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The Wenzhouese community in New York City.

The original essay in Chinese was written by Mr. John T Ma for presentation at a conference in Flushing, N.Y. in October 2000. Him Mark Lai translated the text into English for this publication. He also edited the essay and provided additional material taken from recent essays on the subject written by other authors. All mention of the first person in this essay refers to Mr. Ma.

The famous historian Arnold Joseph Toynbee (1889-1975) in his major work A Study of History has suggested that the development of a civilization depends on its ability to respond to human or environmental challenges. In explaining the growth of the Chinese civilization, he wrote that the fathers of this civilization "in their home by the Yellow River did not enjoy the fancied but delusive advantage of an easier environment than their neighbors." (1) They responded successfully to the challenge of hard environments, and their civilization grew. I believe that this theory of challenge and response may be just as applicable to the study of the Wenzhou people in New York.

The population of the Wenzhou people in New York has increased greatly in recent years. Many stories about the Wenzhou people have appeared in newspapers and magazines. As the Chinese proverb goes, "A person is afraid of being famous just as a pig is afraid of being fat." After the Wenzhou people became notorious, many people could not help but notice, and their observations gave birth to many popular stereotypes of the Wenzhou people. Some images were correct, but others were not. In order to better understand Wenzhou people, one should try first to understand their social and physical environments. What kind of land is Wenzhou? How do Wenzhou people live in New York? What challenges do they face? What were their responses?

GEOGRAPHY OF THE WENZHOU REGION

Wenzhou City is located in the southeastern part of Zhejiang Province. It consists of three districts (Lucheng, Longwan, Ouhai), six rural counties (Yongjia, Pingyang, Wencheng, Cangnan, Taishun, Dongtou), and two county-level cities (Leqing, Rui'an). The population is more than seven million, and the total area more than eleven thousand square kilometers, of which more than 76 percent consists of hilly terrain. Offshore islands and rivers also take up considerable areas. Therefore the region has been described as consisting of qishan yishui liangfen tian (seven parts hills, one part water, and two parts rice fields). (2) The average size of arable land per capita is less than 0.5 mu (1 mu = 0.1647 acre), but in some areas the average arable land per capita is as little as only 0.2 to 0.3 mu. The rice produced on 1/2 mu is insufficient to support a person. Thus if a peasant does not have another occupation, he cannot survive and will have to emigrate. Thus historically Wenzhou had long been an emigration port. During the past few decades, the population pressure in the countryside has increased greatly, and many more have emigrated.

When people refer to Wenzhou people, they often include people from Qingtian. However, now Qingtian is administratively part of Lishui City, adjacent to Wenzhou City. Actually the administration of Qingtian had changed several times during the past century. During the Qing dynasty, it was part of Chuzhou Prefecture. When the prefectural system was abolished during the Republican period, Qingtian remained under the jurisdiction of the Wenzhou School District, and most Qingtian middle school students attended school in Wenzhou. Wenzhou is also Lishui's outlet to the ocean so that Qingtian people have to go through Wenzhou to travel abroad.

The dialect spoken in the Wenzhou region belongs to the Wu group of dialects. However, the Werlzhou region borders upon Min dialect (Fujianese), and Wenzhou speech correspondingly shares a number of common features with the Min dialect. (3) It is a dialect that is difficult for outsiders to understand. However, practically all Qingtian people can speak Wenzhouese. Since speaking a common dialect forms the basis for recognition of a common identity as fellow townspeople, Wenzhou associations often accept people of Qingtian origin as members.

Similarly, Yuhuan County on an offshore island was administered as part of Wenzhou during the Republican period, but in the PRC it became part of Taizhou. Even today, some older people from Yuhuan still identify themselves as being from Wenzhou.

TRADITION OF CULTURE AND EDUCATION

Wenzhou has a long cultural tradition. Historically the region had produced many scholars. Chen Fuliang (1137-1203) and Ye Shi (1150-1223) of the Southern Song Dynasty were founders of the Yongjia School of philosophy. Dramatist Gao Ming (Gao Zecheng; 1310-1380) wrote the well-known drama Pipa Ji (Chronicle of the Pipa), which was adapted as an English-language Broadway musical, "Lute Song," in 1946. (4) Sun Yirang (1848-1908) was a well-known scholar in textual research of the classics. (5) Chen Qiu (1851-1903) pioneered a phonetic system for the Wenzhou dialect, using symbols derived from the seal script of Chinese characters. (6)

In contemporary China one finds even more outstanding scholars from the Wenzhou area. Some headed universities, (7) while others are well-known in the natural sciences, social sciences, literature, and fine arts. (8) There are more than twenty academicians in the highest learned institutions on both sides of the Taiwan Straits--Academia Sinica in Taiwan and the PRC. They are particularly outstanding in the field of mathematics.

There are also numerous people of Wenzhou origin in business and government. Many were connected with the Nationalist government, probably because Chiang Kai-shek himself was from Zhejiang Province. (9)

With so many renowned scholars, officials, and prominent personalities in the past and today, one may think that Wenzhou must have a well-developed educational system. The reality is that before 1949 Wenzhou did not have a single college or university. The highest educational institution was a senior middle school. Those who wished to pursue higher education had to go to Shanghai, Beijing, Tokyo, other major cities in China, or abroad.

Going away to school in those big cities was a serious challenge to Wenzhou students. After I graduated from Wenzhou Junior Middle School, I passed the entrance examination to the Provincial Shanghai Middle School, a leading middle school in China. The student body included many children from families of westernized merchants and wealthy people. Being from Wenzhou, I was like a "country bumpkin," and 1 had to learn and adjust quickly Otherwise, I would be forever lagging behind.

After 1949 several institutions of higher learning were established in Wenzhou. The more important ones were Wenzhou Normal College and Wenzhou Medical College, but the area still lacked a four-year university. The founding of Wenzhou University was a concrete example of the response of Wenzhou people to the challenge of upgrading an underdeveloped local educational system. In 1984 the State Council of the PRC approved the founding of Wenzhou University but appropriated no funds. On the local level the Zhejiang Provincial Government and the regional authorities convened meetings to discuss means of raising funds from the general public. Later, the provincial and regional governments provided some funds for basic construction, but until 1990, donations from Wenzhou people abroad exceeded funding from governmental sources. (10) Thus Wenzhou University was made a reality mainly through the generosity of people of Wenzhou origin in China and abroad. Wenzhou University started with a three-year curriculum, offering courses focusing on teaching skills and knowledge required in industry and commerce. Recently it decided to expand the school into a four-year university and to invite Gu Chaohao, former president of the Chinese Science and Technology University, to return to his hometown to head the institution.

Developing education and culture proved to be the best way to attract talented people to Wenzhou and to recall Wenzhou emigrants to return to help in maintaining the progress made in Wenzhou in recent years. It also ensured the continued flourishing of commerce and industry.

THE WENZHOU ECONOMY

Many recent visitors to Wenzhou have been impressed by the prosperity of Wenzhou, which is an indication of the Wenzhou people's relatively successful response to their economic challenges.

The terrain of Wenzhou is mostly hilly. Only about 17 percent of its area consists of flat land. The population density is extremely high. With all these adverse factors, and with very little financial aid from the government, the Wenzhou people, by their own efforts, have created a flourishing economic system that has been labeled as the "Wenzhou Model," and have attracted numerous visitors from all over China to visit and learn. (11)

The Wenzhou Model successfully changed the entire economic structure of Wenzhou. The privatization of enterprises grew rapidly. In 1999 state-owned enterprises comprised only 5 to 6 percent of industrial production. The total value of annual production in Wenzhou reached RMB$70 billion, and the people's savings also reached RMB$70 billion. In Wenzhou City, with a population of seven million, the annual per capita production and savings in the bank was RMB$10,000. The development of enterprises in Wenzhou was entirely due to the efforts made by Wenzhou people at home and abroad without relying on government subsidies, although development was facilitated by government policies and planning. (12)

The bulk of the industrial production of the cottage industries is exported, not only to all parts of China, but also abroad. In order to successfully sell these products, there must be three basic conditions: availability of information, presence of a market, and existence of a sales force.

Wenzhou business people culled much information on trade and commerce from newspapers and publications. Sales personnel returning from other areas brought back intelligence on conditions in different areas. Wenzhou was thus transformed from a region with inadequate transportation and educational facilities into a region with rapid communications and ready availability of information. These are factors that facilitate the selling of products.

The marketplace is the site where commercial products are concentrated and distributed. Wenzhou business people have not only established many specialty markets locally, such as the button market at Qiaotou, but also built a number of "Wenzhou streets" in other parts of China and abroad as bases for marketing their goods. These "Wenzhou streets" exist in Paris, France, and Milan, Italy. There is a small town near Florence, Italy, where half of its eight thousand population are said to be of Wenzhou origin. (13) Although Main Street in New York's Flushing and Canal Street near New York City Chinatown cannot be called "Wenzhou streets," stores owned by Wenzhou people in those two locations have increased greatly in recent years.

Wenzhou has a sales force of more than 100,000 who purchase equipment and raw materials, negotiate business deals, and sell their products all over China and abroad. They participate in fairs and trade shows to push sales and to take orders. Many of the Wenzhou people who came to New York City are this type of salespeople and business people.

EMIGRATION OVERSEAS

The Wenzhou region has had a long history of overseas emigration. During the first year of the Xianping reign era (988 AD) of the Northern Song Dynasty, Zhou Zhu from Wenzhou allegedly traveled on a commercial vessel to Korea, where he entered the service of the king. During the Chunyou reign era (1241-1251 AD) of the Southern Song Dynasty, Wang Deyong from Yongjia, who had failed in the imperial examinations repeatedly, decided to be a merchant in Jiaozhi (the present Vietnam). At the end of the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD) Yongjia's Xue clan migrated to Zhenla (the present Cambodia) to escape from the Mongol yoke. During the same period Chen Yizhong, a Song minister, also fled to Siam (the present Thailand) after his forces had been defeated by the Mongols. (14)

Records show that during the last half of the nineteenth century more than ten laborers were decoyed from Pingyang in Wenzhou to Macao and then shipped to Havana, Cuba, as coolies. 15 More Wenzhou people, however, went abroad of their own free will. It is said that during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) the Dutch East Indies Company employed a Qingtian agent to recruit seamen for its fleet, and working as seamen became an important occupation for Wenzhou people. These seamen frequently "jumped ship," i.e., stayed behind in foreign ports to become early Wenzhou immigrants in ports all over the world.

After the 1876 Chefoo Convention between China and Great Britain that established Wenzhou as a treaty port, foreign ships began stopping at Wenzhou. In 1878 the China Merchants' Steam Navigation Company established a branch office in Wenzhou, and the SS Guangji ran on a regular schedule between Wenzhou and Shanghai, a situation that provided yet another route facilitating the emigration of Wenzhou people abroad. This ferry, use of which is still preferred by many people in the region today, suspended operations only during the Sino-Japanese War. (16)

But it was a local folk art, the soapstone carvings from nearby Qingtian, that became the stimulus creating the first wave of emigration overseas from this region. Soapstone had been quarried in Qingtian as early as the Southern Song Dynasty Soapstone carving techniques matured during the Yuan and Ming periods. During the Qing period, sixty carved soapstone seals were sent as tribute from the region to celebrate the 80th birthday of Emperor Qianlong. (17)

It is uncertain when the first enterprising individual from Qingtian decided to travel abroad to peddle stone carvings they brought along as merchandise. According to an exhibit in the Museum of Chinese Overseas in Qingtian, the earliest peddlers reached France, the Netherlands, Russia, and the German states between 1821 and 1827. Other stories told of Qingtian peddlers in Tsarist Russia's St. Petersburg and Minsk around 1842. In 1864, Yang Canxun of Fangshan Village, Qingtian, sold soapstone art objects in England. (18) Their apparent successes also inspired a few from neighboring Wenzhou to follow in their footsteps. A Mr. Tian from Yongjia was said to have set up a business in Germany in the 1870s. (19) Qingtian people also ventured as far as America during this period because a gravestone epitaph stated that Lin Maoxiang was said to have arrived in San Francisco in 1888 to become the first Qingtian stone carver to sell these art objects. (20) In 1915, a few other stone carvers was said to have attended the Panama Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco; (21) however, Chinese exclusion laws effectively limited further immigration to America. These stories of early immigrants are mainly anecdotal. Also they comprised only a few individuals who left few traces in the places they visited.

Another Qingtian tradition told of Chen Yuanfeng, a stone carver who was employed as a servant in a family of gentry, who in 1883 showed his handiwork to a group of visiting foreign sightseers in Putuoshan off the Zhejiang coast and sold them at inflated prices. This inspired him and fellow stone carvers and merchants to embark from Annam (now Vietnam) on a French vessel for Europe in 1893 to market their objets d'art. (22) During the decade of the 1890s Qingtian stone carvings were also exhibited at three international expositions in Europe. This spurred more Qingtian people to emigrate and Qingtian peddlers of stone carvings became a noticeable part of the urban scene in several countries. However, oral interviews during the 1930s of older Chinese immigrants in Europe indicated that large number of Qingtian peddlers did not immigrate until the early twentieth century. (23)

A second wave of emigration abroad from the Wenzhou region occurred during World War I. Due to the severe wartime labor shortage, England, Russia, and France all recruited laborers from China to fill the gap. Most of 175,000 to 200,000 laborers were recruited from north and northeast China; however the French also recruited in Shanghai. (24) There many Wenzhou people living in the French Concession, especially in Shiliupu, were signed up with the French. Among them were approximately two thousand from Qingtian. After the war, the French government demobilized the labor corps and wanted the Chinese laborers to leave the country Many dispersed to surrounding European countries, but about three thousand, including many in the Qingtian contingent, elected to remain in France. This budding Qingtian community was soon augmented by immigrating relatives as well as refugees fleeing a 1929 drought in the Wenzhou region that had wiped out the grain harvest. (25)

A small Chinese community became established, and by the eve of World War II it had grown to be the largest Chinese community in Europe, with a population of seventeen thousand in 1935. Many were Qingtian immigrants who eked out livings as itinerant peddlers. (26) During World War II, the Chinese in France found themselves with a unique status. China had two governments during the war--the Nationalist government in Chongqing and the Japanese-controlled Nanjing government. The former was an ally of France, while the latter was an ally of Germany Therefore, no matter where the Chinese lived, the German-occupied or the French-controlled areas of France, they were nationals of an allied state and were treated accordingly. Some Jews, before they escaped from the German-occupied area, disposed of their properties at low prices to Wenzhou people. There were also intermarriages, and after the war, I even met Wenzhou people who returned to China accompanied by French wives.

After World War II during the 1950s, a number of Wenzhou (including Qingtian) immigrant merchants, attracted by the rapidly rising popularity of Chinese food in postwar Western Europe, invested in Chinese restaurants. In the Netherlands, where Hong Kong entrepreneurs dominated the Chinese restaurant scene in the big cities, many Wenzhou immigrants opened small restaurants in a number of medium-sized and small cities and towns. After the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, the nation's policy of discouraging emigration abroad, however, created a serious problem for these businesses. It became very difficult for Wenzhou restaurant owners to bring family, relatives, or fellow townspeople from China to help operate the establishments. This was in contrast to their Cantonese competitors, who could readily recruit from Hong Kong and Macao. In some cases, Wenzhou restaurateurs were able to tap into the Wenzhou community of limited size in Singapore. Others adjusted to the situation by learning some Cantonese and hiring Hong Kong immigrants. (27) However, these were usually not satisfactory solutions for these small family-operated restaurants. Thus when the owners became too old to run the businesses, and their children or relatives were unable to come from China to take over, they really had no recourse but to sell the businesses, often at low prices to Hong Kong immigrants.

It was only after the PRC initiated a policy of economic reform and lifted emigration restrictions in 1979 that a greater number of younger Wenzhou emigrants could go abroad to regain the "lost ground." By 1995 approximately 240,000 Wenzhouese and 60,000 natives of Qingtian were estimated to be living abroad. (28) Less than a decade later, during the early twenty-first century, the Wenzhouese population abroad was estimated to be more than 400,000. This figure included only those who departed through legal channels. (29) Due to existing ties with the long-established Wenzhou community in Europe, most new immigrants took the overland route across the Eurasian continent with Europe as their destination. Some went on to North America, particularly the United States.

From 1980 to 1994, immigrants from Wenzhou without legal documentation entered European countries at an estimated annual rate of 11,000. (30) Many settled in Paris. According to older Chinese Parisians, the Wenzhou community in Paris numbered only about a thousand before the 1980s. During the 1980s and especially the 1990s many newcomers, about 70 percent without proper documentation, arrived and settled in Paris, which grew to be the largest Wenzhou community in Europe with a population estimated to be 130,000. (31) Around 100,000 Chinese, mostly from Wenzhou, settled in Italy These two communities became the two largest concentrations of Wenzhou immigrants in Europe. Many were engaged in the restaurant, garment, and leather industries. (32)

During this same period the United States increasingly became a destination for undocumented Wenzhou immigrants. In 2000 a United States Department of State information bulletin pointed out that Wenzhou "has now become the second-largest Chinese source of illegal immigration." (Fujian Province was in first place.) (33) There has been a corresponding rapid growth of the Wenzhou community in America, especially in New York City. Some even believe that the Wenzhou community in New York has replaced that in Paris as the largest in the western world.

According to the Encyclopedia of Chinese Overseas, about 250,000 and 47,071 people respectively went abroad from Wenzhou City and the Lishui Region between 1979 and 1995. Approximately 50,000 from Wenzhou settled in the US. A corresponding number is unavailable for Lishui, but the Encyclopedia stated that there were in 1995 about 7,230 Lishui immigrants in 14 American countries. Presumably a large percentage of these would be in the US. (34) These statistics did not include undocumented immigrants, those already abroad before the stated dates, nor the offspring of Wenzhou immigrants born abroad. Hence it should be only the lower limit for the population of Wenzhou ancestry in America and abroad.

Leaders in the New York City Wenzhou community asserted that the community's population in America was less than 60,000 at the end of the 1970s, but by 2002 it was alleged to be at least 230,000, with about half, or about 115,000, in the Greater New York City area, concentrated in areas such as Flushing, Whitestone, Elmhurst, and Woodside in Queens; Bensonhurst, Sunset Park, and Ridgewood in Brooklyn; Staten Island; Manhattan; and upstate New York. (35) Another source estimated a Wenzhouese population of about two thousand on the West Coast, consisting principally of immigrants from both Taiwan and the PRC, and mostly concentrated in the Los Angeles area. (36) However, there is little evidence of the presence of a remaining population of more than 110,000 supposedly in the rest of the country. Thus this estimated population figure appears to err greatly on the high side. An estimated population in the United States of 100,000, quoted by Zhang Weiren, director of the Wenzhou Office of Chinese Overseas Affairs in 2003 may be more realistic. (37) Unlike the situation in Europe, however, Qingtian immigrants comprised only a relatively small number, an estimated ten thousand, of this population. (38) Since no accurate census had been taken on the population of Wenzhou origin in the US or in other countries, educated estimates will likely remain the principal sources for population figures.

WENZHOUESE COMMUNITY IN NEW YORK CITY

The Wenzhou people overcame economic difficulties and successfully responded to geographical, historical, cultural, and educational challenges. They broke out of the narrow confines of the Ou River basin and fanned out nationally and globally. In 1984 Wenzhou became one of fourteen seaports opened by the Chinese government for international trade and commerce. Wenzhou people began to emigrate in large numbers and many came to New York City.

There were few of Wenzhou origin living in New York City during the decade after the end of World War II. When I was living in the city during the early 1950s, I tried to get into contact with Wenzhou people and found several dozens living on 28th Street between First and Second Avenues. They were all seamen who had "jumped ship." Later I was told that most of them were from Qingtian. Only eight were from Wenzhou.

I only knew of four individuals who lived outside 28th Street--my elder brother, the accountant David Ma; my maternal uncle, Ye Sheng, who held the position of deputy head of the Chinese Translation Department at the United Nations (UN); Ms. Dai Yongxue, a librarian; and Ms. Wu Xingci, wife of a Chinese translator at the UN. Later, another person of Wenzhou origin came to the UN when Ye Chengba became section head of the Department for Promoting and Developing Technology.

The Wenzhou community in New York City during that period was of course not limited to these few individuals, but it was definitely very small. After 1949 many Chinese seagoing vessels did not return to the China mainland, and many seamen of Wenzhou origin went with their ships to berth at Taiwan or Hong Kong. Others drifted overseas. A number of these "homeless" seamen ended up in Southeast Asia and India, whence many sought to enter the US. Other Wenzhou people employed as servants in American families in pre-1949 Shanghai, followed their employers when the latter returned to the US.

These seamen and servants found life very difficult when they first arrived in America. They did not have much money and generally did not know much English. Some were not even very literate in Chinese. However, many of these poor-but-hard-working individuals were able to successfully confront and overcome these severe challenges. An example of one of these success stories is that of Zhou Donggui who arrived in New York City from India in 1947. His former American employer had helped him obtain permanent residence status and a work permit in America. As he supported himself by working, he also helped his relatives in China one by one to come to New York City. Now the family includes five generations with more than 80 members. Besides being the owner of a number of commercial establishments, he also owned more than twenty buildings.

WENZHOUESE COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS

For many years the Wenzhou community population was not large enough to enable the existence of its own community organizations. When immigrants from Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Jiangxi provinces formed the Som Kiang Association in 1929, (39) a few individuals from Wenzhou and Qingtian were among the membership. In fact the first president of the organization, Zhu Mingzhen, was from Qingtian.

As the population of Wenzhou immigrants increased, organizations of fellow Wenzhouese began to appear. More than forty individuals, including Feng Yuming, Ye Jingrong, and Ng Bailin, began planning in 1977 to establish a Wenzhou fellow townspeople association. More than seventy people expressed support for the new association by donating more than $9,000 to rent a clubhouse at 89 East Broadway, where Meidong Wenzhou Tongxianghui (Wenzhou fellow townspeople association of Eastern US) was formally founded in July of that year. The first president was Lin Zhongkang. During its early years most members were seamen from Taiwan and Hong Kong with relatively limited education and income. (40)

In 1987 members extended loans to enable purchase of a six-story building at 90 Elizabeth Street to house the association's permanent clubrooms. The remaining rooms were rented out to provide income to help with the organization's operating budget. The association has also purchased land at a cemetery for the burial of deceased members. Annual activities include a "Welcome to Spring" party and a visit to the cemetery during the Qingming Festival In 1992 the association began awarding annual scholarships to members.

Later there were associations using the provincial name, Zhejiang, instead of Wenzhou, such as Lumei Zhejiang Tongxianghui (Association of Zhejiang fellow provincials sojourning in America), founded in 1987, and Meiguo Zhejiang Zongshanghui (General Zhejiang chamber of commerce in America) founded in 1993.41 But their memberships were predominantly Wenzhouese.

Meiguo Zhejiang Wenzhou Gongshang Zonghui (General association of industry and commerce of Wenzhouese of Zhejiang in America) was initiated by five individuals--Zhu Haifeng, Fu Yonghe, Fu Yongle, Chen Qiankang, and Jin'guang--and officially established on October 1, 1996. The membership consists of mostly business people in various industrial and commercial enterprises. Many had come directly from China during the 1980s after China had relaxed emigration restrictions. Their education level and economic strength were generally higher than that of the earlier immigrants. Four years later the group's membership exceeded two hundred. Most of their enterprises are in Flushing, but representatives of businesses established in localities outside New York (such as Washington DC, Georgia, and Los Angeles) also serve as vice presidents on the association board of directors. (42)

In 1997 Miu Dexing, a former vice president of Meiguo Zhejiang Wenzhou Gongshang Zonghui led the formation of Meiguo Jiang-Zhe Gongshang Zonghui (General association of industry and commerce of Jiangsu and Zhejiang people in America). Most of the more than 3,000 individual and 58 corporate members in this group are from the Wenzhou region; however, there are also businesspeople from Dachen, Ningbo, and other areas. They are mostly immigrants who came from mainland China during and after the 1980s and are engaged in the import-export trade or operating wholesale outlets. Their businesses include such sectors as pearls and precious gems, food items, restaurants, garments, electronics, computers, and financial services. (43)

A relatively small organization that was established in January 31, 1998, was Meiguo Zhejiang Zonghui (General Zhejiang association in America). In 2003 the association claimed more than five hundred members, drawn from businesses, academia, professions, and the arts. Wenzhou people comprised the largest number of members, and in the year 2000 Wenzhou people occupied fourteen out of thirty-one seats on the board of directors. However the membership also included people from Hangzhou, Ningbo, Shaoxing, Jinhua, Taizhou, Lishui, and Qingtian. (44)

On September 19, 2002, Zhong-Mei Shanghui (Chinese American chamber of commerce), consisting mostly of Wenzhou business people engaged in US-China commerce, was inaugurated in Flushing. (45)

Members of Wenzhou organizations are predominantly immigrants who share deep feelings of attachment toward their native region. In September 1999, when a Class 9 typhoon brought the strongest storm and heaviest rains in a century to Wenzhou, inflicting damage to 158 villages and townships estimated at more than RMB$2.3 billion and causing 150 deaths and two thousand injuries, all these organizations zealously pitched in to raise funds to help the storm's victims. (46)

Members of these associations also are supportive of political developments in their native land. When Hong Kong returned to Chinese rule, these associations participated in the celebration. They also joined parades to celebrate China's National Day. Some individuals have made investments in China, while others are active in the China-US import-export trade. Thus another of their important activities is to host visiting delegations from Wenzhou or Zhejiang.

Several Wenzhou groups have also emerged outside New York City; namely, Meiguo Jiazhou Wenzhou Tongxianghui (Association of Wenzhou fellow townspeople in California, USA, founded 1995) with 124 households as members; Wenzhou Lumei Tongxianghui (Association of Wenzhou fellow townspeople in America, founded 1997 in Southern California) with more than three hundred members; and Meiguo Zhijiage Wenzhou Tongxianghui (Association of Wenzhou fellow townspeople in Chicago, USA, founded 2000). (47) The composition of West Coast Wenzhou community is strikingly different from the East Coast in that most members are professionals and academics. The West Coast is also a base for a few Wenzhouese firms importing Wenzhou-manufactured goods to supply the Central and South American markets. (48)

As the Wenzhou population in America continues to grow, we can expect more similar organizations representing different circles and factions to continue to emerge to provide more venues for mutual assistance as well as for social and business networking.

PROFESSIONALS AND INTELLECTUALS

The total membership in Wenzhou organizations represents only a very small percentage of Wenzhou people in New York City. Most Wenzhou people, especially professionals, do not join any of these associations. Therefore information and statistics on them are difficult to come by. Based on my limited contacts, following are some well-known Wenzhou professionals and intellectuals in the greater New York area that I am aware of.

Dai Chaosheng was a veteran journalist who once served as deputy editor-in-chief and special correspondent in the US for Taiwan's Central Daily News and as consultant and editor for the Chinese newspaper World Journal in America. He was also the translator of Jiang Menglin's (Chiang Monlin) well-known autobiography Tides from the West. Chen Xiaomin is the founder and former president of Zhong-Mei Lushi Xiehui (US-China Lawyers' Association). (49)

Zhao Shiren, deputy consul in the Overseas Chinese Department of the PRC Consulate-General in New York in 1996 was a young diplomat with a bright future. During his tenure in the consulate, he greatly strengthened relations between the Consulate-General and the Chinese community, especially the Wenzhou community.

My brother, David Ma, was a partner of the major American accounting firm, Ernst & Whitney (now Ernst & Young). China gave Ernst & Whitney the permission to establish an office on condition that the company train Chinese accountants to understand western accounting systems. He became the director of the first American accounting office established in the PRC and selected the first group of trainees to come to America for training. These people have now become top accountants in China. Some have filled government posts, including being the assistant to the Finance Minister of Finance.

Like many other Chinese in America, Wenzhou people stressed education for their children as the path to economic security and upward mobility. Many offspring of immigrant workers became professionals, such as physicians, accountants, engineers, and academics. For example, Dr. Feng Jincheng (K. C. Hon), whose office is near my home in Flushing, is the son of Feng Yuming, an immigrant who was a former seaman.

An early notable in art and culture was Yongjia-native Zheng Manqing (Man-ch'ing Cheng), painter and calligrapher. He immigrated to America by way of Taiwan and founded the Shr Jung Center for the Cultural Arts in New York. But to many Americans he was best known as a pioneer in popularizing Taijiquan (T'ai-Chi Chuan) among non-Chinese. Cheng established the T'ai Chi Institute in New York in 1964 and the Shr Jung T'ai Chi Center in New York in 1973. (50)

Pan Xizhen (1918--), better known by the nom d'plume Qijun (Ch'i Chun), is a female writer regarded by many as a "national treasure." She has published more than thirty literary collections. Her essay Yanqiu is a modern classic. Pan became a civil servant in the Ministry of Justice and moved with the Nationalist government to Taiwan in 1949. Following her retirement from the civil service, she taught at various universities in Taiwan before immigrating to New York City. (51)

There are also many well-known Wenzhou people active in other parts of the United States. Some have earned international reputations. Xiang Wuzhong (Wu-Chung Hsiang, 1935--) was Professor of Mathematics at Princeton University and is a current member of Taiwan's Academia Sinica. His brother Xiang Wuyi (Wu-Yi Hsiang) was Professor of Mathematics at the University of California in Berkeley and is currently at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. Xu Xianxiu (S. S. Shu, 1912--) was Professor of Mathematics at Purdue University and is a current member of Taiwan's Academia Sinica. Yang Zhongdao (Chung-Tao Yang, 1923--), Professor of Mathematics at University of Pennsylvania, and is also a current member of Taiwan's Academia Sinica. Also not many people are aware that Huang Jiannan (John Huang) who was implicated in the 1996 campaign finances imbroglio is of Wenzhou origin.

BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN NEW YORK CITY

Unlike earlier Cantonese immigrants, many of whom concentrated on the restaurant business, Wenzhouese tended to make their start by being peddlers and small shop-owners. Because Wenzhou had well-developed light industries, many Wenzhou people started businesses importing a high percentage of these products to the US to supply New York consumers with inexpensive but good quality, light industrial products, such as shoes, clothing, lighters, and decorative items.

In recent years, many Wenzhou businesses have emerged all over New York City. There are numerous garment factories (which Wenzhouese often took over from other Chinese), restaurants, as well as gift shops, wholesale outlets, and supermarkets. Three areas of the city in particular are noted for having concentrations of Wenzhouese businesses. The first is on Canal Street near Broadway, the natural route taken by tourists visiting New York's Chinatown. Before the 1980s this was a rather run-down and depressed area. But beginning with the 1980s, many Chinese-owned gift and souvenir shops as well as clothing stores have emerged selling a variety of inexpensive merchandise, such as leather hand bags, shoes, and gloves; shawls and other articles of clothing; souvenirs; knickknacks; jewelry; and trinkets. By 2002 there were more than one hundred such shops on Canal, Center, and Mort Streets. Many of these businesses were operated by Wenzhou people. As the area became saturated with these businesses, some Wenzhou entrepreneurs even ventured into neighboring Little Italy. Their willingness to pay the rents demanded for storefronts as well as disbursing protection money and frequent small favors to local mobsters enabled ten gift shops to gain footholds in the area by 2002. Many of these businesses also took in non-Wenzhou partners. For instance in 2002 two businesses had Italian partners, while others took in Chinese partners from Hong Kong, Guangdong, and Shanghai. (52)

The second area is in midtown Manhattan in the neighborhood of Seventh Avenue, often nicknamed "Fashion Avenue" for the numerous stores selling fashionable apparel, shoes, and cosmetics. Before the 1980s this was an area with many Korean wholesale outlets. Wenzhou entrepreneurs began to enter this business area during the early 1980s. According to Zhu Haifeng, honorary president of Meiguo Zhejiang Wenzhou Gongshang Zonghui, there are at least fifty-six outlets operated by Wenzhouese and Cantonese in the early twenty-first century handling wholesale apparel and ornamental items alongside Korean, Latin American, and Indian competitors. These businesses are located in the area bounded by Thirty-fourth and Thirty-ninth Streets, and Sixth and Seventh Avenues. (53)

The third area is in Flushing. When Jewish businesspeople withdrew from the declining garment industry in Flushing during the 1990s, a number of Wenzhouese owners took over and continued to operate these factories. At one point in time there were more than forty factories in the vicinity of College Point in Flushing. As the garment industry continued to decline, many Fuzhouese and Taiwanese factory owners also quit the business and Wenzhouese also took over their factories. Generally they tried to survive by drastically reducing contract prices. However, it is questionable how long such tactics can continue to be successful in an industry that is faced with intense competition from low-cost garments manufactured in developing countries. (54)

The newest and still growing field for Wenzhouese entrepreneurship in Flushing is in the supermarket sector. The first such Wenzhouese market was opened on Main Street in 1993. By 2002 the number had grown to six. These markets sell produce, fresh meat, and fish at affordable prices. Their margin of profit is small but the operators make money by having quick volume turnovers. Often some fresh fruits and foods on the stands that are not sold late in the day will be disposed of at cut rate prices to ensure that only fresh produce will be sold the next day These business practices have attracted many thrifty housewives as steady faithful customers. (55)

The competitiveness of Wenzhou businesspeople is not without its detractors. The first complaint is their business practices. Sometimes businesses will deliberately start price wars by cutting prices to drive competitors in the neighborhood out of business. Also when a store opens in a desirable location, the entrepreneur sometimes will try to prevent competitors from entering the area by opening another store in the neighborhood. Also sometimes entrepreneurs would not hesitate to offer high rent to property owners to force the eviction of an already existing business from a storefront in a desirable location. In all fairness, it should be pointed out that such business practices are common among non-Wenzhouese entrepreneurs also.

Another area of contention is the charge that these businesses market goods with imitation brand names, especially in gift shops selling inexpensive items. One reason for this is that the manufacture of imitation goods was a flourishing business in Wenzhou. On the other hand, it should also be obvious to the consumer that an item with a name brand would be associated with a certain price tag.

In Flushing, the supermarkets are criticized for discarded produce and garbage accumulated from the stands displaying their fresh produce, thus contributing to the untidy appearance of the neighborhood. (56) Of course, there is no easy solution to this problem given the crowded conditions in a busy commercial area of a metropolis.

CONCLUSION

The preceding is an overview of the background of Chinese emigration from the Wenzhou region and the establishment of the Wenzhou community in New York City. There is no disputing the fact that this community, which few were barely aware of a decade or two ago, has grown to be a significant component in the approximately half a million Chinese in the New York metropolitan area. The contribution of the Wenzhou community to New York City has been mainly in three sectors:

1. Their entrepreneurial activities in the city have helped the local economy to continue to grow and flourish.

2. Many businesses are playing active roles in promoting US-China commerce. Wenzhou immigrants have established factories in China to manufacture numerous products for import to America. Wenzhouese immigrants also are exporting many American products to China.

3. Although contributions of professionals and intellectuals to the economy are not as obvious as supermarkets, gift shops, wholesale outlets, and import-export firms, they play vital roles in maintaining New York City as the cultural and economic center of the United States.

A number of Wenzhou immigrants in New York have been successful in meeting the challenges of America. Very few have become part of America's wealthy elite, but many have definitely succeeded in joining the American middle class. What is more, their successes have become goals for other Wenzhou immigrants to emulate. However it should not be forgotten that behind these success stories were years of hard work, deprivation and sacrifice and long hours of work with meager or no returns. Also one should recognize the reality that many in the Wenzhou community in America still have to struggle to make ends meet and may never "make it."

NOTES

(1.) Arnold J. Toynbee, A Study of History, abridged by D.C. Somervell (London: Oxford University Press, 1947), 74.

(2.) Chen Shiwang et al., eds. Wenzhou (Beijing: Zhongguo haiyang chubanshe, 1985).

(3.) Li Rong et al., "Wu Group," in Language Atlas of China (Hong Kong: Longman Group (Far East) Ltd., 1988), S. A. Wurm, Li Rong, Fu Maoji, et al., eds.

(4.) Gao Ming, Pipa Ji (Hong Kong: Yih Mei Book Co., 1960), 12. Information on "Lute Song" in "Internet Broadway Database," download from Web site www.ibdb.com, Mar. 12, 2003.

(5.) Arthur W. Hummel, ed., Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period (1644-1912) (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1944), 677-679.

(6.) Ni Haishu, Zhongguo pinyin wenzi yundongshi jianbian [Short history of the movement in China to phoneticize characters] (Shanghai: Epoch Publishing Company, 1948), 59.

(7.) Some examples in the field of mathematics are Jiang Lifu (1890-1978, Zhongshan University), Su Buqing (Pu-Ching Su) (1902-, Academia Sinica), Li Ruifu (1905-1987, East China Normal University), Gu Chaohao (1926-, Chinese Science and Technology University, Academy of Sciences), Bai Zhengguo (1916-, Hangzhou University), Xu Xianyi (Changchun College of Geology), Jiang Boju (1937-, Peking University, Academy of Sciences), Xu Guifang, and Fang Dezhi (1910-?; Xiamen University). In sinology there are Nan Huaijin, Mao Zishui (Peking University), Lin Yin (1910-1951, Taiwan Normal University), Wu Shutang (National Central University), and Wang Jisi (Zhongshan University).

Wenzhou people who were presidents of Chinese universities included Jiang Qi (1886-1951, advisor to Taiwan government) of Ji'nan University, Xu Xianxiu of Qinghua (Tsing Hua) University, Su Buqing of Fudan University, and Gu Chaohao of the Chinese Science and Technology University. Wang Guosong (1902--?, electrical engineer) once served as vice president of Zhejiang University.

(8.) Xia Nai (1910-1985, vice president of the Academy of Social Sciences and director of the Institute of Archaeology) was an internationally known archaeologist. My third uncle, Ma Fu, was a specialist on oracle bone inscriptions, who interpreted twelve characters found on a potsherd unearthed in Zouping District of Shandong province in 1992, which were the earliest known Chinese characters. His work changed the history of written Chinese. Another uncle of mine, Ma Hua (nora de plume Mo Luo) was a famous poet whose work was selected by the Swedish sinologist Professor N. G. D. Malmqvist in his A Selective Guide to Chinese Literature, 1900-1949. The famous scholar Zheng Zhenduo (1898-1958), foremost scholar on Chinese folk literature, although not of Wenzhou ancestry, grew up in Wenzhou. A leading newspaperman, Professor Ma Xingye founded the Department of Journalism of the National Chengchi University. Zhou Yutong is an historian. Huang Zongying is a famous actress and her brother, Huang Zongjiang, an outstanding dramatist.

In the Shanghai Academy of Fine Arts, an important art school in China, there were at least six professors from Wenzhou, including my father Ma Gongyu, my uncle Ma Mengrong, and Zheng Manqing (Cheng Man-ch'ing, 1902-1975, artist and poet, herbal medicine and taijiquan). Zhang Guang, better known as Hongwei Laoren, was also a well-known modern artist. The seal-carver Fang Jiekan was once the vice president of Xiling Yinshe the prestigious learned society on the art of Chinese seals.

(9.) Zhou Shouliang and Xiao Zheng are influential bankers. As head of the East Asia Department of the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Gao Zongwu, personal representative of Chiang Kai-shek, conducted negotiations with the Japanese prime minister on the eve of the Sino-Japanese War on behalf of China. Ye Suzhong was the founder and president of Zheng-zhong Book Co., the leading government publishing house in Taiwan. Guo Yun-guan, dean of the College of Law of Yanjing (Yen Ching) University, later became president of Shanghai's High Court and made a draft of international private law for the Chinese government in 1947, which unfortunately, because of the civil war, was never put into effect. Lin Bin was chairman of the Committee of Legal System of the Legislative Council of the Chinese Government and later minister of Justice. Well-known Kuomintang generals from Wenzhou include Qiu Qingquan, Yao Cong, Hu Xin, and Huang Litong. From Wenzhou's neighboring district, Qingtian, we have found also many prominent people. Taiwan Vice President Chen Cheng was one of the closest associates of Chiang Kai-shek. His son, Chen Lu'an, was once a presidential candidate in Taiwan. Zhang Naiqi was a banker who joined the People's Republic of China (PRC) government in 1949 and was branded a rightist in 1957. Chen Muhua was member of the State Council under Premier Zhao Ziyang in the PRC.

(10.) Wenzhou Daxue jianxiao shizhounian jiniance, 1984-1994 (album commemorating the tenth anniversary of the founding of Wenzhou University, 1984-1994) (Wenzhou: Wenzhou University, 1994).

(11.) The "Wenzhou Model" relies on the development of rural cottage industries to overcome the problems of inadequate agricultural land, excess labor force, shortage of capital, and an underdeveloped economy. In the past, many peasants could not support themselves in the region and were forced to emigrate. Some even became beggars. Reference Zhang Dexi et al., Wenzhou moshi (Beijing: Guangming ribao chubanshe, 1986), 10-13.

Wenzhou did not have any large-scale industries and enterprises that could absorb the excess rural labor force. Nor were there large amounts of available capital to invest in large factories. Therefore people in the countryside had to turn to cottage industries. Such industries have many advantages. The most obvious ones are as follows: (1) It requires only simple equipment, (2) It does not need a large amount of capital, (3) It does not require the building of factories, which may take up some scarce agricultural land, (4) The prices of its products are low, (5) The business operations are flexible, and (6) The turnover of capital is rapid. The cottage industries supplemented agricultural production and greatly increased the income of the peasants. It became possible for an illiterate peasant woman to make almost as much money as a college professor.

After the rise of cottage industries in Wenzhou, the market for their products expanded, and correspondingly, so did transportation, movement of goods, sales forces, and other related activities, which opened employment opportunities to the surplus labor force in Wenzhou. During the short period from 1978 to 1984, the number of markets in Wenzhou grew to nearly 400. The best known is a button market in Qiaotou Township in Yongjia County. There are ten large markets in Wenzhou. The annual per capita income of the people in those ten markets had already reached nearly RMB$500 in 1984. This is a great increase from the per capita income of $56 in 1978. From 1979 to 1984, cottage industries and private enterprises gave employment to 550,000 in the surplus labor force. This was 66 percent of the surplus labor force in the entire Wenzhou region. (Reference Zhang Dexi et al., Wenzhou moshi, 2-3)

The Wenzhou Model does not consist of traditional handicrafts. Nor is it the same as handicraft workshops during the period of primitive accumulation in capitalism. It uses rather simple modern industrial equipment to make mechanized or semi-mechanized production. With division of labor and functions, and cooperative efforts, it allows each household to complete one or two parts of the production process. Then several dozen to several thousand households in a hamlet or village, or even several villages, work together to complete production. (Reference Zhang Dexi et al., Wenzhou moshi, 3-4.)

That is why the Wenzhou Model is neither the same as a capitalistic enterprise, nor is it a village collective enterprise. It is a family economy with one or several households, each of which maintains an independent account, although, in its external relations, it is one layer of a collective economic organization.

A special characteristic of rural cottage industries is that many industrial families are also agricultural families who have contracted to work the land and thus are dual-enterprise families. They are separated neither from the village nor from the farmland. However agricultural production is no longer their principal source of income. Their continuing engagement in agriculture is only to insure the availability of grain for themselves.

(12.) "Wenzhou gushi duo," The China Press, July 20, 1999.

(13.) John T. Ma, "Wenzhou yu Wenzhouren--Wo de guxiang yu tongxiang (My hometown and fellow townspeople)," Wen Wei Pao (Hong Kong), May 18, 20, 1982.

(14.) "Wenzhou Shi qiaoqing (Situation of Chinese overseas in Wenzhou City)," Zhou, ed., Encyclopedia of Chinese Overseas, Volume of Chinese Hometowns (Beijing: China Overseas Publishing House, 2001), 652. Reference hereafter as Volume of Chinese Hometowns.

(15.) The Cuba Commission, Report of the Commission Sent by China to Ascertain the Condition of Chinese Coolies in Cuba (Shanghai: Imperial Maritime Customs Press, 1876; 1970 reprint by Ch'eng-wen Publishing Company of Taipei), 8.

(16.) "Wenzhou chengqu jin bai'nian jishi, 1840-1949" (Chronology of Wenzhou city in the last century, 1840-1949), Lucheng wenshi ziliao (Cultural and historical materials of Lucheng), fifth collection (Lucheng: Wenzhou Shi Lucheng Qu Zhengxie wenshi huiyuanhui) (May 1990).

(17.) Li Minghuan, A History of Chinese Immigrants in Europe (Beijing: Zhongguo Huaqiao chubanshe, 2002), 92-93. Hereafter referred to as Li, A History of Chinese Immigrants in Europe.

(18.) Li, A History of Chinese Immigrants in Europe, 93-95

(19.) Lynn Pan, ed., The Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas (Singapore: Chinese Heritage Centre, 1998), 40. Hereafter referred to as Pan, ed., Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas.

(20.) Xu Daoquan, "Chuangdang shijie de Wenzhouren" (The Wenzhou people who wander about in the world), Wenzhou huikan (Taipei, Wenzhou Tongxianghui), 14 (no. 4, 5), 132; Pan, ed., Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas, 40-41.

(21.) Ma Zhuomin, "Lumei Qingtianren yinxiang" (Impressions of Qingtian people in America), Depingxian Monthly, no. 12, 2001, 31-32. Referenced hereafter as Ma, "Impressions of Qingtian People in America."

(22.) Pan, ed., Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas, 41, 311.

(23.) Li, A History of Chinese Immigrants in Europe, 94-95.

(24.) Chen Sanjing (Ch'en San-ching), Huagongyu Ouzhan (The Chinese Labor Force in the First World War) (Taipei: Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica, 1986), 31-35.

(25.) Pan, ed., Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas, 41.

(26.) Li, A History of Chinese immigrants in Europe, 288-290, 830; Pan, ed., Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas, 311.

(27.) Li, A History of Chinese immigrants in Europe, 431-435. From 1950 to 1965 the annual emigration from Qingtian abroad averaged seventeen..

(28.) Pan, ed., Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas, 40.

(29.) "Huashuo Wenzhou xinyimin" (Speaking of the new Wenzhou immigrants), Mar. 31, 2003, downloaded May 5, 2003 from Web site www.chineseinternetnews.com.

(30.) Li Minghuan, "Analysis and Thoughts on the International Immigrant Tide in the Wenzhou Areas," Sociology Studies, 5 (1999):83-93.

(31.) Zou Liang, "Zhongguo de Youtai buluo: Da budao de Wenzhouren" [China's Jewish tribe: The Wenzhou people who refuse to be floored], Xindalu [New Magazine], Sept. 21, 2002, magazine supplement of Sing Tao Daily.

(32.) Li Minghuan, "Yidali Huaren shehui xunli" (A tour of Chinese society in Italy), Depingxian Monthly, no. 7, 1998, 24-27; People's Daily Overseas Edition, Apr. 3, 2003.

(33.) Karen Mah, "Where Do Most Chinese Illegal Aliens Originate," Chinese Human Smuggling (U.S. Department of State, International Information Programs), downloaded from Web site usinfo.state.gov/regional/ea/chinaaliens, Mar. 11, 2003.

(34.) "Lishui diqu qiaoqing" (Situation of Lishui emigrants abroad) and "Wenzhou Shi qiaoqing" (Situation of Wenzhou emigrants abroad), 344 and 652, respectively, in Volume of Chinese Hometowns (Beijing: Chinese Overseas Publishing House, 2001).

(35.) "Wenzhouren zai Mei jingshang chuang zhuangqi" (Wenzhou people in business in the US created a legend), Huasheng Bao, Dec. 31, 2002, download from Web site www.chineseinternetnews.com, Mar. 9, 2003.

(36.) Liu Aizhen (Monica Liu), "Wenzhouren zai Niuyue san da shangye bankuai chuang tianxia" (Wenzhou people in New York carved out niches in three business areas), World Journal, Weekend Supplement, July 21, 2002. Reference hereafter as Liu, "Wenzhou People in New York."

(37.) People's Daily Overseas Edition, Apr. 3, 2003.

(38.) Ma, "Impressions of Qingtian People in America."

(39.) "Niuyue Zhonghua Gongsuo yanjiu" (A study of the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Assocaition of New York), 271-372 in Wu Jianxiong, Haiwai yimin yu Huaren shehui (Society of ethnic Chinese and immigrants overseas) (Taipei: Yunchen wenhua shiye gufen youxian gongsi, 1993).

(40.) "Huaqiao shetuan" (organizations of Chinese overseas), download from Web site www.66wz.com, Jan. 2, 2003. Hereafter referred to as "Organizations of Chinese Overseas."

(41.) Ibid.

(42.) Zhao Shiren, "Niuyue Wenzhouren" (Wenzhou people of New York City), Wenzhou qiaoxiangbao, Apr. 13, 1998; "Organizations of Chinese Overseas."

(43.) "Organizations of Chinese Overseas."

(44.) "Organizations of Chinese Overseas"; Lu mei Zhejiang Tongxianghui," in Zhou Nanjing, ed., Encyclopedia of Chinese Overseas, Volume of Organizations and Parties, (Beijing: Chinese Overseas Publishing House, 1999), 320. The latter citation gave the founding date as December 1997 rather than January 31, 1998.

(45.) Wenzhou qiaosheng (Voice of Wenzhou people overseas), Oct. 3, 2002, download from Web site www.66wz.com, Mar. 9, 2003.

(46.) Chen Shiwang et al., eds., Wenzhou.

(47.) "Organizations of Chinese Overseas."

(48.) Liu, "Wenzhou People in New York."

(49.) Zhou Yunzhi, "Wenzhouren chuangchu yipian xintiandi" (The Wenzhou people have opened up a new world), Ming Pao (New York City), May 26, 1998.

(50.) "Biographical Timeline of Major Accomplishments of Professor Cheng Man-Ch'ing," download from Web site www.chengmanching.com, Mar. 10, 2003.

(51.) "Ch'i Chun," download from Web site www.renditions.org/renditions/authors, Mar. 16, 2003.

(52.) Liu, "Wenzhou People in New York."

(53.) Ibid.; item reported by Huasheng Bao, Dec. 31, 2002, downloaded from Web site www.chineseinternetnews.com, Mar. 9, 2003.

(54.) Liu, "Wenzhou People in New York."

(55.) Ibid.; Wang Ning, "Wenzhou Huaqiao chaoshi yijun tuqi" (Supermarkets of Wenzhou immigrants, a new force that suddenly came to the fore), in Sunday magazine supplement of Sing Tao Daily News, Meiguo shenghuo (US Life Magazine), Mar. 2, 2003; "Wenzhouren zai Mei jingshang chuang zhuangqi" (Wenzhou people in business in the US created a legend), Huasheng Bao, Dec. 31, 2002, download from Web site www.chineseinternetnews.com, Mar. 9, 2003.

(56.) Liu, "Wenzhou People in New York."

Chinese Glossary

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Chen Cheng [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Chen Fuliang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Chen Luan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Chen Muhua [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Chen Qiankang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Chen Qiu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Chen Xiaomin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Chen Yizhong [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Chen Yuanfeng [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Cheng Chung Book Co [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Chiang Kai-shek [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

China Merchants' Steam Navigation Company [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Chinese Science and Technology University [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

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Chuzhou [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

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Dai Chaosheng [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Dai Yongxue [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Dongtou [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

East China Normal University [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Fang Dezhi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Fang Jiekan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Fangshan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Feng Jincheng; K. C. Hon [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

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Fu Yonghe [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Fu Yongle [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

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Fujian [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Gao Ming; Gao Zecheng [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

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Guo Yunguan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

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Hu Xin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Huang Jiannan; John Huang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

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Huang Litong [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Huang Zongjiang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Huang Zongying [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Jiang Boju [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Jiang Lifu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Jiang Menglin; Monlin Chiang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

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Leqing [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Li Ruifu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

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Meiguo Zhejiang Wenzhou Gongshang Zonghui [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Meiguo Zhejiang Zonghui [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Meiguo Zhejiang Zongshanghui [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Meiguo Zhijiage Wenzhou Tongxianghui

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Ye Suzhong [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Yongjia [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Yuhuan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Zhang Bailin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Zhang Guang; Hongwei Laoren [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Zhang Naiqi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Zhang Weiren [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Zhao Shiren [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Zhao Ziyang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Zhejiang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Zheng Manqing; Man-ch'ing Cheng [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Zheng Zhenduo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Zhenla [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Zhong-Mei Lushi Xiehui [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Zhong-Mei Shanghui [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Zhongshan University [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Zhou Donggui [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Zhou Shouliang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Zhou Yutong [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Zhou Zhu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Zhu Haifeng [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Zhu Mingzhen [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Zouping [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

Essays and Books

Ch'en San-ching, Huagongyu Ouzhan (Taipei: Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica, 1986). [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].

Chen Shiwang et al., eds., Wenzhou (volume in series Zhongguo jingji tequ he kaifang gangkou chengshi congshu) (Beijing: Zhongguo haiyang chubanshe, 1985). [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].

"Huaqiao shetuan," download from website www.66wz.com, Jan. 2, 2003. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].

"Huashuo Wenzhou xinyimin," Mar. 31, 2003, downloaded May 5, 2003 from website www.chineseintemetuews.com. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].

Li Minghuan, "Yidali Huaren shehui xunli," 24-27 in Depingxian Monthly, no. 7, 1998. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].

Li Minghuan, A History of Chinese Immigrants in Europe (Beijing: Chinese Overseas Publishing House, 2002). [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].

"Lishui diqu qiaoqing," 344 in Zhou Nanjing, Chief Editor, Encyclopedia of Chinese Overseas: Volume of Chinese Hometowns (Beijing: Chinese Overseas Publishing House, 2001). [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].

Liu, Monica, "Wenzhouren zai Niuyue san da shangye bankuai chuang tianxia," World Journal Weekend Supplement, July 21, 2002. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].

"Lumei Zhejiang Tongxianghui," 248 in Zhou Nanjing, Chief Editor, Encyclopedia of Chinese Overseas, Volume of Organizations and Parties (Beijing: Chinese Overseas Publishing House, 1999). [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].

Ma, John T., "Wenzhou yu Wenzhouren--Wo de guxiang yu tongxiang," Wen Wei Po (Hong Kong), May 18, 20, 1982. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].

Ma Zhuomin, "Lumei Qingtianren yinxiang," 31-32 in Depingxian Monthly, no. 12, 2001.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].

Ni Haishu, Zhongguo pinyin wenzi yundongshi jianbian (Shanghai: Epoch Publishing Company, 1948). [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].

"Niuyue Zhonghua Gongsuo yanjiu," 271-372 in Wu Jianxiong, Haiwai yimin yu Huaren shehui (Taipei: Yunchen wenhua shiye gufen youxian gongsi, 1993). [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].

Pan Ling, ed., The Encyclopedia of Chinese Overseas (Singapore: Chinese Heritage Centre, 1998). [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].

Wang Ning, "Wenzhou Huaqiao chaoshi yijun tuqi, US Life Magazine (Sunday supplement, Sing Tao Daily News), Mar. 2, 2003. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].

"Wenzhou chengqu jin bai'nian jishi, 1840-1949," Lucheng wenshi ziliao, 5th collection (Lucheng: Wenzhou Shi Lucheng Qu Zhengxie wenshi huiyuanhui, May 1990). [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].

Wenzhou Daxue jianxiao shizhounian jiniance, 1984-1994 (Wenzhou: 1994). [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].

"Wenzhou gushi duo," The China Press, July 20, 1999. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].

"Wenzhou qiaosheng," Oct. 3, 2002, download from website www.66wz.com, Mar. 9, 2003. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].

"Wenzhou Shi qiaoqing," 652 in Zhou Nanjing, Chief Editor, Encyclopedia of Chinese Overseas: Volume of Chinese Hometowns (Beijing: Chinese Overseas Publishing House, 2001). [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.]

"Wenzhouren zai Mei jingshang chuang zhuanqi ," Huasheng Bao, Dec. 31, 2002. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].

Xu Daoquan, "Chuangdang shijie de Wenzhouren," Wenzhou huikan (Taipei, Wenzhou Tongxianghui), 14: (no. 4, 5). Zhang Dexi et al, Wenzhou moshi (Beijing: Guangming ribao chubanshe, 1986). [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].

Zhao Shiren, "Niuyue Wenzhouren," Wenzhou qiaoxiangbao, Apr. 13, 1998. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].

Zhou Yunzhi, "Wenzhouren chuangchu yipian xintiandi," Ming Pao (New York City), May 26, 1998. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].

Zou Liang, "Zhongguo de Youtai buluo: Da budao de Wenzhouren," Xindalu, Sept. 21, 2002, magazine supplement of Sing Tao Daily. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.].

John T. Ma was a native of Wenzhou, China. He served in the army and the air force during the Sino-Japanese War. He received his MA from the University of Wisconsin and MS in Library Service from Columbia University and was librarian at Columbia, Cornell, Stanford, the University of Leiden in the Netherlands, and the New York Public Library. He was visiting professor at the National Taiwan University and Tamkang University in Taiwan, and East China Normal University in Shanghai. Currently he is visiting professor at Southeast University and honorary director of Library of San Jiang College in Nanjing, and associate for the "University Seminar on Modern China" at Columbia University.

Him Mark Lai is adjunct professor of Asian American Studies at San Francisco State's Asian American Studies Department, past president of the Chinese Historical Society of America and the Chinese Culture Foundation of San Francisco, and author of books and essays on Chinese-American history. Major works include Island: Poetry and History of Chinese Immigrants on Angel Island, 1910-1940 (coauthored with Genny Lim and Judy Yung; University of Washington Press, 1980); a history of the Chinese in America, Cong Huaqiao dao Huaren [From overseas Chinese to Chinese American] (in Chinese; Hong Kong: Joint Publishing Company, 1992), and an essay on the history and society of Chinese in the United States for The Encyclopedia of Chinese Overseas (Singapore: Chinese Heritage Centre, 1998).
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Author:Ma, John T.; Lai, Him Mark
Publication:Chinese America: History and Perspectives
Date:Jan 1, 2004
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