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The "other" red tails.

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World War II B-24 bomber pilot John Sonneborn remembered gratefully that his aircraft was saved by a red-tailed P-51 pilot when he was flying a mission to Ploesti, Rumania, on May 5, 1944. He assumed that he had been saved by a Tuskegee Airman, since the Tuskegee Airmen's 332d Fighter Group flew red-tailed P-51s to escort Fifteenth Air Force bombers on missions during World War II. Each of the P-51 fighter escort groups of the Fifteenth Air Force during World War II had its own distinctive tail markings. The color and pattern of the tail markings distinguished one group from another, and also helped the escorted bomber crews determine if the fighters they saw on missions were friend or foe. (1)

What Mr. Sonneborn did not realize was that the 332d Fighter Group did not begin flying missions to escort heavy bombers of the Fifteenth Air Force until early June 1944, a month later, and the 332d Fighter Group did not begin flying P-51s in place of P-47s on those bomber escort missions until July 1944, more than two months later. If Sonneborn was saved by a pilot in a red-tailed P-51 on May 5, 1944, that fighter pilot must have belonged to the 31st Fighter Group, because the 31st Fighter Group was the only red-tailed P-51 fighter group escorting B-24s to Ploesti that day. The tails of the 31st Fighter Group were painted a striped red, whereas the tails of the Tusekgee Airmen were painted a solid red. (2) On the May 5, 1944 mission to Ploesti, nine pilots of the 31st Fighter Group earned aerial victories. Any one of them could have been the pilot who rescued John Sonneborn that day (Table I). (3)

Like the Tuskegee Airmen of the 332d Fighter Group, with whom they served in the Fifteenth Air Force, the members of the 31st Fighter Group should be remembered and celebrated for their service during World War II. The record of the 31st Fighter Group was not only honorable, it was exemplary. The 31st Fighter Group was unquestionably one of the best of the seven U. S. Army Air Forces fighter escort groups in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations.(Table II)

The 31st Fighter Group of World War II was established on December 22, 1939, as the 31st Pursuit Group. It was activated on February 1, 1940 at Selfridge Field, Michigan, with assignment to the 2d Wing. At first, the 39th, 40th, and 41st Pursuit Squadrons were assigned to it. The group took part in Army maneuvers and trained for possible combat. On December 18, 1940, the 31st Pursuit Group was assigned to the 6th Pursuit Wing. It was reassigned to the I Interceptor Command on October 1, 1941. On December 6, 1941, the group moved to Baer Field, Indiana. The Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, the next day. The threat to the United States persuaded the Army Air Forces to send the three squadrons of the 31st Pursuit Group to defend the west coast on January 15. From then until the end of the month, the group had no flying squadrons assigned. (4)

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On January 30, 1942, the 31st Pursuit Group gained three new pursuit squadrons, the 307th, 308th, and 309th. The group moved to New Orleans, Louisiana, on February 6, 1942. On April 18, the group was reassigned to the III Interceptor Command. It was redesignated as the 31st Fighter Group on May 15, 1942. At the same time, its three pursuit squadrons were redesignated fighter squadrons. The group and its squadrons trained with P-39 Airacobra aircraft expecting to be deployed to England for combat. (5)

In June, the group was assigned to the VIII Fighter Command of the Eighth Air Force and moved from Louisiana to England. The ground echelon sailed on the ocean liner Queen Elizabeth on June 4. The air echelon moved to Grenier Field, New Hampshire, where it left its P-39s before boarding a ship convoy heading to England on June 12. The group reunited at Atcham, England, and began training with British Spitfire fighter aircraft. It moved again to Westhampnett, England, on August 1, and that month became the first operationally-ready Army Air Forces fighter group in England, and the first American fighter group in the European Theater of Operations (ETO). It entered combat on August 19, 1942, supporting an Allied raid on Dieppe, France. During a fighter sweep across the English channel that day, one of the 31st Fighter Group pilots, Lt. Samuel F. Junkin of the 309th Fighter Squadron, shot down a German Focke-Wulf 190 fighter. He was the first Army Air Forces pilot to shoot down a German aircraft in operations from Britain. The group continued to fly combat missions from England the rest of August and early September, 1942, escorting bombers and flying patrol and diversionary missions. (6)

The 31st Fighter Group was reassigned from the VIII Fighter Command of the Eighth Air Force to the Twelfth Air Force on September 14, 1942, and by the end of the month, it was assigned to the XII Fighter Command. The group's air echelon moved to Gibraltar, where it acquired a new set of desert-equipped Spitfires, while the ground echelon sailed to Algeria. The group's Spitfires landed in the midst of shelling by French artillery at Tafaraoui on November 8, 1942, taking part in the Allied invasion of North Africa. The 31st Fighter Group was the first fighter unit into Oran. On the same day, group pilots shot down three of four opposing French Dewoitine aircraft, while losing one Spitfire. The next day, November 9, 31st Fighter Group fighters found the advancing French Foreign Legion and strafed it for five hours, eventually forcing it to turn back. Group fighter pilots also attacked coastal guns threatening Allied landings and supported ground forces on the beachheads. (7)

A few days later, the group moved from Tafaraoui to La Senia, Algeria. Later that month, it was reassigned to the XII Air Support Command. The 31st Fighter Group remained in North Africa until the summer of 1943, moving from base to base. After the German victory at Kasserine Pass, the group was forced to abandon its airfield, but eventually the Germans retreated and the group advanced to new airfields in Tunisia. One of the favorite targets of the 31st Fighter Group, as it served the Twelfth Air Force in Tunisia, were enemy airfields. Fighters of the group also attacked enemy vehicles, gun positions, and troop concentrations, provided air support for advancing Allied ground troops, and covering medium bombers and other fighter aircraft. During the Tunisian campaign, between February and May, 1943, the 31st Fighter Group flew 804 missions and 5,301 sorties, destroying fifty-one enemy aircraft on the ground or in the air. The group lost twenty-nine of its own aircraft during the campaign. (8)

In late May and early June, 1943, the 31st Fighter Group escorted bombers and attack aircraft in raids on the island of Pantelleria, in the Mediterranean Sea between North Africa and Sicily. The island surrendered on June 11 because of the air attacks. The group escorted Allied naval convoys in the Mediterranean Sea as they moved toward Sicily and covered and supported the landings there on July 10 and 11. From late June to mid-July, 1943, the group's air echelon operated from Gozo Island near Malta. (9)

In July, 1943, the 31st Fighter Group itself moved to Sicily and was reassigned to the 64th Fighter Wing. While serving in Sicily, the group continued to fly Spitfire aircraft on tactical missions for the Twelfth Air Force. It flew fighter cover for the Allied invasion of the mainland of Italy at Salerno in September, and moved there that same month, first serving at Montecorvino and then moving to Pomigliano in mid-October. From that base it provided close air support for Allied ground forces as they struggled to advance. In January 1944, the 31st Fighter Group moved again, this time to Castel Volturno, Italy, and supported the Allied landings at Anzio. While it served in Italy, the 31st Fighter Group provided close air support for Allied ground forces and flew patrol and escort missions. (10)

Early in April, 1944, the group was transferred from the Twelfth to the Fifteenth Air Force, in order to provide fighter escort for heavy bombers on strategic missions into southern and central Europe. It traded its Spitfires for the speedier and longer-range P-51 Mustangs. The 31st Fighter Group was reassigned to the 306th Wing on April 1, and moved to San Severo, Italy. Eventually, the 306th Fighter Wing of the Fifteenth Air Force included seven fighter groups. They provided escort for twenty-one bombardment groups of the Fifteenth Air Force, which flew B-24 and B-17 bombers. The 31st Fighter Group escorted various wings and groups of Fifteenth Air Force bombers to, over, and from targets in Italy, France, Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, Rumania, Yugoslavia, and Greece. On April 21, 1944, the 31st Fighter Group earned its first Distinguished Unit Citation by covering an important raid on production centers in Rumania. From its base at San Severo, the group also strafed enemy airdromes and communication targets. (11)

On July 18, 1944, the 31st Fighter Group was assigned to escort B-24s to Finschafen, in southern Germany, but the bombers did not show up. While the 31st Fighter Group pilots were waiting for them, they spotted B-17s in the distance, on the way to another target at Memmingen, Germany. The Flying Fortresses were under attack by more than fifty German fighters, including Fw-190s and Me-109s. The 31st Fighter Group P-51s intervened, helping three other fighter escort groups, the 332d, 52d, and 1st, defended the B-17s against their attackers. (12) In the course of that air battle, the 31st Fighter Group's squadrons shot down twelve enemy airplanes. (13) It was a day of triumph and tragedy. Fifteen of the B-17s fell to enemy aircraft fire that day, most of them before the 31st arrived. (14)

On July 22, 1944, the 31st Fighter Group served as part of a Fifteenth Air Force task force that attacked targets in Rumania on the way to Piryatin, Russia, on a shuttle bombing mission. From there it escorted P-38s on a strafing mission against an enemy airfield in Poland. On July 25, the group earned its second Distinguished Unit Citation by attacking a German fighter-bomber force in the air, claiming twenty-seven enemy airplanes destroyed. It returned to Italy the next day. Afterwards, it resumed its predominant mission of escorting Fifteenth Air Force heavy bombers from Italy to, over, or from their targets in central and southern Europe. By the time the 31st Fighter Group finished two years in combat, it had claimed destroying 451 enemy aircraft in the air or on the ground, with a loss of 155 of its own. (15)

In the mid-August 1944, the group supported the Allied invasion of southern France. Before the landings, the group escorted reconnaissance missions and bombers striking gun positions. On the first two days of the invasion, the group's P-51s escorted C-47s towing troop-laden gliders. (16)

At the end of 1944, the 31st Fighter Group began to encounter German jet aircraft as it continued to escort Fifteenth Air Force bombers on raids into central Europe. In fact, on December 22, two of the group's pilots, 1st Lt. Eugene P. McGlaughlin and 2nd Lt. Roy L. Scales of the 308th Fighter Squadron, became the first Fifteenth Air Force pilots to shoot down a German jet Me-262. They shared the aerial victory. The second German jet shot down by the Fifteenth Air Force was also a 31st Fighter Group victory. On March 22, 1945, Capt. William J. Dillard, also of the 308th Fighter Squadron, shot down an Me-262. (17)

The 31st Fighter Group moved from San Severo to another base at Mondolfo, Italy, on March 3, 1945. On March 24, 1945, the Fifteenth Air Force launched its longest raid, sending B-17s escorted by P-51s of more than one fighter group to attack the Daimler-Benz Tank Works in Berlin, the German capital. On that day, Fifteenth Air Force fighters shot down eight German jets. The 31st Fighter Group downed five of the eight. The 332d Fighter Group (the Tuskegee Airmen) got the other three(tableIII). (18)

By April 1945, there was very little German air resistance left, and the 31st Fighter Group shifted to support ground operations in northern Italy by strafing enemy road and rail traffic, although it continued to escort bombers on carpet-bombing missions against enemy troop concentrations. Early in May, the war in Europe ended. (19)

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On July 15, the 31st Fighter Group moved from Mondolfo to Triolo, Italy, where it remained until redeployment to the United States in August. On November 7, 1945, the group inactivated at Drew Field, Florida, its World War II service at an end. (20) During the period October 1942 through May 1945, the group destroyed 570 enemy aircraft, earning the distinction of top-scoring fighter unit in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations. (21)

One measure of the success of a fighter escort group is how many aerial victories it scored. On escort missions, enemy fighters would rise to shoot down the bombers, and the escort fighters intercepted the interceptors and often shot them down before they could damage or destroy the bombers. Between early June 1944 and the end of April 1945, when all seven of the fighter groups of the Fifteenth Air Force were generally flying the same kinds of missions on a rotational basis, the 31st Fighter Group accumulated 278 aerial victories. That was higher than any of the other fighter groups of the Fifteenth Air Force(table IV). (22)

Another measure of the success of a fighter escort group is how many aces it produced. Seven Fifteenth Air Force pilots shot down at least five enemy airplanes between early June 1944 and late April 1945. The pilot with the most aerial victories during this time period, when all seven fighter groups were flying the same kinds of missions during the same months, was Capt. John J. Voll of the 31st Fighter Group. He shot down twenty-one aircraft in those months, and became the leading fighter ace of the Fifteenth Air Force in World War II(Table V). (23)

It is probable that all the seven fighter groups of the Fifteenth Air Force escorted bombers that were sometimes shot down by enemy aircraft. Although the claim that the 332d Fighter Group never lost an escorted bomber to enemy aircraft circulated for years, it is not historically accurate. Neither can such a "never lost a bomber" claim be made for the 31st Fighter Group. The group's narrative mission reports indicate which bombardment wings the group escorted on any given day, and where and when the escort took place. Researchers can determine which groups were in those wings, and, from checking the index of missing air crew reports, see if those groups lost any bombers on any of the days they were escorted by the 31st Fighter Group. Checking the individual missing air crew reports for those groups on those days reveals which of the bombers was shot down by enemy aircraft, and where and when the loss occurred. Major Julie Shively performed that research for the 31st Fighter Group, as I had done for the 332d Fighter Group, and found the following information on bombers escorted by the 31st Fighter Group that were shot down by enemy aircraft. (TableVI)

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The 31st Fighter Group earned an enviable reputation from its service in World War II. It was the first operationally-ready Army Air Forces fighter group in England, and one of its pilots scored the first Army Air Forces aerial victory while operating from Britain. It supported and took part in the invasions of North Africa, Pantelleria, Sicily, and the mainland of Italy. It earned two Distinguished Unit Citations, one for a mission to Rumania and another during a shuttle mission to Russia and back. Pilots of the 31st Fighter Group were the first of the Fifteenth Air Force to destroy German jets, and they claimed the majority of the German jets shot down during the famous March 24, 1945, raid of the Fifteenth Air Force on Berlin. Of the ten German jets shot down by the Fifteenth Air Force, seven were scored by members of the 31st Fighter Group's 308th Fighter Squadron. Of the seven fighter groups of the Fifteenth Air Force, the 31st earned the most aerial victory credits. Of the seven leading aces of the Fifteenth Air Force, three belonged to the 31st Fighter Group, including Captain John J. Voll, the top American ace in the theater. The 31st Fighter Group earned a reputation as one of the best of the American fighter groups of World War II, and perhaps the best in the Mediterranean Theater.

NOTES

(1.) Ryan Orr, "Veteran's Life Saved by Tuskegee Airman," Victorville Daily Press, Nov. 10, 2008; 332d Fighter Group histories for May, June, and July 1944, filed under call number GP-332-HI at the Air Force Historical Research Agency;

(2.) 332d Fighter Group histories for May, June, and July 1944, filed under call number GP-332-HI at the Air Force Historical Research Agency; 31st Fighter Group history for May 1944, filed under call number GP-31-HI at the Air Force Historical Research Agency; Fifteenth Air Force Daily Mission Folder for May 5, 1955, filed under call number 670.332 at the Air Force Historical Research Agency; E. A. Munday, Fifteenth Air Force Combat Markings, 1943-1945 (London. UK: Beaumont Publications), pp. 15-18.

(3.) USAF Historical Study 85, USAF Credits for the Destruction of Enemy Aircraft, World War II (Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History, 1978), p. 435.

(4.) Lineage and honors history of the 31st Fighter Group, contained in Maurer Maurer, editor, Air Force Combat Units of World War II (Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History, 1983), pp. 83-85.

(5.) Lineage and honors history of the 31st Fighter Group, contained in Maurer Maurer, editor, Air Force Combat Units of World War II (Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History, 1983), pp. 83-85; "Brief History of the 31st Fighter-Escort Group, 1939-1952," prepared by the USAF Historical Division of the Research Studies Institute, April 1956.

(6.) Ibid.

(7.) Ibid.

(8.) Ibid.

(9.) Ibid.

(10.) Ibid.

(11.) Ibid.

(12.) Fifteenth Air Force mission folder for July 18, 1944, including 31st Fighter Group mission report for that day, call number 670.332 at the Air Force Historical Research Agency

(13.) USAF Historical Study no. 85, USAF Credits for the Destruction of Enemy Aircraft, World War II (Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.: Albert F. Simpson Historical Research Institute, 1978).

(14.) Missing Air Crew Reports 6856, 6953-6954, 6975-6981, 7034, 7097-7099, 7153.

(15.) Lineage and honors history of the 31st Fighter Group, contained in Maurer Maurer, editor, Air Force Combat Units of World War II (Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History, 1983), pp. 83-85; "Brief History of the 31st Fighter-Escort Group, 1939-1952," prepared by the USAF Historical Division of the Research Studies Institute, April 1956.

(16.) Ibid.

(17.) "Brief History of the 31st Fighter-Escort Group, 1939-1952," prepared by the USAF Historical Division of the Research Studies Institute, April 1956; Fifteenth Air Force General Order 327 dated Jan. 22, 1945 and Fifteenth Air Force General Order 2591 dated Apr. 21, 1945.

(18.) Ibid.

(19.) Lineage and honors history of the 31st Fighter Group, contained in Maurer Maurer, editor, Air Force Combat Units of World War II (Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History, 1983), pp. 83-85; "Brief History of the 31st Fighter-Escort Group, 1939-1952," prepared by the USAF Historical Division of the Research Studies Institute, April 1956.

(20.) Ibid.

(21.) Chronology of the 31st Tactical Fighter Wing, 1 Feb 1940-31 Dec. 1980, by the Office of History, Homestead Air Force Base, Fla., Apr. 1981.

(22.) USAF Historical Study No. 85, "USAF Credits for the Destruction of Enemy Aircraft, World War II" (Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History, 1978); Maurer Maurer, Air Force Combat Units of World War II (Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History, 1983).

(23.) Ibid.
Table I: 31st Fighter Group Aerial
Victories on Mission to Ploesti, May 5, 1944

Pilot                        Sqdn   Number of
                                     Aerial
                                    Victories

1 Lt. John A. Frazier        307      1.00
Maj. Alvan C. Gillem II      307      1.00
2 Lt. George D. McElroy      307      1.00
2 Lt. Ernest Shipman         307      1.00
1 Lt. Leonard H. Emery       308      1.00
1 Lt. John M. Ainlay         309      1.00
1 Lt. Raymond F Harmeyer     309      1.00
1 Lt. Murray D. McLaughlin   309      1.00
1 Lt. David C. Wilhelm       309      1.00

Source: USAF Historical Study 85: USAF Credits for the
Destruction of Enemy Aircraft, World War II
(Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History, 1978), 435.

Table II: Fighter Groups of the Fifteenth
Air Force in World War II

Fighter    Aircraft         Tail Color
Group                       & Marking

1st FG     P-38 Lightning   natural metal
14th FG    P-38 Lightning   not known
31st FG    P-51 Mustang     Striped red
52d FG     P-51 Mustang     Yellow
82d FG     P-38 Lightning   natural metal
325th FG   P-51 Mustang     Yellow and black
                            checkered
332d FG    P-51 Mustang     solid red

Source: Maurer Maurer, Air Force Combat Units of World
War II (Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History, 1983);
E. A. Munday, Fifteenth Air Force Combat Markings 1943
1945 (London. UK: Beaumont Publications), 15-18

Table III: Fifteenth Air Force Aerial Victories Over German Me-262 Jets

Date           Name                     FGrp   Sqdn   Credit

Dec 22, 1944   1 Lt. Eugene P            31    308     0.5
               McGlauflin
Dec 22, 1944   2d Lt. Roy L. Scales      31    308     0.5
Mar 22, 1944   Capt. William J.          31    308     0.5
               Dillard
Mar 24, 1945   Col. William A. Daniel    31    308      1
Mar 24, 1945   1 Lt. Forrest M. Keene    31    308      1
Mar 24, 1945   1 Lt. Raymond D.          31    308      1
               Leonard
Mar 24, 1945   Capt. Kenneth T Smith     31    308      1
Mar 24, 1945   2d Lt. William M.         31    308      1
               Wilder
Mar 24, 1945   2d Lt. Charles V         332    100      1
               Brantley
Mar 24, 1945   1 Lt. Roscoe C. Brown    332    100      1
Mar 24, 1945   1 Lt. Earl R. Lane       332    100      1

Date           Name                     Authority

Dec 22, 1944   1 Lt. Eugene P           15 AF GO# 327 (22 Jan 1945)
               McGlauflin
Dec 22, 1944   2d Lt. Roy L. Scales     15 AF GO# 327 (22 Jan 1945)
Mar 22, 1944   Capt. William J.         15 AF GO# 2591 (21 Apr 1945)
               Dillard
Mar 24, 1945   Col. William A. Daniel   15 AF GO# 2525 (19 Apr 1945)
Mar 24, 1945   1 Lt. Forrest M. Keene   15 AF GO# 2709 (24 Apr 1945)
Mar 24, 1945   1 Lt. Raymond D.         15 AF GO# 2709 (24 Apr 1945)
               Leonard
Mar 24, 1945   Capt. Kenneth T Smith    15 AF GO# 2709 (24 Apr 1945)
Mar 24, 1945   2d Lt. William M.        15 AF GO# 2709 (24 Apr 1945)
               Wilder
Mar 24, 1945   2d Lt. Charles V         15 AF GO# 2293 (12 Apr 1945)
               Brantley
Mar 24, 1945   1 Lt. Roscoe C. Brown    15 AF GO# 2293 (12 Apr 1945)
Mar 24, 1945   1 Lt. Earl R. Lane       15 AF GO# 2293 (12 Apr 1945)

Table IV: Aerial Victory Credits of the
Fifteenth Air Force Fighter Groups in World
War II

Fighter      Fighter        Total Number of
Group       Squadrons       Aerial Victories
                            between June 1944
                              & April 1945

1          27, 71, 94            72
14         37, 48, 49            85
31        307,308,309           278
52          2, 4, 5             225.5
82         95, 96, 97           106
325       317,318,319           252
332 *      99,100,301,302        91

Sources: USAF Historical Study No. 85, "USAF Credits
for the Destruction of Enemy Aircraft, World War II"
(Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History, 1978);
Maurer Maurer, Air Force Combat Units of World War II
(Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History, 1983).

* The 99th Fighter Squadron scored aerial victories before
it was reassigned to the 332d Fighter Group and the
Fifteenth Air Force.

TABLE V: Leading Fighter Aces of the Fifteenth Air Force in
World War II

Pilot                         Grp   Sdn    Victories       Total
Name                                        between        Aerial
                                            June-44      Victories
                                          & April 1945   Victories

Capt. John J. Voll             31   308        21            21
Maj. Herschel H. Green        325   317         5            18
Capt. James S. Varnell, Jr.    52     2        13            17
Maj. Samuel J. Brown           31   307         7            15.5
Maj. Robert C. Curtis          52     2        12            14
Capt. Harry A. Parker         325   318        13            13
Capt. James L. Brooks          31   307        10            13

Sources: USAF Historical Study No. 85, "USAF Credits for the
Destruction of Enemy Aircraft, World War II" (Washington, DC: Office
of Air Force History, 1978); Maurer Maurer, Air Force Combat Units
of World War 77 (Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History, 1983).

Table VI: Bombers Escorted by the 31st Fighter Group That Were Lost to
Enemy Aircraft

Date            Wings           Groups
                Escorted        in Wing

Jul. 16, 1944   55 and others   460,464,465
Jul. 18, 1944   5 *             483,301

Aug. 7, 1944    55 and others   460
Aug. 22, 1944   304,5           454,2
Dec. 17, 1944   49 and others   461,484

Mar. 22, 1945   5               2,483,97

Mar. 24, 1945   5               463,483

Date            Missing Air Crew                 Additional
                Report Numbers                   Comments

Jul. 16, 1944   6898, 6903, 6905, 7196, 7111     5 13-24s lost
Jul. 18, 1944   6856, 6953, 6954, 6975, 6976,    15 13-17s lost,
                6977, 6978, 6979, 6980, 6981,    14 from the 483d BG
                7097, 7098, 7099, 7153, 7310     1 from the 301st BG
Aug. 7, 1944    7294                             1 B-24 lost
Aug. 22, 1944   8004.11270                       1 B-24 & 1 B-17 lost
Dec. 17, 1944   10636, 10650, 10677, 10651,      8 B-24s lost
                10742, 10492, 10652, 10680
Mar. 22, 1945   13249, 13244, 13254,             5 13-17s lost
                13253.13265
Mar. 24, 1945   13274, 13278, 13375              3 B-17s lost

Sources: Narrative mission reports of the 31st Fighter Group; Maurer's
Air Force Combat Units of World War II (Washington, D.C.: Office of
Air Force History, 1983); Index of Missing Air Crew Reports; Missing
Air Crew Reports (numbers given in the table).

* 31st Fighter Group was not assigned to escort this wing.
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Title Annotation:John Sonneborn
Author:Haulman, Daniel L.
Publication:Air Power History
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Dec 22, 2012
Words:4353
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