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The -m(V) nominal derivational suffixes in Erzya-Mordvin.

1. The system of Mordvin derivational suffixes is similar to those of the other Finno-Ugric languages: deverbal and denominal verb and noun suffixes are the traditional categories within it. Elements of the remarkably rich set of derivational suffixes are classifiable into these four groups.

Part of the suffixes still has transparent meanings (for example the -ci and -ks elements or the diminutives); the past existence of certain suffixes, however, is only traceable through etymological methods. The Mordvin language (among others) has quite a lot of such obscured suffixes, e.g. -v, -r/-r, -l/-l: umbrav 'garden sorrel', cicav 'flea'; kenere 'elbow', cejer 'mouse'; sejel' 'hedgehog', menet 'sky, heaven', numolo 'rabbit' etc.

Another way of classification is according to productivity. Obscured suffixes have become entirely unproductive by now and they are not used in word formation processes. In present-day Mordvin, the here discussed -ma, -mo, -me and -ks suffixes are very productive, together with suffixes having been/being evolved from independent words (e.g. -ci, -pet). Productivity is a changing phenomenon throughout the history of a language. The -ci element hardly ever occurred in a suffixal function two or three hundred years ago, while -lma/-lmo, for instance, was a highly frequent suffix at the end of the 18th and at the beginning of the 19th century, but has become much less common by now.

Frequency is also an often mentioned notion in connection with derivational suffixes. Productivity and frequency are not necessarily interrelated features in a suffix: it happens that a suffix that is not productive anymore occurs very frequently in a given corpus, while another one that is productive at present is rare in the same body of texts. The -ks suffix is an example for the latter case in Mordvin: it is productive in principle (avaks 'female' < ava 'woman, lady; mother', ataks 'rooster, cock' < a'ta 'old man'), but its frequency indices are low. However, it is generally true that these two features are closely related to each other in a given period of linguistic history. The -n, -j and -v adjectival suffixes are very productive and frequent at the present time (it is an interesting observation that the latter one is still transparent, productive and frequent as an adjectival suffix, but it has become obscured, unproductive and rare as a nominal suffix), or further similar examples are the diminutives (-ka, -ke, -ne, -ine), and the -ks and -ci suffixes.

According to their origin, nominal suffixes can be grouped into the following categories. The earliest layer is formed by the suffixes that had evolved before the Mordvin language started its separate course of life (in the Uralic/Finno-Ugric/Finno-Permic/Finno-Volgaic periods). The predominantly complex suffixes that evolved after Mordvin had become an individual language belong to another category, like e.g. -vt. There are also some newer suffixes that have been transformed for example from participles (Moksha -f). Even more recent are the complex suffixes (-kaj, -lma) and elements adapted from Russian (-ka, -skoj). The latest are the suffixes that have evolved by way of grammaticalization during the past century, and the ones that are currently going through this process (about the chronological layers of suffixes, see Zaicz 1988: 401-402; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1989: 42-60, 67-87; 2001: 90-94; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1999: 3-5).

This paper studies the Erzya nominal suffixes containing the nasal consonant -m. The present-day Erzya language has more than one of such suffixes:

a) the still productive and frequent -mo, -ma, -me deverbal noun suffix (nomen actionis and nomen instrumenti);

b) the complex nominal suffix -lma, -lmo that has evolved of the above suffix;

c) the -mo adjectival suffix that has already become obscured, unproductive and infrequent;

d) the -m(V) nominal suffix that has also become obscured, unproductive and rare.

These suffixes have not been discussed in an equal proportion in the literature of the topic. Up to this point, descriptive aspects have been preferred and deverbal noun suffixes have been the most studied. Obscured suffixes are hardly ever mentioned. This is why this study lays the emphasis on etymological analysis, and after a brief overview of the still productive -ma, -mo, -me and -lma, -Imo suffixes, the discussion is continued with a detailed description of the obscured nominal and adjectival suffixes.

2. All of the suffixes discussed here are of common origin (and are identical with the *m verbal suffix, cf. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1974:369). The Fin. -ma/-ma (elama 'life' < ela- 'to live', kuolema 'death' < kuole- 'to die'); -in (avain 'key' < avaa- 'to open, to unlock'), -mus/-mys (vaatimus 'requirement' < vaati- 'to require') is the continuation of the *-m deverbal noun suffix. It is also present in the Finnic languages; the Sami -m (borram 'food' < borrat 'to eat', aellem 'life' < aellet 'to live'), the Mari -m, -ma, -ma, -mo, Udm. -(e)m, Zyr. -(e)m, -(e)m, Man. -m, Kh. -m, Hun. -m (alom 'dream', villam 'lightning'), and the Samoyedic equivalents also belong here.

The deverbal suffix also exists in various infinitive, participial and gerundial forms in several languages, e.g. in Finnish, the -ma/-ma occurs in a type 3 infinitive form, in the participum passivum (minun tekemani ruoka 'the dinner made by me') and in the -minen suffix that used to be a type 4 infinitive form, only it has been transformed into an abstract nominal suffix by now (elaminen 'living, life').--The Mordvin infinitivus-nominativus (-mo, -me), infinitivus-illativus (-ms), infinitivus-ablativus (-modo), participium praesens passivum (-ma) and the type 1 gerund form (-msto, -mste) also contain this element.

In Finnish, the *-m denominal noun suffix appears in the -ma/-ma (rantama 'coastal region, coast' < ranta 'coast'), -mo (ohimo 'temple') and the -mus/-mys (pyhimys 'saint < pyha 'saint'), -n (sydan 'heart'), -in (sierain 'nostril') suffixes. It is also preserved in Sami (-m), Finnic languages, Mari (-m, -ma, -ma, -ma), Komi (Zyrian), Udmurt, Mansi, Khanty (-m in all of them) and in Hungarian, too (-m: alom 'litter', sulyom' water-chestnut', izom 'muscle', orom 'summit', tetem 'cadaver'; -v: szm 'heart', o/o: apo 'old man', odo > odu 'hollow, den'), and in Samoyedic languages.

In present-day Finnish, besides the -ma element (kuuma hot, muutama 'a few, some'), the *-m denominal adjective suffix also occurs in the -n suffix (hapan 'sour', lammin 'warm'--their genitive stems are happama- and lampima-), in the present tense form of the superlative (suurin: suurimma-), in the suffixes of the expressions ensimmainen 'first' and jalkimmainen ' latter ', and in the -mainen adjectival suffix (alamainen ' humble, obedient', sikamainen 'pork'). It also appears in Mari (-mse), Udmurt (-(i)m, -(i)m), Khanty (-m) and Hungarian (e.g. in words keseru 'bitter', savanyu 'sour'), furthermore in Samoyedic languages (on the etymology of these suffixes, see: Lehtisalo 1936:82-110; A. Kovesi 1965: 212-232; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1967: 70, 77-78; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1974: 344-345; Hakulinen 1979:130-132; 169-170, 193-195, 197-199, 210-212; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1999: 3-4).

Thus, it is clear from all this that the *-m suffix has got a variety of continuations in the present of the language family. These exist on either in their original forms or combined with other suffixes, filling several different functions. The rest of the paper discusses the Erzya-Mordvin representatives of this suffix group (data from the Russian literature on the topic is provided in Cyrillic letters, while Paasonen and the Finnish and Hungarian linguists are cited in Roman letters).

3. The -Mo, -Ma, -Me (1) deverbal noun suffix

The first linguist to organize the Mordvin suffixes into some kind of a system was M. E. Jevsevjev ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1963 [1934]:36-44). In his brief overview, he categorizes this suffix as a deverbal noun suffix, providing as many as nine examples for it, without a grouping of any kind ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1963 [1934]:42): [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [staircase]' (2) < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [to go up]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [whistle, pipe]' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [to whistle]' etc. In his Erzya grammatical paper, D. V. Bubrich only mentions [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Plur.]' as an example ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1947: 45). A. P. Feoktistov touches upon this suffix in connection with the -Mo, -Me infinitive. He establishes that the infinitive and this nominal suffix coincide in form, the reason for which must be their common origin ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1966:192).

B. A. Serebrennikov ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1967:70) and K. E. Majtinskaja ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1974:344-345) discuss the -Ma, -Mo deverbal noun suffix from an etymological point of view. The former gives eight Erzya and four Moksha examples ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [victory]' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [to win]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [choice, election]' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [to choose]' etc.), while the latter mentions only two words ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [blow, punch]' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [to hit]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [fall]' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [to fall]') again in an enumerative manner, without semantic analysis.

In D. V. Cygankin and S. Z. Devajev 's Erzya and Moksha comparative grammatical essay ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1975:92), there are two main categories distinguished: words naming the means, object, result or the intensity of an action ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [thrasher]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [towel]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [bite]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [leash]'), and nouns referring to some kind of an action (action nouns, nomen actionis): [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [walking]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [singing]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [making, preparation]'.

The Mordvin suffixes have been the most thoroughly investigated by the doyen of Mordvin linguists: D. V. Cygankin. He provides a detailed description of the -Mo/-Ma/-Me deverbal suffix in his doctoral thesis ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1977), in the chapter about word formation of his comprehensive handbook [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (1980), in the shortened Erzya version of the same ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 2000), in his monograph on suffixes ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1981), in his university course book ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 2006) and in some of his articles ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1976; 1992). He establishes that this remarkably productive and frequent suffix can be added to almost any verb. He arranges the derived words into two semantic groups: words denoting abstract nouns and words referring to concrete objects, tools. (3) He provides two dozens of examples, e.g. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [game, toy]' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [to play]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [growth, increase]' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [to grow]'; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [seed]' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [to sow]' ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1976:91-92; 1977:331-332; 1981:41-42; 1992:114; 2006:34-35; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 198:105-106; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 36). Lipatov, Matjushkin and Mosin create and describe the same two groups in the Mordvin lexicological handbook ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1983:121).

I. N. Rjabov considers this suffix an important example for deverbal transposition ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 2000a:280; 2002:59). The nouns having been formed from verbs in this way carry a new meaning, but they differ from real nouns in the fact that they refer to the process of an action. Rjabov describes this kind of derivation as very productive and frequent, since he found more than 500 examples for it in the Erzya-Russian comprehensive dictionary ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1993).--In certain cases, as a result of semantic transposition, the abstract meaning is transformed into a concrete, objective/objectified meaning. Deverbal names for actions can develop into nouns denoting concrete objects, e.g. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [nurturing, feeding]' > [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [a bowl or trough serving for the feeding of domestic animals]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [smearing, painting]' > [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [glaze, polish]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [leading, carrying]' > [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [lunging-rein]; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [buckle on a men's shirt]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [planing, trimming]' > [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [plane]' ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 20006:10-11; 2000b:168-169).

As far as the foreign (non-Mordvin) linguists are concerned, in his grammatical overview, Jozsef Erdodi (1968:217) classifies the -ma/-mo element as one of the most frequent deverbal noun suffixes and he gives six examples for it: lovnoma 'reading' (lovnoms 'to read'), ramamo 'buying, purchase' (ramams 'to buy') etc. In his chrestomathy, Laszlo Keresztes (1990:67) discusses the suffixes only in an enumerative manner and considers the -ma, -mo/-me elements to be abstract nominal suffixes (valgoma 'perching, slope', eramo 'life') and suffixes referring to instruments and tools (izamo 'harrow', sulgamo 'clasp, fastener, buckle'. Gabor Zaicz (1998:202-204) lists the most important suffixes briefly in his comprehensive paper, and among them, he mentions the -ma, -mo, -me deverbal suffix that is also classified as nomina actionis and instrumenti, e.g. lovno- 'reads' > lovnoma '(act of) reading', iza- 'harrows' > izamo 'harrow'. (4)

In his Finnish comprehensive book, Raija Bartens (1999:106) regards the -mo/-ma suffix as the most frequent deverbal suffix and he also distinguishes between abstract and concrete nouns, depending on the argument structure of the base verb: palamo 'suudelma, suuteleminen [kiss, kissing]' < pala- 'suudella [to kiss]'; izamo 'aes [harrow]' < iza- 'aestaa [to harrow, to drag]'. Edit Meszaros analyzes the -mo/-ma/-me nominal suffix in her course book. According to her description, this suffix denotes the action itself, or the result of the action (Meszaros 1998:59). She separates the -mo/ -ma progressive passive participle suffix from the former one (although she notes that their origin is common): eramo tarka 'dwelling place' (< era- 'to live', tarka 'place'), udoma tarka 'bed, resting-place' (< udo- 'to sleep'), miksnema kudo 'department store, shop' (< miksne- 'to sell', kudo 'house'. This can go through nominalization as well: veckema 'lover' (vecke- 'to love').

This suffix is highly productive and very frequent. 2452 Erzya words of the Mordvin reverse dictionary ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 2004) (5) contain this suffix (-Ma: 1368, -Me: 25, -Mo: 1059). As a basis for comparison: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: 1688, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: 397 Erzya data. The suffix began to be really productive in the 18th century, when the consolidation of the Russian state power enhanced the development of socio-cultural life and economy and brought a number of new abstract notions in the language (for details, see [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1989:72-73; 1990:224-225).

The suffix first and foremost creates nouns abstract in meaning, and almost any kind of abstract notion can be formed with it. This is why its semantic categories are manifold. Here are some examples: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'will, wish' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to want, to wish', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'meeting, encounter' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to meet', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'joy, happiness' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to be glad', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'speech; conversation' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to speak, to talk', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'death' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to die', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'walking' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to go, to move', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'singing' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to sing', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'harvesting, reaping' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to reap', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'rain' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to rain', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ' ploughing' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to plough', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'sleeping; dream' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to sleep', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'life, existence' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to live'.

The productivity of the suffix is well demonstrated by the fact that it can be added to Russian(-origin) verbs as well: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] etc. There are a lot of similar words in present-day dictionaries as well: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] etc.

In addition to abstract nouns, nouns concrete in meaning can also be formed with the help of this suffix, e.g. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'made bed; cover, dinner-service' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to make the bed; to lay the table'; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'leash' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to lead, to carry'; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'well' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to come out; to creep forth'; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'towel' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to wipe'; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'clothing, garment' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to get dressed'; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'lock, latch' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to open'; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'stair case, step (of ladder)' < [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to step up' (for details about this suffix, see [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1976:91-92; 1981:41-42; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1980:105-106; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1996:124-125; Bartens 1999:106; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 36).

4. The -[??]Ma, -[??]Mo suffix

The classification of this suffix is not clear-cut in the literature: it is regarded both as a deverbal and/or a denominal noun suffix. In his book on the abstract nominal suffixes of the Uralic languages, Oscar Lazar (1975:206) calls the expressions formed with the -lma/-lmo suffix "pseudodeverbal derivates", because the -l- verbal suffix and the -ma/-mo nominal suffix are merged into this derivative cluster. These--according to his examples, at least--usually express degree or quantity: kuvaka ' long ' > kuvalgadoms 'to lenghten, to get longer' ~ kuvalmo 'length, extent', staka 'heavy, weighty; difficult' > stalgadoms 'to get tired' ~ stalmo 'heaviness, weight, burden', ecke 'thick' > eckelma 'thickness', poks 'great, big, large' > poksolma 'size'.

The evolution of the suffix is explained with a shift of the morpheme boundaries by Cygankin as well. As a first step, -[??] suffixed frequentative verb forms were derived from adjectives: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [long]' > [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [to lengthen, to stretch]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [heavy]' > [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [to grow heavy]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [big]' > [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [to grow larger, to swell]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [thick, dense]' > [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [to thicken]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [thick, bulky]' > [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [to thicken]'. After this, the stem-final -[??] consonant and the -Ma, -Mo suffix merged into a new suffix: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [length]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [weight]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [size]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [concentrate]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [thickness, bulk]' ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1976:92; 1977:332; 1981:42; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1980:106; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 37).

In her course book, Edit Meszaros writes about this suffix as well: she regards this infrequent and unproductive suffix as denominal. From a descriptive point of view, she gives the suffix in a -lma, -olma; -lmo form (Meszaros 1998:102).

The -[??]Ma, -[??]Mo is not a productive suffix anymore, but at the beginning of Mordvin literacy, around the end of the 18th century, it was very fruitful. It had evolved from adjectival stems. Nazarova's examples from that period are like the following (mainly from Damaskin's dictionary): [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [lightness]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [heat]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [thickness, denseness]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [depth]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [forgetfulness]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [envy]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [greenness]' ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1999:109-110).

Mosin ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1999:80-81) considers the resurrection of this suffix possible and on the analogy of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], he proposes the creation of adjective-based nouns like the following: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [whitish]' > [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [whiteness]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [big]' > [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [fame, glory]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [a bit dry]' > [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [yellowish]' > [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [yellowness]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [greenish]' > [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [greenness]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [a bit big]' > [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [bigness]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [quiet]' > [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [peace]'. From these, the [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] expressions can already be found in Bible translations. The creation of deverbal nouns is also possible in the same manner: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [to hold]' > [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [support, help]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [to show]' > [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [presentation, recital, production]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [to be born]' > [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [crop, fruit]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [to bear] > [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [number of births]'.--Thus, this suffix can be deverbal, denominal and deadjectival alike.

5. The obscured and unproductive -mV adjectival suffix

Serebrennikov classifies the -mo, -ma adjectival suffix as one that has become unproductive and very rare ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1967:77-78). His examples are: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [sour]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [cold]'. Majtinskaja ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1974:344) also includes [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [quiet]' besides nanaMO in the example material.

Cygankin and Devajev only mention the [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] adjectives ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1975:95). According to Bajuskin ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1975:70), the unproductive -mo, -ma, -me suffix is used to form adjectives denoting a feature or quality. Its existence can only be proven through comparative analysis, with the help of the related languages, cf. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [sweet]' ~ [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [to sweeten]'; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [to cool down]' ~ Est. jahe 'cold'.

The [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (1980:112) applies the same principle, identifying the adjectival suffix through a comparison with verbs: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [to sour, to pickle]', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. The handbook also classifies the [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [such, of this kind]' and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [what kind of]' pronominal forms into this category (similarly: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1983:126).

Let us take a closer look at the words appearing in the literature of the topic. (6)

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]]PB 329) 'edes; edesseg' (EMSz 196); 'makea' (ESS 83); [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/suss, ungesauert, frisch; Susse' (MdWb 1006). Its Moksha form is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (MPB 323). Versinin ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 197) regards it as a descriptive word (the [??]TB (90) relates it to the Kola Sami [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] expression, which is hardly acceptable for semantic and phonetic considerations). The word contains the -mo suffix, which is supported by other members of the word group: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] angesusste Maische fur Bier, Dunnbier u. Kwass' (MdWb); [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 634); 'csend; csendes, nyugodt, bekes, szehd, jambor ' (EMSz 352); 'hiljainen, rauhallinen; hiljaisuus, rauhallisuus' (ESS 163); [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/ still, ruhig, sanft, mild; bescheiden, zuruckhaltend' (MdWb 2100). The Moksha variant is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (MPB 699). According to Versinin ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 401, 420), it is a descriptive word. Paasonen classifies it under the Moksha satav 'id.' that is his main entry. This suggests the existence of the set'-/'sat- passive root. In this case, the Moksha -av and the Erzya -me can be considered suffixes. The noun set'ks [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/ Beruhigung, Ruhe' supports this analysis.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 738); 'savanyu, keseru; keseruseg' (EMSz 420); 'happamuus; hapan' (ESS 189); [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/ sauer; bitter, scharf; Bitterkeit' (MdWb 210). Its Moksha form is manaMa (MPB 853). It is probably of Finno-Ugric origin, in so far as the Fin. hapan, Est. hape, Md. capamo, Mari capa, and the Kh. cey-, Man. saw-, Hun. savanyu expressions are related (UEW 54). The SSA (1:140) reconstructs a *sappa-/tsappa- base form in the Finno-Volgaic branch. The Mordvin -mo is a denominal noun suffix, which is supported by derived words like [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. For further information, see MdKons 153; [??]TB 210; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 486.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 801); 'hideg, fagyos; hideg, fagy' (EMSz 468); 'pakkanen, kylma' (ESS 204); [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/ kalt; Kalte, Frost' (MdWb 488). Its Moksha form is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (MPB 917). It is of Finno-Volgaic origin: *jaksa 'kuhl, kalt; kalt werden' > Est. jahe, Sam. juoskos, ?Mari ukse-. This word group may be the velar variant of the FU origin *jakse 'kuhl, kalt; kalt werden' (cf. Fin. jahty-, Sam. jiksem, Md. ekse/jasa, Mari ukse-, Kh. joyli) (UEW 90, 630). The Erzya -mo is a nominal suffix. See furthermore MdKons 43; [??]TB 230; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 524.

The -mo pronominal suffix is similar:

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 218); 'ilyen, olyan' (EMSz 129); 'sellainen, tallainen' (ESS 59); istamo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/solcher, ein solcher' (MdWb 348). Its Moksha form is: ctama (MPB 665). Its base word is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] that is also the base for [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] etc.-according to Versinin, all of these go back to a primitive i/e demonstrative particle ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 89), and Paasonen also classifies them under the e- pronominal root. It is possible that it belongs to the word group of the Uralic origin *e- 'dieser' (cf. Fin. e-: etta, ensi, L ez etc.), but the UEW (67) only includes the et'e 'dieser' and ese 'jener' forms. Regardless of all this, -mo is nevertheless a suffix according to the evidence of other words from the word group. The [??]TB (54) suggests that the [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] element is an ablative suffix, which is much less acceptable.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 274); 'milyen, melyik, amilyen' (EMSz 169); 'minkalainen, millainen' (ESS 71). The Moksha form is kodama (MPB 265). Other members of the word group are: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Its root is the Uralic ko- that is present in all the related languages, cf. Fin. ku- (kuka, kussa etc.), Hun. ho- (hol, hova, hogy) etc. The -da element is a suffix (Ableitungssuffixe), cf. Sam. -tti, Mari -[??]a, -[??]o, Permic -d, Kh. -ti, -ta (< *te); the -mo morpheme is a pronominal element (Pronominalsuffixe), cf. Permic -m, Nen. -m, Kam. -m (UEW 191). See also MdKons 63; [??]TB 74; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 152.

6. The obscured, unproductive and infrequent -m(V) nominal suffix

To my knowledge, Mosin (Mochh 1989:42, 46) is the only one of the Mordvin linguists who mentions this obscured suffix that is the continuation of the primitive *m. His examples are: ydem(e) marrow', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'bench', [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'brooch, clasp'. In Gabor Zaicz 's historical overview of the suffixes (1988:401), only one Moksha example is included: l'ima 'Kette, Aufzug' < FV *lonema 'Webkette'.

However, if we examine the Mordvin vocabulary more carefully, this suffix seems to be present in much more words. I found 37 words during my investigation that more or less surely contain this suffix. I set up three categories among them: some of them unambiguously contain a suffix, another group is susceptible to contain one according to certain etymological considerations; while the words belonging to the third set are of unknown origin and as such, the presence or absence of a suffix cannot be proven in them. Suffixes from the primitive vocabulary belong to several different chronological layers: some of them have already existed in the Uralic/Finno-Ugric period, others were added to the words in question in the transitory periods (Finno-Permic, Finno-Volgaic), and still others only appeared when the Mordvin language has started on its own way. The discussion below considers these categories one after the other.

The majority of the words in the analyzed set of vocabulary are nouns, but--in so far as my etymological inferences prove to be true--there are some suffixes that are added to verbal stems (furthermore, in some cases, the UEW provides a verbal noun as a starting point). The denominal suffix has become completely obscured and the deverbal one has also become less frequent. The latter has been replaced by -ma/-mo/-me that joins the stem (ending in a vowel) transparently, according to different phonotactic rules.

a) Words probably containing primitive suffixes, based on data from related languages

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 50); '(jeg)lek' (EMSz 41); 'avanto' (ESS 7); [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/Wuhne, Eisloch' (MdWb 45). Its Moksha form is: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (MPB 39). The UEW (11) derives it from the Finno-Ugric *ana- 'losen, offnen, aufmachen', cf. Fin. avaa-, avanto, Kh. ana-, Man. enk-, Hun. old. According to the UEW, the Mordvin -s is a deverbal verb suffix, while the -ma is a deverbal noun suffix. The SSA (1:92) relates these words to each other only hypothetically and leaves the Hungarian verb out. See furthermore MdKons 34; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 17; the [??]TB 13 considers it to be of Turkic origin.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 241); 'fust' (EMSz 145); 'savu' (ESS 65); katsamo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/Rauch' (MdWb 560). Its Moksha form is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (MPB 238). The UEW (641) classifies it as of FV (?FP) origin (*kacke 'Rauch, Brandgeruch, Geruch, Gestank'), cf. Fin. katku, Est. katk, ?Komi. kocis. The UEW considers the -mo element as a suffix. The SSA (1 : 328) includes the Mordvin word here only hypothetically. See also MdKons 51; [??]TB 63; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 116.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??}PB 276); 'lapat; aso' (EMSz 171); 'lapio' (ESS 71); [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/Spaten' (MdWb 820). Its Moksha form is kaume (MPB 217). Paasonen very prudently talks about a possible Turkic origin (comparing the word to a Yakut expression), but the original word is a primitive one, cf. FP (?U) *kojwa- ' graben, schopfen' > ?Fin. kaiva-, NS goai'vo, Mari koe-, ?Nen. siwa etc. (UEW 170). The UEW classifies the Mordvin -me element as a deverbal noun suffix. See furthermore MdKons 63; [??]TB 75; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 155.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 333); 'volgy; horpadas, melyedes ' (EMSz 200); ' laakso ' (ESS 84); lasmo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/ Senke, Talschlucht, Vertiefung, Grube' (MdWb 1030). Its Moksha form is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (MPB 3304). It may be related to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 353); [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/(kleine) Vertiefung, Hohlung, Niederung, Senke, kleines Tal' (MdWb 1079) and to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/ kleine Vertiefung (auf dem Felde), niedrige Stelle, Niederung, Senke' ([??]PB 353; MdWb 1090).--The SSA (2:95) connects the Md. lozmo, Komi lazmid 'alava (paikka), matala (vesi; rakennus)' forms (see also [??]TB 91) to the Fin. lotma 'notko, laakso, painanne/Talsenke, Nidereung', but only hypothetically for phonetic doubts. Versinin ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 203) also includes here the Mari [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and (hypothetically) the Udm. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] words as well.--In view of its phonetic form and meaning, the word [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/kleines Tal, Niederung, Senke ' (MdWb 1088) is also close to the above word group, but this is a Russian loan, cf. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 481); 'zab, abrakzab' (EMSz 286); 'kaura' (ESS 121); pineme 'obec / Hafer' (MdWb 1673). Its Moksha form is nuhem (RMS 331). It is of Finno-Permic origin: *pane 'Hafer' > Komi panol, panov. The Mordvin word contains a denominal noun suffix (UEW 726).

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 531); 'zuza' (EMSz 310); 'kupu (linnun)' (ESS 136); puramo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/Kropf; Vogelmagen ' (MdWb 1830). Its Moksha form is nrpma (MPB 558). The UEW (378) considers it Uralic, taking *pijra 'Tiermagen, Kropf' > Fin. piira, NS birram, Nen. pirci etc. to be its base word; the SSA (2:356), however, finds the Mordvin word very problematic because of phonetic reasons, and is uncertain about its connection to this word group. If the Mordvin word is still a member of the group, -mo is a nominal suffix (see also [??]TB 155; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 385).

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [taplogomba, taplo] ([??]PB 576 ceu, 582); seme, sejeme, sem, sejme, seje, sejim, siima, sijima 'TpyT/Feuerschwamm, Zunder ' (MdWb 2134). Its Moksha equivalent is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (MPB 700). The word is of Finno-Volgaic origin and its reconstructed base form is *sake 'Zunder', cf. Fin. saen, Kar. saen (Keresztes includes here the Finnish word only hypothetically, MdKons 136). See furthermore UEW 771; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 398.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 636); 'melltu, csat' (EMSz 353); ' solki, rintaneula' (ESS 163); sulgamo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/Brustspange, Schnalle' (MdWb 2192). Its Moksha form is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (MPB 687). It is of Finno-Volgaic or Finno-Permic origin and its base form is *solke ' Schnalle, Spange' > Fin. solki, NS culgum, Mari solkama, ??Udm., Komi sul. There is a denominal noun suffix in the Mari, Sami and Mordvin words (UEW 774). See also MdKons 148; [??]TB 175; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 422.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 690); 'velo' (EMSz 393); 'aivot; ydin' (ESS 177); [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/Gehirn; Mark' (MdWb 2435). The word goes back to a Finno-Ugric base word: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'Knochenmark, Gehirn' > Fin. ydin, NS ada, Mari vim, Udm. vijim, Komi vem, Kh. welam, Man. walam, Hun. velo. The Mordvin word contains a denominal noun suffix (UEW 572). See furthermore MdKons 179; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 457.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??}PB 701); 'aitta ' (ESS 180); ytom, ytomo 'csur, pajta, hombar, magtar ' (EMSz 400); utomo ' am[??]ap/Speicher, Vorratshaus ' (MdWb 2492). Its Moksha form is ytom (MPB 790). According to the UEW (605), it is a derivative of the Finno-Volgaic *ajta 'auf Pfahlen stehendes Vorratshaus', cf. Fin. aitta, Est. ait (see also [??]TB 199). The SSA (1:61) refuses this analysis because of phonetic reasons (the Finnish word is considered to be of Baltic origin).--If the etymology applied in the UEW is correct, -m(o) is a denominal noun suffix (and this is very likely even if it does not belong to the Baltic word group). Keresztes reconstructs a Proto-Mordvin *otama/ ?votama form, and he relates it hypothetically to the Fin. otta- 'vesz' verb (MdKons 180)--in which case -mo would be a deverbal suffix. See also [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 466).

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 771); 'pad, loca; ules; ulohely; szek' (EMSz 448); 'penkki' (ESS 198); ezem [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/ Platz, Stelle; wandfeste Bank in der mordw. Stube; Hinterbank' (MdWb 393). Its Moksha form is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (MPB 897). It is of Uralic origin. The UEW (18) takes it to be the derivative of the *ase- 'stellen, setzen, legen' verb, cf. Fin. asema, asu, asu-, ase-, asetta-, Est. ase, asu, asu-, asenda-, Nen. naeso-, nisi (see furthermore [??]TB 221), which means that the Mordvin word contains a deverbal suffix. For details, see MdKons 39; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 513; SSA 1:85.

b) Words that are likely to be suffixes

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/Donner' (MdWb 87). This word does not exist in the Erzya standard; Paasonen only collected an Erzya form from a mixed dialect, in village Naskaftim of the Penza Area. The Moksha form is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (MPB 48), while in the Erzya standard, the [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'thunder-clap' exists ([??]PB 529). It is probably a -m suffixed derivative of the word [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'old man' (for the semantic connection, see Fin. ukko '(old) man' > ukkonen '1. little old man, 2. thunder-clap, lightning').

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 93); 'kinoves, butyok, dudor (fan)' (EMSz 63); 'pahka' (ESS 20). Paasonen only mentions the Moksha [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/Stuckchen, Klumpen, Kloss, Ball' form (MdWb 1832). The present-day Moksha standard form is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (MPB 73). He connects this to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/ Knochel; Gelenk' (MdWb 1732), hypothesizing t4he presence of the -m suffix. Cf. also [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 34.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 108); 'szel' (EMSz 73); 'tuuli' (ESS 24), 'betep/ Wind' (MdWb 2544). The Moksha form is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (MPB 92). The [??]TB (26) categorizes it as Finno-Volgaic, and compares it to the Estonian varm 'brisk, smart'. This is semantically implausible (cf. SSA 3:411: Fin. varma, Est. varm, varmas, only with Finnic equivalents). In Versinin's opinion, there is a -ma suffix in the word ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 41), and he tries to prove his statement with the help of the Sami [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. He also mentions a possible connection with the Mari [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'wind' and the Fin. myrsky 'storm', but these cannot belong together for phonetic reasons.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 117); 'veg, fonaltoredek, foszlany; kantarszar, vezetoszar, poraz' (EMSz 80); 'hihna, remmi' (ESS 26); ved'me [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/ Faden, Schnur; Fadenende, Stuck Faden; Halfterkette, Halfterstrick' (MdWb 2634). Its Moksha form is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (MPB 133). Versinin suggests the presence of the -me suffix in the word, but he does not support his statement in any way ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 45). Paasonen takes it to be a derivative of vet'a- [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/fuhren, leiten, lenken', which means that he also hypothesizes (implicitly) that the word contains a (deverbal) suffix.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 120). It is possible to be a derivative of the verb [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to spin, to circle' ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 46), which would mean that the word includes a deverbal noun suffix.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/geborenes Kind (Bed. unsicher)' (MdWb 439). This word only appears in Paasonen's work and with an uncertain meaning. In all probability, it can be traced back to the Moksha [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'child' (MdWb 353, MPB 200); if so, there is a(n) -(e)me suffix in it.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 242); 'kalyha, tuzhely, kemence' (EMSz 146); 'uuni' (ESS 65); kastom(o) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/Ofen, Backofen' (MdWb 645). The word is of unknown origin. At the end of the entry, Paasonen refers the reader to katsamo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/Rauch' (560) and kas:kas-lango [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/Raum auf dem Ofen'. If there is a connection between the words, the presence of some kind of a denominal suffix (cluster) is possible.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 257); 'csomo, koteg, nyalab, keve' (EMSz 158); 'kimppu, nippu' (ESS 68); kerme [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/umbundenes Bundel, Garbe' (MdWb 727). Its Moksha form is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (MPB 315). The word kupe 'ball, coil' may be related to it, which would qualify -me as a suffix (cf. ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 135). The [??]TB reconstructs the [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] root for the word and compares it to the Kola Saami [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Hun. kor, and Kh. Kepe [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]TB 69), however, the UEW only takes up the Fin. keri, Est. keri, Lule Sami kieras, Udm. kuri, Komi kor, and Hun. kore, korul as the derivatives of the FU *kere ' Kreis, Ring, Reifen ' and the Mordvin and Khanty data is missing (UEW 148).

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 312). Versinin ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 181) relates the [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] stem to the verb [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. In so far as this is correct (even if it is a bit uncertain semantically), then the word contains a deverbal suffix. The [??]TB (83) derives it from the Russian dialectal [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [the widening part of a fishing-net]', but this analysis is semantically anomalous.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 327); 'volgy' (EMSz 195). Its Moksha form is lajma [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/Wiese, im Fruhjahr unter Wasser stehende Wiese, uberschwemmte Wiese ' (MdWb 1002). Versinin ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 195) connects it to the [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] element of the Udm. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. If this parallel is correct, then there is a -me suffix in the Mordvin word. The K[??]CK does not mention these words.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/Senke, Niederung ' (MdWb 1049); [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 349). It is of unknown origin. Versinin ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 216) does not exclude the possibility that the semantically similar Moksha [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Erzya [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is related to it. This would support the existence of the suffix. Paasonen, however, collected a form [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as well.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 353). It is probably related to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/ (kleine) Vertiefung, Hohlung, Niederung, Senke, kleines Tal' (MdWb 1079) (see above). As far as its phonetic form and meaning are concerned, it is close to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/kleines Tal, Niederung, Senke ' (MdWb 1088), that is, however, a Russian loan, cf. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'id.'.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 458); 'gerenda; tusko, faronk' (EMSz 269); 'paksu, vanha puu' (ESS 115); parmo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/grosser Baum' (MdWb 1544). The [??]TB (135) reconstructs a FU *parma base word and connects it to the Est. parn, Kola Sami naapk, and Komi napma (neither the UEW nor the K[??]CK discuss these). Versinin ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 335) relates it to the Kh. parak, porak [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and Veps porn [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. The Khanty word differs far too much and the Veps word does not fit semantically.--All these, however, do not exclude the possibility that the word contains some kind of a suffix.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 472); 'pertyim (erza-mordvin noi fejdisz)' (EMSz 279). Versinin ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 346) connects it to the Moksha [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (cf. Erzya [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) --in which case 'circle shape' would be the semantic link?

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 504); 'belseje vminek; belso (resz)' (EMSz 296); 'sisapuoli, sisus, sisusta' (ESS 128); potmo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/Inneres, Bauch, Busen' (MdWb 1764). Its Moksha form is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (MPB 518). Versinin ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 376) suggests two possible analyzes: a) he relates it to the Mari [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]--the UEW (740) only lists Udmurt (pides) and Komi (Zyrian) (pid) equivalents for the Mari word (< FP *punte 'Boden, Grund'), and rejects the Mordvin word because of the word-internal consonant cluster; b) he draws a parallel with the Komi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and the Udm. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. The K[??]CK (235) derives these words form a Proto-Permic form *pud- [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. If this hypothesis (that is semantically plausible) is correct, then the Mordvin word contains a denominal noun suffix.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 583); 'szarny' (EMSz 331); 'siipi' (ESS 150); solmo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/Flugel, Fittich' (MdWb 2176). Paasonen includes the forms sovno, solno, solmo, solna, sovna, sowna, sovona as the diminutive variants of sov 'id.' The suffix -na/-na is still a diminutive and -mo was probably some kind of a denominal noun suffix originally. Versinin ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 402) also lists the [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] element of the Mari [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] here. The [??]TB (164) adds the Fin. siipi as well, but the SSA (2:176) does not include the Mordvin word in this entry.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 583); 'level; has, diszites, dekoralas, Mmzes' (EMSz 331); 'kirje; koruommel' (ESS 150); sorma [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/ Pelzwerk, Stickerei; Schriftzeichen; Schrift; Brief' (MdWb 2173). Its Moksha form is cepma (MPB 624). The K[??]CK (251) traces back the Komi cep [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] noun and the Udmurt verb serlal- [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (collected by Munkacsi) to a Proto-Permic *ser [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] form, while it categorizes the undeniably similar Mari cep- [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and Md. cepma lexemes as of Turkic origin, deriving it from the Chuvash verb sir- [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].--In this case, the -ma suffix was added to the word in Mordvin as a deverbal suffix. Versinin explains the similarity with the onomatopoeic nature of the words ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 403).

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 786); 'vagyon' (EMSz 455); erme [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/ Vermogen, Eigentum, Hab u. Gut; Leben, Wohlstand ' (MdWb 379). Versinin ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 517) relates it to the verb [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (see furthermore [erme.sup.2] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/es ist, es gibt', MdWb 380). If this analysis is correct, then -me is a deverbal noun suffix.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (dial.) ([??]PB 786). It is possible that the word has a common origin with [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], a word similar in meaning. The UEW (75) does not list it as a derivative of the Uralic *ere 'gross, viel' (only Ugric and Samoyedic examples are included there), but a primitive origin is somewhat possible. In this case, -mo would be a suffix. See also [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 517.

There are some other elements in my dataset that may be suffixes, but as they are of unknown origin, the presence of a suffix cannot be proven in them: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 202); [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 321); [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 371); [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 450[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]/ die oberste Spitze von etw.;/Scheitel' (MdWb 2231); [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ([??]PB 768).

Abbreviations

EMSz--E. Meszaros, R. Sirmankina, Erza-mordvin-magyar szotar, Szombathely 2003; ESS--J. Niemi, M. Mosin, Ersalais-suomalainen sanakirja, Turku 1995 (Turun yliopiston suomalaisen ja yleisen kielitieteen laitoksen julkaisuja 48); MdKons--L. Keresztes, Geschichte des mordwinischen Konsonantismus II. Etymologisches Belegmaterial, Szeged 1986 (Studia uralo-altaica 26); MdWb--H. Paasonens Mordwinisches Worterbuch. Zusammengestellt von K. Heikkila. Bearbeitet und herausgegeben von Martti Kahla, Helsinki 1990-1996 (LSFU XXIII); MPB--[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]; PMC--[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]; [??]KEK--[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]; [??]PB--[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]; [??]TB--[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

Est.--Estonian; Fin.--Finnish; FP--Finno-Permic; FU--Finno-Ugric; FV--Finno-Volgaic; Hun.--Hungarian; Kh.--Khanty (Ostyak); Man.--Mansi (Vogul); Md.--Mordvin; Nen.--Nenets (Yurak); NS--Northern Sami, Udm.--Udmurt (Votyak).

http://dx.doi.org/10.3176/lu.2014.3.02

REFERENCES

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Keresztes, L. 1990, Chrestomathia Morduinica, Budapest.

Lazar, O. 1975, The Formation of Abstract Nouns in the Uralic Languages, Uppsala (Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis 10).

Lehtisalo, T. 1936, Uber die primaren ururalischen Ableitungssuffixe, Helsinki (MSFOu 72).

Meszaros, E. 1998, Erza-mordvin nyelvkonyv kezdoknek es kozephaladoknak (Marija Imajkina kozremukodesevel), Szeged.

Raun, A. 1988, The Mordvin Language.--The Uralic Languages. Description, History and Foreign Influences, Leiden--New York--Kobenhavn--Koln, 96-110.

Zaicz, G. 1988, A mordvin lexika osi elemei.-Bereczki emlekkonyv (Bereczki Gabor 60. szuletesnapjara), Budapest (Uralisztikai tanulmanyok 2), 397-404.

--1998, Mordva.--The Uralic Languages, London--New York, 184-218.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] H. C. 1975, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].--FU 1, 67-71.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] B. 1947, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1980.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] M. E. 1963 [1934], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] M. B. 1983, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 119-140.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] B. 2004, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Reverse Dictionary of Mordvin, Helsinki (LSFU XXIX).

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] K. E. 1974, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] M. B. 1989, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

1996, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].--CIFU VIII. Pars 5, 124-126.

1989, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 79-83.

2001, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 90-94.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] O. 1999, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 108-111.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] H. 2000a, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 278-280.

--[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

--2000B, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 167-170.

--2002, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] C. 1999, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 3-6.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] A. 1967, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1966, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 172-220.

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] B. 1976, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].--FU 3, 86-106.

--1977, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

--1981, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

--1992, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].--Festschrift fur Karoly Redei zum 60. Geburtstag, Wien--Budapest, 111-118.

--2006, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1975, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] T. M. 1989, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

--1990, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 224-226.

Address

Sandor Maticsak

University of Debrecen

E-mail: maticsak.sandor@arts.unideb.hu

SANDOR MATICSAK (Debrecen)

(1) After verbal stems containing -e or -o the -Ma variant is used; after verbs with a palatal consonant the -Me from is added.

(2) Further on, besides the original (Russian, Hungarian or Finnish) meaning, the English meaning of each word is given as well, in favour of the readers.

(3) According to Cygankin's observation ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 124), in the case of words with concrete meaning, the original syllabic structure changes, while in words with abstract meaning, the CVCV structure is preserved: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [well, spring]' ~ [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [coming out]' (< [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [to come out]'); [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [seed]' ~ [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [sowing]' (<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [to sow]') etc.

(4) Alo Raun, however, does not mention these suffixes in his earlier comprehensive article (1988:108).

(5) The vocabulary of ten books (the dictionaries of Ahlqvist, Damaskin, Abramov, Jeno Juhasz and Paasonen, the comprehensive Erzya- and Mokhsa-Russian dictionaries, the Finnish-Erzya dictionary and two 2002 spelling dictionaries) has been processed during the creation of the reverse dictionary. The dictionary comprises 81 964 words (51% of these are Erzya, 49% are Moksha words).

(6) The entries are structured as follows. The entry-word is the present-day standard Erzya form. The meanings are given in Russian (based on the Erzya-Russian comprehensive dictionary ([??]PB)), in Hungarian (based on Edit Meszaros' Erzya-Mordvin-Hungarian dictionary (EMSz)), in Finnish (based on the Erzya-Finnish pocket dictionary (ESS)), and in Russian and German (based on Paasonen's comprehensive dialectal dictionary (MdWb)).--These are followed by etymological information about the given word. In addition to the Uralic (UEW) and Finnish etymological dictionaries (SSA), Laszlo Keresztes ' etymological glossary (MdKons), the Zyrian etymological dictionary (K[??]CK), Vershinin' s more or less trustworthy and new Mordvin etymological dictionary ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) and the earlier published dictionaries of Cygankin and Mosin ([??]TB) were used as information sources.
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Author:Maticsak, Sandor
Publication:Linguistica Uralica
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Date:Sep 1, 2014
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