improved conductivity patterns with MWCNT, and also the optical micrographs of the films are provided for better understanding of the microstructures. The optical and electrical properties of PEDOT:PSS with MWCNT warrants for a better characteristic photovoltaics than without the nanoparticle activities.

TRACE ELEMENT IDENTIFICATION USING LASER INDUCED BREAKDOWN SPECTROSCOPY. AKSHAYA KUMAR AND PRAKASH C. SHARMA, DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS, TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY, TUSKEGEE, AL 36088

The Laser Induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a real time measurement technique of trace elements in solid, liquid and gas samples. Laser light from a pulsed Nd: YAG laser is focused on the sample to create the plasma plume. The emission from plasma plume is sent to spectrometer using optical fiber. The spectral signature of elements in the emission spectrum of plasma has been used for identification of elements present in the sample. The various applications of LIBS technique would be presented. The effect of measurement parameters such as laser power and time delay of detection would also be presented.

TRIPLET-DECAY LIFETIMES OF FLUORESCENT DYES UNDER LASING. JOSHUA C OGLESBY JONATHAN L. KING AND D. BRIAN THOMPSON, DEPT. OF PHYSICS & E. S., UNIV. OF N. ALA., FLORENCE, AL 35632

Resonances due to whispering gallery modes (WGMs) arise in the emission spectra of microspheres doped with fluorescent dye. With a low input power threshold, these resonances states can undergo a population inversion leading to lasing. However these states in the fluorescent dye also decay to dipole-forbidden triplet states. This triplet decay allows WGM lasing to occur only in a pulsed mode, rather than a continuous mode. Identifying the triplet-decay lifetime essentially determines the duration of the lasing pulse. Previously, we have measured the triplet-decay lifetime in a proprietary dye. Here we describe our progress in measuring this lifetime in commonly available commercial dyes.

WEN YAN, DEPT. OF MATHEMATICS, TUSKEGEE UNIV., TUSKEGEE, AL 36830, TIN-YAU TAM, DEPT OF MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS, AUBURN UNIV., AUBURN, AL 36849

Ky Fan's result states that the real part of the eigenvalues of an n-by-n complex matrix is majorized by the eigenvalues of its Hermitian part. The converse was established independently by Amir-Moez and Horn, and Mirsky. We extend the results in the context of complex semisimple Lie algebra. The real semisimple case is also discussed.

Physics and Mathematics Poster Abstracts

A SPECTROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF THE INTERACTION OF DELTA SCORPIUS WITH ITS COMPANION.MAR Y MCDANIEL, UNIVERSITY OF NORTH ALABAMA; TAYLOR GARBER, UNIVERSITY OF NORTH ALABAMA; DR. RONALD M. BLAKE, UNIVERSITY OF NORTH ALABAMA, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF PHYSICS AND EARTH SCIENCE; MICHAEL SCHNEIDER, PISGAH ASTRONOMICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE; DR. MICHAEL CASTELAZ, PISGAH ASTRONOMICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE, SCIENCE DIRECTOR

In July of 2011, the highly-eccentric Be star system Delta Scorpius was predicted to have an interaction between its companion star and its circumstellar disk during its periastron passage which takes place every eleven years. During previous passages the circumstellar disk was not present, so the 2011 passage presented a unique opportunity to study such an encounter. We conducted a spectroscopic study with a 1200 line/mm grating Cassegrain spectrograph on the 0.40m telescope at Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute of Delta Scorpius to determine any effects that may have been caused by the companion star and disk interacting with each other. We will present our resulting images from before and after the close-periastron encounter to discuss the possible causes of our results.

BRACHISTOCHRONE PROBLEM WITH KINETIC FRICTION. ARJUN JAJV, ASHWITH K. CHILVERY, ASHOK K. BATRA, AND MOSTAFA DOKHANIAN, DEPT. OF PHYSICS, ALA. A & M UNIV., NORMAL, AL 35762.

The historic Brachistochrone problem consists of finding the shape of the curve along which a particle will descend, under gravity, from a point to another not directly below it, in the shortest amont of time. This study examines the problem when kinetic friction is taken into account. It assumes an approximate solution found in the literature and calculates the various dynamical quantities associated with this motion including the velcity, acceleration and jerk vectors, kinetic, potential and total energies, curvature, torsion and centripetal force, as the particle undertakes its journey. It is seen that all the dynamical quantities are affected by friction. The acceleration and jerk vectors are found to have constant magnitut=des and to rotate counter-clockwise, with the former trailing the latter by 90 degrees.

CURVATURE AND TORSION IN MOTION OF CHARGED PARTICLE UNDER ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS. ARJUN TAN AND MOSTAFA DOKHANIAN, DEPT. OF PHYSICS, ALA. A & M UNIV., NORMAL, AL 35762.

The existence of the jerk vector and the resulting curvature and torsion are investigated in the motion of a charged particle under the action of electric and magnetic fields. Three examples are considered: (1) A charged particle in a uniform electric field; (2) A charged particle in a uniform magnetic field; and (3) A charged particle in uniform electric and magnetic fields parallel with one another. It is found that: (1) A uniform electric field, by itself, does not produce jerk and hence cannot create torsion (Example 1); (2) A uniform magnetic field, on the other hand, produces jerk motion, and curvature and torsion of constant magnitudes, the perpendicular and parallel components of the initial velocity of the particle being responsible for the curvature and tosion, respectively (Example 2); and (3) The superposition of a uniform electric field on a uniform magnetic field affects both the curvature and torsion, with the electric field stretching out the helical path continuously until the curvature and torsion both approach zeros (Example 3).

DYNAMICAL QUANTITIES IN THE BRACHISTOCHRONE PROBLEM. ARJUN TAN, ASHWITH K. CHILVERY, ASHOK K. BATRA, AND MOSTAFA DOKHANIAN, DEPT. OF PHYSICS, ALA. A & M UNIV., NORMAL, AL 35762.

The historic Brachistochrone problem is widely discussed in the literature. However, the discussion is primarily limited to the shape of the curve along which a particle will descend, under gravity, from a point to another not directly below it, in the shortest amount of time. This study examines the various dynamical quantities associated with this motion, including the velocity, acceleration and jerk vectors, kinetic, potential and total energies, along with curvature, torsion and centripetal force, as the particle undertakes its journey. The quantities are expressed as functions of the angular parameter. The acceleration and jerk vectors are found to have constant magnitudes and to rotate counter-clockwise, with the former trailing the latter by 90 degrees. The velocity and centripetal force vectors also rotate counter-clockwise, but with half the angular velocity, with the former trailing the latter by 90 degrees.

INTEGRATING ACADEMIC ENRICHMENT BEYOND THE CLASSROOM. SHERRY KING, HERMAN WINDHAM AND MICHAEL MENSAH, TUSKEGEE CENTER FOR ACADEMIC EXCELLENCE AND INNOVATIVE LEARNING, OFFICE OF THE PROVOST, TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY, TUSKEGEE, AL 36088.

First-year students are often deficient with mathematical abilities upon college entrance. In assisting these students in the transition from high school to college, additional academic enrichment should be provided to improve their math abilities. A learning center, (T-CAEIL) which assists with academic enrichment in math and communications initiated a math enrichment project for the 2011 summer session. The overall outcome showed a significant impact on the pass rate within the Pre-calculus course.

NANOMATERIALS' SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION FOR BIO-MEDICAL APPLICATIONS BRL4 M. MOORE*, PRAKASH C. SHARMA, SESHA S. SRINIVASAN DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS, TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY, TUSKEGEE, AL 36088 (UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS' POSTER COMPETITION--89TH ANNUAL MEETING OF AAS)

The biomedical field has many uses for nanoparticles, more specifically in cancer diagnostic applications. One of the main goals of cancer diagnostics research is earlier diagnosis of smaller tumors as an effort to begin treatment sooner and in turn increases survival rating. One such solid state material type that is instrumental in cancer diagnoses are magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles such as [Fe0.sub.3]. Through magnetic resonance imaging technologies, these particles can recognize and be used to detect various cancer biomarkers. This experiment intends to synthesize as well as characterize some metrological properties such as composition, morphology and active surface area of the oxide nanoparticles. In synthesis, mechanical ball milling will be used to create particles on a nano-scale to investigate these properties. Co-doping with cobalt, zinc, Indium and manganese on the iron oxide nanoparticles in recent times demonstrated potential for the enhancement of surface reaction kinetics and quantum yield. Our preliminary studies on developing zinc iron oxide and indium iron oxide reveals the red shift and anomalous blue shift of optical absorption associated with tailoring of energy band gap due to both nano level pulverization and agglomeration effects that are discussed in the present study. Acknowledgements: Student scholarship support from Minority Access to Research Careers (MARC) Fellowship is gratefully acknowledged.

OXIDATION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS VIA UV-VIS PHTOOCATALYSIS JEREMIAH F. WILSON*, SAMMIE ELY HI, PRAKASH C. SHARMA, SESHA S. SRINIVASAN DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS, TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY, TUSKEGEE, AL 36088 (UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS' POSTER COMPETITION--89TH ANNUAL MEETING OF AAS)

The main focus of this project is to mitigate the oil contaminants in water by employing UV-visible light photocatalytic oxidation. In this work, we have standardized the photo-oxidation processes by optimizing the Titanium Oxide (Ti02) photocatalyst, concentration of model contaminants, UV-visible light exposure time, air flow etc. The model contaminants used for this study are an azo dyes, Methyl Orange (MO) and Methylene Blue (MB) of different starting concentrations 20-40 ppm having strong UV-vis absorbance wavelengths of 464 nm and 663 nm respectively. It has been successfully demonstrated that the MO and MB degradation with TiO2 loading of lg/L revealed the optimum reaction kinetics and photonic efficiency. In both the concentrations of 1 g and 0.5g TiO2 loading, the complete decomposition or mineralization is occurred around 3-4hours. However, the higher catalyst loading demonstrates faster reaction kinetics due to availability of larger surface to volume ratio. Currently, we are designing and developing slurry based UV-Vis photocatalytic reactor to treat and decontaminate the sweet crude oil and other tar mats/tar balls samples from the Gulf Oil Spill sites. Acknowledgements: Project grant support from Dauphin Island Sea Lab (MESC) is gratefully acknowledged.

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL AND LIQUID SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM GULF OF MEXICO AND DEEP-HORIZON OIL-SPILL SITE SAMMIE ELY HI*, JEREMIAH F. WILSON, PRAKASH C. SHARMA, SESHA S. SRINIVASAN DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS, TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY, TUSKEGEE, AL 36088 (UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS' POSTER COMPETITION--89TH ANNUAL MEETING OF AAS)

In this project, we have extensively carried out the physico-chemical characteristics of soil sediments which are collected from the Gulf of Mexico and in particular from the BP Oil-Spill site. The state-of-the-art tools such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Physisorption using BET autosorb are employed to investigate the chemical, and surface area characteristics of these samples. Fourier Transform IR spectroscopic (FTIR) studies of the powder samples have been carried out and compared with the standard beach or pavement samples. The chemical bonding C-0 stretches at 1000-1400 [cm.sup.-1] arises due to the presence of primary alcohol known as polysaccharides and around 600-800 [cm.sup.-1] with the appearance of alkyl halides. In a similar way, the BET surface area analysis have shown that the average surface area increases by ten folds (~25-30 [m.sup.2]/g) at BP oil spill locations when compared to samples collected from the deepwater sites (2.5 [m.sup.2]/g). Moreover, the pore size distribution of soil samples varies widely from 170 nm to 400 nm throughout the region of Gulf of Mexico. X-ray diffraction analysis and SEM studies of these samples are currently underway to explore the structure, microstructure and property relations of the gulf soil sediments and slurries. Acknowledgements. Project grant support from Dauphin Island Sea Lab (MESC) is gratefully acknowledged.

PLASMA ANNEALING TREATMENTS FOR THE 4H-SIC/SIO2 INTERFACE. AMBER KINNEBRE WAND ZENG.TUN CHEN, DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS, TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY, TUSKEGEE AL, 36088.

In the present article the passivation method for improving the Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Silicon Dioxide (Si02) interface will be discussed. Diagrams will be included showing the structure of each component. The method that will be the main focus is the N-0 passivation methods. Other methods will be discussed to compare the pro's and con's of different annealing methods. A diagram of the apparatus used and the experimental procedure will be covered. Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) measurement is another topic that will be discussed. Results from the experiment, along with graphs explaining the results from the experiment. Overall this poster will show the Annealing Methods from the SiC and Si02 interfaces and the methods of possibly improving these methods.

RECENT ADVANCES IN GRAPHENE ELECTRONICS. ZENGJUN CHEN, PRAKASH C. SHARMA, DEPT. OF PHYSICS, TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY, TUSKEGEE, AL 36088.

Since 2004 when graphene, the first two-dimensional material, was discovered, tens of thousands of research articles have been published in a number of journals. The properties of graphene were investigated extensively and intensively. In 2010, two scientists won the Nobel prizes for their groundbreaking discovery of this amazing matter, pushing the graphene research to a peak. What is graphene? What makes it so special? And what are its potential applications? The answers to those questions will be presented briefly. Most importantly, the progresses of graphene research over the last two years will be reviewed. Through this review, a more comprehensive and clearer picture of graphene, as the rising star in the semiconductor world, is expected to be drawn.

SAMMIE ELY III, JEREMIAH F. WILSON, PRAKASH C. SHARMA, SESHA S. SRINIVASAN 1DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS, COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, TUSKEGEE UNIVERSITY, TUSKEGEE, AL 36088

In this project, we have extensively carried out the physico-chemical characteristics of soil and liquid samples which are collected from the Gulf of Mexico and in particular from the BP Oil-Spill site. The state-of-the-art tools such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Physisorption using BET autosorb are employed to investigate the chemical, and surface area characteristics of these samples. We have also built a Photocatalytic batch reactor with UV-Vis lamp source for treating the water having contaminations such as the oil species and other organic compounds. From the FTIR analysis of the soil samples, it is discernible that the chemical composition at the oil-spill and deep-horizon sites is having much variation in the chemical bonding nature in comparison to the samples from the shoreline. The physisorption using liquid nitrogen demonstrates the measo and micro-porous nature of these samples with an average surface area of about 15-30 m2/g. For the liquid samples, a standardization procedure using Methyl Orange in aqueous water and its degradation has been carried out using UV-Vis spectrometer and photocatalytic reactor. The TiO2 catalyst concentration was optimized to obtain the greater photocatalytic decomposition rate. We will discuss the salient features and results of the investigation in this presentation.

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF NANOPARTICLES-BASED CHEMICAL SENSORS. JASON STEPHENS, DR. ASHOK BATRA, QUIANNA JOHNSON, DR. JAMES CURRIE (A), DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS, ALABAMA A&M UNIVERSITY, NORMAL (HUNTSVILLE), AL 35762, (A)NASA-GEORGE C. MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER, HUNTSVILLE, ALABAMA 35812, U.S.A.

Semiconducting nanoparticle tin oxide-based sensors have been prepared with a pressure load of 4, 6, 8, 10 tons and reinforced with carbon nanofibers (CNF) in SnO2 matrix. The Sn02/CNF senor's sensitivity for 2-isopropanol has increased by a factor of two, in compared with that of pure SnO2 8-ton pressed sensor with lower response time. These results open the way towards further optimized lower cost CNF nanocomposite sensors as compared with expensive tin oxide/carbon nanotubes sensors.

THE MODELING OF SENSING MECHANISM OF THE METAL OXIDES GAS SENSORS. MYCHAL C THOMAS (RESEARCH STUDENT), JASON STEPHENS, A.K. BATRA(MENTOR), M. DOKHANIAN ( HBCU-UP DIRECTOR. DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS (MATERIALS SCIENCE GROUP) SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING, TECHNOLOGY AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES ALABAMA A&M UNIVERSITY, NORMAL (HUNTSVILLE) AL 35762

The metal oxides chemical sensors operate on the principle of change in conductance due to chemisorption of vapor molecules on their surfaces. In the Materials Science laboratory, the research is being conducted to develop binary oxides based sensors for toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The bulk toxic vapor sensors are based on wide-band semiconductors such as tin oxide, arsenic oxide, zinc oxide, indium (III) oxide; etc. As part of undergraduate research, a model for the sensing mechanism of sensors has been explored via change in conductance as a function of the concentration of vapors and the operating temperature. The change in conductance has been derived by utilizing one dimensional Poisson equation for transport. To predict the response, the equation has been solved by MATLAB code The result of the modeling will be compared with experimental data obtained for the isopropanol detection.

Science Education Paper Abstracts

EVALUATION OF A STUDENT RESPONSE SYSTEM IN INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY CLASSES. JAMES R. RAYBURN, BIOLOGY DEPARTMENT, JACKSONVILLE STATE UNIVERSITY, JACKSONVILLE, AL, 36265.

Student response systems allow immediate student feed back in the class. Instructors can ask questions in multiple type formats to assess student understanding of learning. The student response systems have made talking attendance in large classes easy. This purpose of this research was to evaluate the student response system in comparisons to normal written examinations in general biology class. The assessment system was used in two ways, a daily record and questions given during class. The second was using the clicker as quiz giving them a exam without books to see how this method compares to traditional exams. The benefits and problems associated with the student response systems will be addressed. The information gathered in class is compared with regular exams.. Overall the clickers correlated with traditional examination techniques.

Social Sciences Paper Abstracts

BARRIERS TO NEIGHBORHOOD-LEVEL ECONOMIC GROWTH: DO PAYDAY LENDING OPERATIONS PREY ON ECONOMICALLY VULNERABLE AFRICAN AMERICAN NEIGHBORHOODS? LONNIE HANNON HI, DEPT. OF PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY, TUSKEGEE UNIV., TUSKEGEE, AL 36088.

The recent economic downturn is punctuated by the financial difficulties experienced by low-income and working-class individuals. The need to explore the influence of industries that potentially damage the ability of these individuals to preserve assets is critical. Thus, the growth of the alternative lending industry, specifically payday lending stores, is notable. Because residents in low-income, minority communities have limited access to traditional forms of credit and financial assets, we believe that payday lending stores target these groups with high interest rates and increased store frequency. The objective of this study is to explore the potential for social and economic bias associated with race when examining the location of payday lending stores. We use a random, stratified sample of lending stores in Alabama, data from the U.S. Census, and publically available information to generate empirical models. Data will be analyzed using linear and logistic regression. Models will be created to examine the correlations among payday lending store locations, indicators of economic hardship, and racial/ethnic status in Alabama. We hypothesize that when compared to white areas, payday lending stores in African American neighborhoods will be positively associated with higher levels of economic disadvantage.

CHILDREN IN REBEL ARMIES: RUTHLESS SOLDIERS OR INNOCENT CHILDREN? KATHRYN E. ROBBINS, DEPT. OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE, UNIV. OF ALA., TUSCALOOSA, AL 35487.

There has been much debate in the academic field concerning human rights issues of child soldiers and whether their involvement to fight in rebel armies is voluntary or involuntary. Rebel armies differ from state or government armies since they do not typically adhere to laws concerning children in the army. These children are either forced into combat or have romanticized the idea of glory and power. There is question as to whether these children are being exploited and taken advantage of, whether or not they join a military group willingly. However, there has not been much debate concerning whether these child soldiers should be viewed as either soldiers or innocent children in combat. In times of war, these child soldiers are wielding weapons and using them to do harm, whether it be on opposing soldiers or innocent civilians. By looking further into the concept of voluntary enlisting and involuntary recruitment, this paper will explore whether these children should be viewed as soldiers or children in combat.

DOES RELIGION INFLUENCE HIKING TRAIL ETHICS? MARY KATHERINE OSBORN, VICTORIA A. MCCLAIN, RICHARD A. HUDIBURG, AND LARRY W. BATES, UNIVERSITY OF NORTH ALABAMA, FLORENCE, AL.

The focus of the current research is to investigate the relationship between hiking ethics and religion. There has been research that has looked at the significant reasons for participating in hiking (Goldenberg, Hill, & Freidt, 2008). Specially, an investigation has not been done on how hiking is fulfilling. Some hikers are considered to be long-distance and many anecdotes have been reported of an ethos of trail behavior that exists with near religious adherence. Programs exist, such as "Leave No Trace", which emphasize an educational effort to help people minimize the impact on the environment when participating in hiking. Because most religious traditions emphasize some ethical code among its adherents, it is important to question whether this tradition translates into wider ethical adherence in other venues such as hiking. The research design will employ a sample of potential long-distance hikers and a control group of students. The two groups will be evaluated on responses to several types of nature photographs (close-up and wide-angle). Measures of religious beliefs will be employed (the Post Critical Beliefs Scale and the Quest Scale). The research will also utilize measures of ethics (Hiking Trail Ethics behavior and the Environmental Ethics Scale). Hiker research participants will be contacted at the northern terminal of the Appalachian Trail (Mount Katandin in Maine), and the southern terminal, Springer Mountain in Georgia. Additional participants will be contacted on the trail and the mid-point of the trail.

EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (EAP) SERVICES: AVAILABILITY AND USE. R. BRYAN KENNEDY, SUSAN D. HERRING, MICHAEL ESSARY, JAMES KERNER AND LAURA LYNN KERNER, ATHENS STATE UNIVERSITY, ATHENS, AL 35611. EDDY J. BURKS, TROY STATE UNIVERSITY, TROY, AL 36082.

Most industrial and organizational leaders in the U.S. believe that positive management practices and attention to employees result in more effective organizations. The Hawthorne Study results, along with other important research, generally support this premise. In recent years, societal stress levels have demonstrated an upward trend, which has had a negative effect in the workplace, especially in terms of the prevalence of alcohol and drug use. Enlightened managers continually seek out and utilize professional advice in an attempt to provide needed employee support. As a result, more organizations are providing Employee Assistance Program (EAP) services for employees. In an attempt to measure the availability of EAP services in the local region, a convenience survey was developed and administered to Athens State University students who are primarily employed in Alabama and Tennessee. In this paper, results of this survey are compared to national statistics gathered through the National Compensation Survey and are discussed in relationship to the development, utilization, and effectiveness of Employee Assistance Programs as described in the professional literature.

IMPACT OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE. BEVERLY J. MYERS, RN, Mt PHD, NURSING PROGRAM FORTIS INSTITUTE, BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA.

Aim: The aim of this presentation is to discuss the impact of sexual violence. Background: Sexual violence is a significant public health challenge. One in 6 women and one in 33 men living in the United States (U.S.) report experiencing sexual violence at some time in their lives. Sexual violence refers to any sexual activity, such as rape, unwanted touching, sexual harassment, threats, and peeping, where consent is not obtained or freely given. Significance: Annually, sexual violence costs the U. S. health care system between $333 and $750 billion. After homicides, sexual violence is the most costly violent crime in the U.S., costing $151,423 per incident. Discussion: Sexual violence is associated with many long-term negative physical health and mental health outcomes, including but not limited to struggles with obesity, smoking, substance abuse, anxiety, depression, chronic pain, headaches, stomach problems, sexually transmitted diseases, cancer, heart disease, stroke, asthma, diabetes, and suicide. Presentations of this kind are important because many cases of sexual violence go unreported because the person responsible for the violence is typically someone known to the victim. Victims remain silent because they fear others will not believe them or they feel too ashamed and embarrassed to discuss what happened. Implications for Nursing Practice: Nurses can make a difference in the lives of people who experience sexual violence by collecting data, learning about risk factors, developing strategies for prevention, and ensuring that effective prevention approaches reach those in need.

MAN WHO NEVER WAS: A CASE STUDY ON DECISION MAKING IN WARTIME. R. BRYAN KENNEDY, SUSAN D. HERRING, THOMAS PIEPLOW, CHARLES ROBERTS, AND LINDA SHONESY. ATHENS STATE UNIVERSITY, ATHENS, AL 35611.

Decision making in organizations may involve ethical questions as well as practical issues relating to the situation. Bringing human factors into the process often complicates the decision process, especially when these factors include personal beliefs concerning deception, respect, and individual rights. This case study addresses a very difficult decision faced by Great Britain's military leadership during World War II in their continuing intelligence efforts to confuse the German high command concerning a planned attack on Sicily. Breaches of Nazi security by various means continued to produce information that Adolph Hitler was obsessed with his belief that the next Allied attack on Europe would be directed through and at the Balkans. Hitler's belief was not correct, but one major Allied stratagem was to mislead Hitler through deception and to force him to spread his forces away from the planned area of attack in hopes of reducing Allied casualties.

MASSACRE AT JEDWABNE--WHO IS TO BLAME? A CASE STUDY ON WAR-TIME DECISIONS AND THE DUALITY OF HUMAN NATURE. it BRYAN KENNEDY, SUSAN D. HERRING, THOMAS PIEPLOW, CHARLES ROBERTS, MELISSA WERNER, ATHENS STATE UNIVERSITY, ATHENS, AL 35611.

Group decision-making and subsequent actions are susceptible to numerous factors, including groupthink and a desire to avoid accepting responsibility for uncomfortable choices. Decisions frequently reflect human nature, which can manifest as either good or evil, often within the same person. Violent times, or times of upheaval and confusion, can lead individuals and groups to take brutal actions which might be unthinkable in normal times. Such actions may appear spontaneous, with no rational cause or explanation. One example of this occurred during World War II in the Polish town of Jedwabne, where approximately 1,600 Jewish residents were massacred by local citizens in a period of only a few days. This case study focuses on the events at Jedwabne and their meaning in historical and ethical terms for decision makers.

MICRO-STRATIFICATION: AN ANALYSIS OF URBAN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURE USING A SOCIAL STRESS INDEX DERIVED FROM U.S. CENSUS BLOCK LEVEL DATA--GADSDEN ALABAMA, A CASE STUDY. HOLLY PARK, AND DR. JOE MORGAN, DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL AND EARTH SCIENCES, GEOGRAPHY, JACKSONVILLE STATE UNIVERSITY, JACKSONVILLE, AL.

Social stratification and how it relates to urban development issues has become one of the most widely researched areas in recent years. As we take a closer look into this socially stratified society we reveal a micro-stratification that exists not only in socio-economic status but also within the character of the society itself This micro-stratification can be identified by examining social stressors to identify the geographic location of the population. It is hypothesized that there is a direct positive spatial correlation between public housing, for example, and social disparity. In this case public housing can serve as a physical, psychological and even an administrative boundary between socio-spatial areas. This research examines the Census data available to determine if there are certain variables which identify socially stressed areas. The block level Census data was used to create an Index of Social Stress from derived variables. The Index was useful in identifying factors that create micro-stratification such as vacant housing units, female head of household with children under 18 years of age, races other than white, number of children under 14 years of age, and rental units. These social stressors are useful in identifying areas of clustering within the community. Incorporating GIS technology, the socially stressed areas can be identified using the index of social stress.

NECESSITY OF DEATH. JOSEPH A. MUSICK, DEPT. OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE, UNIV. OF ALA. TUSCALOOSA, AL 35487.

Determining when death is a necessary action pertains to many different subjects. Inevitably all human beings die, but there are times when death is a result of another's actions. When this occurs people make the choice to kill or not to kill based upon various factors. The question that must be asked is when is it necessary and justified and when is it not? This presentation will address four of those situations through ethical and criminal methods. These four topics include physician assisted suicide, self-defense, the death penalty, and war. Arguments both for and against each will be made in order to provide insight. Ultimately, it will be argued that there are times when it is necessary to commit acts that result in the death of another.

SEXUAL HARASSMENT IN ORGANIZATIONS. R. BRYAN KENNEDY, SUSAN D. HERRING, MICHAEL ESSARY, JAMES KERNER, LAURA LYNN KERNER, AND LINDA SHONESY, ATHENS STATE UNIVERSITY, ATHENS, AL 35611.

In recent years the issue of sexual harassment has come to the forefront in organizations and in the larger society. Accusations have clouded the appointment of a nominee to the Supreme Court, destroyed the presidential ambitions of a leading candidate, and resulted in the downfall or, at the minimum, the embarrassment of numerous organizational and political leaders. Whether true or untrue, charges of sexual harassment are disruptive, stressful to all involved, and often require expensive solutions. In order to determine the prevalence of sexual harassment in organizations primarily located in north Alabama, a survey was developed and administered to a convenience sample involving several different groups of organizational employees. The results of the survey are reported and compared with national statistics and trends.

Social Sciences Poster Abstracts

BARRIERS TO NEIGHBORHOOD-LEVEL ECONOMIC GROWTH: DO PAYDAY LENDING OPERATIONS PREY ON ECONOMICALLY VULNERABLE AFRICAN AMERICAN NEIGHBORHOODS? RONEKIA BEANE, CAMRON HURT, DEPT. OF PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY, TUSKEGEE UNIV, TUSKEGEE AL 36608.

The recent economic downturn is punctuated by the financial difficulties experienced by low-income and working-class individuals. The need to explore the influence of industries that potentially damage the ability of these individuals to preserve assets is critical. Thus, the growth of the alternative lending industry, specifically payday lending stores, is notable. Because residents in low-income, minority communities have limited access to traditional forms of credit and financial assets, we believe that payday lending stores target these groups with high interest rates and increased store frequency. The objective of this study is to explore the potential for social and economic bias associated with race when examining the location of payday lending stores. We use a random, stratified sample of lending stores in Alabama, data from the U S. Census, and publically available information to generate empirical models. Data will be analyzed using linear and logistic regression. Models will be created to examine the correlations among payday lending store locations, indicators of economic hardship, and racial/ethnic status in Alabama. We hypothesize that when compared to white areas, payday lending stores in African American neighborhoods will be positively associated with higher levels of economic disadvantage.

RELIGION, CULTURE, AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION ON THE GANGES RIVER. RICHARD R. GREENE. AUBURN UNIVERSITY. PHILIP L. CHANEY, DEPT. OF GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY, AUBURN UNIVERSITY., AUBURN, AL. 36849-5305.

As the population in India grows, so does the amount of pollution in and around the Ganges River. The Ganges River originates in the Himalayan Mountains in Northern India and serves as the most vital natural resource for the country of India. It provides great opportunities for many types of industry necessary for the developing country's exponential growth. The river also serves as a sacred portal to heaven according to Hindu beliefs, which is an important point because seventy-six percent of the country practices Hinduism as their faith. Given the importance of the Ganges River to the Hindu religion, it is surprising to find that the river is polluted by human-caused waste. It is necessary to discuss the effects of the amounts of human-caused waste into this vital river system. Hinduism is not a newfound religion and with the knowledge that it is old both in history and practices will further guide the understanding that new, more contemporary environmental challenges should be addressed By highlighting the magnitude of pollution along this river, which is caused and intensified by man, and discussing how the river ties into the culture and religion of the Indian people, it is the intention of this poster to bring about awareness of how contemporary environmental issues should be a topic of discussion for one of the worlds oldest religions.
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Title Annotation:p. 36-66
Publication:Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science
Article Type:Conference notes
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Apr 1, 2012
Words:14287
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