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The Middle English culinary recipes in MS Harley 5401: an edition and commentary.

The culinary manuscripts of the Middle Ages are increasingly a concern of those interested in social history -- among others;(1) yet a significant impediment to research on Middle English culinary matters remains in the remarkable fact that there are still at least six sizeable collections of recipes that have never been edited and/or printed at all, as well as about a dozen more that have been only selectively collated in editions of material taken primarily from other manuscripts. Most of the collections in the latter category are probably not worth editing in their entirety since they are largely copies of collections which have been competently edited, and this is no doubt true of some in the first category -- for example, London, British Library, MS Add. 5467, which appears to contain substantially the same collection as the manuscripts printed or collated in Thomas Austin's Two Fifteenth-Century Cookery Books.(2)

There are also a number of manuscripts containing only a handful of recipes, or an isolated specimen or two. These, as well as the unprinted recipes in those manuscripts that have been used only for purposes of collation, must be transcribed at least in part, along with those that have not been printed at all, before we shall possess a body of material on which to base reliable analysis and comparative work. Since some of the unprinted collections are very extensive, this work cannot be completed very soon, but I propose to make at least a start with an edition of one of the shorter and more unusual collections. This is the one found in London, British Library, MS Harley 5401.

As do a high proportion of medieval culinary collections, these recipes appear in a fifteenth-century volume otherwise entirely devoted to medical matters.(3) The principal work in this small (210 x 133 mm) paper manuscript, occupying about two-thirds of the 105 folios, is the Chirurgica Johannis de Ardern.(4) This work (fols 1-78) is amply illustrated in the left and right margins; capitals at the beginning of paragraphs are in red, and there are many marginal notations, some underlined in red ink. None of the other works in the manuscript is illustrated or decorated so elaborately, although some, including the culinary recipes, contain underlining in red. These other works are, in their catalogue descriptions, but with the revised foliation:

2 Praescriptiones et miscellanea; fols [79.sup.v]-83 (fol. [79.sup.r] blank).

3 Medical Receipts in English, with a citation in Latin prefixed from Sidrac, on the effects of the Sun in different signs of the Zodiac; fols 84-92.

4. A Treatise of Men's Waters; fols 93-4.

5. Thomas Awkbarow's Cookery and Confectionary; fols 95-[103.sup.r].

6. Rules for health, in verse; fols [103.sup.r] (halfway down the page) to 104.

The culinary section consists of ninety-six recipes, which is an average length. Its only obvious peculiarity is that it ends with a signature -- or attribution? -- which reads `quod dn Thomas Awkbarow'. I have not found any clues to the identity of Don Thomas,(5) but various spellings in the manuscript suggest that the scribe, at least, was a northerner: for example, he uses a fone for `a few' and serof for `serve' throughout, as well as egges rather than eyren -- apparently misidentifying the southern spelling completely in recipes 51 and 65.(6) The unusually high proportion of recipes for shellfish suggests a coastal place of origin for the collection, and the clues afforded by spelling may suggest the east coast.(7)

In the course of editing a number of more obviously important culinary collections,(8) I became intrigued with this manuscript, largely because many of its titles seemed to be either incomprehensible or highly dubious, besides being barely decipherable: in recent years medieval recipe titles have been an important preoccupation of those doing research in this field.(9) In addition, this collection has an unusual relationship to a remarkably large group of `sources,' including the Forme of Cury. The first cluster of recipes from that particular source begins with no. 26, `Gaude Grene', which is the Forme of Cury's 97, `Gynggaudy'; we would have done well to cite this in connection with the Forme of Cury recipe since it appears to represent (perhaps uniquely) an uncorrupted version of the title (cf. n. 9 below). The Forme of Cury's title is frequently repeated in later manuscripts, sometimes further corrupted -- for example, `Gyngautry' in MS Harley 4016. This is one of a number of clues that MS Harley 5401 may have copied a better exemplar than those available to the Forme of Cury scribes and those who borrowed from them.

With the next few recipes, nos 27-28 (perhaps no. 29), this makes a cluster of recipes clearly from the Forme of Cury in their original order. But most of the other recipes which precede or follow this cluster, although often for dishes represented in the Forme of Cury, bear little resemblance to the Forme of Cury versions; and while others here are related to -- or derived from -- Forme of Cury counterparts, an almost equal number seems to come from the earlier fourteenth-century collection known primarily through Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Douce 257, which provided the title given to that collection: Diversa servicia. As remarked in our edition, this group of recipes is one of the sources of The Forme of Cury. But, again, it seems likely that MS Harley 5401's `borrowings' from this collection derive from its source, not from MS Douce 257 or any related manuscript that we collated.

Thus Harley 5401 appears to provide some better readings for both these early collections than do the manuscripts which give them in full (or fuller) form -- which is remarkable for a manuscript from the late fifteenth century. Even more remarkable is its preservation with almost no change of one of the most ancient of fourteenth-century recipes: that for Amydon (23), wheat starch, found in London, British Library, MS Royal 8 .B.iv.(10) The version here is much closer to that presumed original than are other fifteenth-century versions,(11) which is evidence of the traditional nature of the collection but does not give any indication of where, in the line of manuscript transmission, this particular collection may have come.

The date of a manuscript does not always tell us much about the antiquity of the recipes therein; this is not the only later manuscript to preserve a number of unquestionably early recipes, but it is none the less unusual in preserving almost unchanged quite a few older recipes from a variety of sources. These sources are so varied and so mixed together as to make analysis a complicated matter. The recipes from the Diversa servicia collection -- which never seem to be the same ones as are sources for The Forme of Cury -- do not usually appear here in clusters closely following the order of the apparent source.(12)

Other recipes from these early sources turn up here and there, but not in their customary order; nor does their wording indicate a consistent connection with any one manuscript tradition of the source collections.(13) Among the recipes from other sources are some with clear connections to those of MS Harley 279 -- the first manuscript reproduced by Austin -- but only two of these appear in the order found in that collection. Others can be found in other fifteenth-century collections: number 7, `Berleggs', is identical to London, British Library, MS Arundel 334's `Barleeg' (one of those titles for which I cannot offer any explanation), but such isolated cases do not establish a direct relationship between these manuscripts.

Its many, often well-preserved, and thoroughly mingled, sources constitute only one of the interesting aspects of the Harley 5401 collection. Another is that it contains a number of recipes that I have not seen before in medieval manuscripts. Possibly some of these will come to light elsewhere when we have a more complete inventory, but some may well remain unique examples. These rare -- or unique -- titles include no. 13, `To make Chese Nesh pat is Over Hard'; no. 37, `Fruturs of Fyggis'; and no. 1, `Nowmbyls of Muskyls', which sounds like a contradiction in terms: noumbles ordinarily means offal, which is not something which can be obtained from mussels.(14) This first recipe is also noteworthy because the collection has an unusually high number of mussel recipes, and quite a few for other shellfish.

The oddly named `Nowmbyls' recipe provides an example of the kind of problem that may be clarified through comparison with other recipes with similar ingredients and/or names when we have more nearly complete records, but this is only the first of many problems presented by recipe titles here. Over a dozen of these are wrong in themselves, mistranscribed by the scribe and/or incomprehensible, whether or not they have parallels elsewhere. A few other outstanding examples are:(15)

No. 17 (fol. [96.sup.v]) `Resalsike' is DS 83, `Rys alkere'. it was remarked in CI that the latter title is wrong, since rice is not a distinctive ingredient in the recipe; the present title is probably also wrong. I cannot explain either name. Here, as often elsewhere in relation to this manuscript, no dictionary (including MED and AND) sheds any light.

No. 22 (fol. [97.sup.r]) `Doth', a dish of milk, bread and boiled eggs, spiced, coloured with saffron and sweetened. I have seen nothing like this elsewhere, nor a corresponding title.

No. 64 (fol. [100.sup.v]) `Papyns' appears to be DS 38, `A pench of eggs' -- omitting the cheese that MS Douce 257 includes in that recipe. It is not the same dish as that entitled `Papyns' in MS Harley 279,(16) a name which Austin suggests is connected with pap. The `papyns' of MS Harley 5401 is nothing like `pap', so that while Pench could be a misreading of `poach', (17) the etymology of both words remains obscure.

No. 65 (fol. [100.sup.v]) `Creme' is probably FC 65, `Pochee', although the scribe apparently did not know what was to be put in the `cream' sauce. He says to put the sauce over three or four, but does not say what the three or four are.

No. 66 (fol. [100.sup.v]) `Cawdell Farce' is `Cawdell Ferre', a common dish -- variously spelled, but farce, which implies a stuffing or filling, is certainly wrong.

No. 69 (fol. [101.sup.r]) `Gelis of Mylk' is a simple dish of bread in milk or almond milk; it is not a `jelly', and again I have seen no parallels. Perhaps it is related to gel in the broad sense of being `congealed' into a semi-solid mass.

No. 85 (fol. [102.sup.r]) `Soppis Dorre' is not the dish usually given that title; the recipe is actually MS Douce 55's `Oyle Soppes' (also mistitled -- it contains no oil) and is close to MS Harley 279's `Lyode Soppes', which is correctly titled.

Further problem titles are pointed out in the notes to the text of the recipes, which also gloss unusual or peculiarly spelled words. The numbering of the recipes in the transcription is an editorial addition, as is most of the punctuation, although there is more pointing than usual in this manuscript. Capitalization of the headings is modernized and abbreviations are silently expanded.

TEXT OF THE RECIPES

1 [fol. [95.sup.v]] To make Nowmbyls of Muskyls. Seth muskyls, & then shop team grete & medil pam with almonde mylk, & make a thyk potage; & colour it with saferon. With kokyls or with pervinches 3e may do pe same.

2 For Qualing of Mylk. Cast perto a litil flour & styre it were.

3 Blawnched Mortrovs. Recipe almond mylk or cow mylk & floure of rice, of amidon, & of wastell, & drawe it thrughe a cloth with sum of pe mylk, & let it boyle to it be standyng; & put perto hony, & pan dress a lech of pat one blaunched morterus, anoper of pat saferon, etc.

4 Morterous for Lentyn. Recipe brothe of congure or of merlyng, sothen of cuper of kongur or of codlyoge, & graty pam in a morter with grated brede; & alay it vp with pe brothe til it be standing; & put it in a pot with peper & saferon & boyl pam a litil, & dresse pam, & do peron powdyr of gynger & serof it forth.

5 Ryse Lumbard Rynnyng. Recipe ryse & pyke team were, & wesh pam in .iii. or.iii;. waters, & than seth pam in clene water til pai begyn to boyle. And at pe fyrst bolyng put oute pe water & seth it in broth of flesh, & put perto sugyre & colour it with saferon, & serof it forth.

6 Rise Lumbard Standyng. Recipe & make pam in pe same manere, safe take perto brothe of flesh, salmon, or congyr; & cast perto powdre of canel, & make peron lyure of brede as it is aforesaide.

7 Berleggs. Recipe creme of almonds & alay it with floure of ryse, & cast perto gyngere; & let it boyle & stir it were, & colour it with saferon & sawndyres; & make it standing, & dress it vp [fol. [96.sup.r] in lechys, & in dyshes seroff it forth.

8 Charlet Enforesyd. Recipe swete mylk and egges 3olkes & ale, & seth pork withoute erbis, brayed, & let it boyle tyll it do crud; and colour it with saferon, & pan take it vp & press it. Pan take creme of almondes or of kow mylk & boyle itt, & put perto ginger & colour it depe with saferon, & lay perof .iij. lechis or .v. in a dysh of pe charlet & poure pe [c]reme apon it; and medyl sugure, sawndyrs, & masz togydere & strew it peron & serof it forth.

9 Creme Bolyd. Recipe creme of kow mylk & egg 3olkes, sugur & saferon, & medyl all togyder; & bole it til it be standyng, & dresse it vp in a dysh in lechys, & playnt it with flowres of borage.

10 Chewets. Recipe pe draghtis of capons or of hennes & shop pam small. Take & cast powdyr of gynger & cloes, pepyr & salt, & put pam all in a lityll cofyn & close it abowne, & fry hym in fresh grece, & serrof pam forth .ij. in a dysch.

11 Chewetys. Make smale cofyns not so mykyll as penypines, & take fayre egg 3olks tryed, & lay pam in a cofyn .iij. or .iiij. range; & take fayre mary. When it is perbolid in pe boynes take it oute & lay it in gobits in a cofyn, & take a litil sugur & salt & cast perin, & take a lid & cover it, & fry team in fresh grece: & loke pi fyr be noght to hose; & serof it forth .iij. in a dysh.

12 Flawnes for Lentyn. Recipe gode floure & make past, & take gode mylk of almondes & pe floure of ryse or of amydon & boyle pam togyder till pai be wele chargeand; & when it is bolyd thyk take it vp & lay it on a fote bord til it be colde; & when pe cofyns be redy, take a part & do it in pe cofyns & karve team in shyves, & do pam in gode mylk of almonds, & fyges & dates, in .iiij. pertyes. Pen teak it; serof it forth.

13 To make Chese Nesh at is Ouer Hard. Lay pe chese lappyd all about in fayr grene nettyls. [fol. [96.sup.v]] And let it ly styli on a fayre borde or on a floore, and within fow[r] dayes it schall be nesgh & fresh.

14 Potage of Prvnes. Recipe prvnes & wesh pam clene, & frote pam wele in a cop tyll pe juyse be wele wrong oute; pan do it in a pot & put perto whyte grece & hony or sugure, & boyle it togyder, & thyk it with pe floure of rise or of wastylls. And when it is sothen dress it vp in dyshys, & cast peron powdyr of galyngay, & serof it forth.

15 Mylk Rostede. Recipe swete mylk & do it in a pan, than take pe egges with pe whyte & bete pam togyder, & do it to pe mylk, & colour it with saferon; & boyle it tyll it be thyk, and strene it & do perin; take pat pat levis in pe strenerour: presse it on a borde with a lever, & when it is cold lard it & sheve it on shyves, & rost it on a gyrdyryn, & serof it forth.

16 Cawdale pat is Part of Blawmaunger. Recipe flesch of capons or of pork & stamp it small; & temper it with pe broth of pe saym, that it be wele chargeand as be blawmanger, with wyne or with vinegre or with creme of almondes; & grind egges & saferon togider so pat it be 3alow, & strew peron powdyrs of galingay, & stik perin crows & maces, & serof it forth.

17 Resalsike. Recipe fygys & rasyns, & do away pe kyrnels, & a gode pert of apylls paryd, & bray pam were; & temper pam with almondes mylk, & meng it with pe flowre of ryse pat it be wele chargeant; & strew peron podyr of galingay.

18 Fruays. Recipe pe cromys of whyte brede & swete aplys & 3olkes of egges, & bray pam were, & temper it with wyne; & make it to sethe, & when it is thyk do perto gode spyces: gyoger & galingay & cannell & crows; & serof it forth.

19 And pu wyll make a Faireseour in a Poket of a Pike. [fol. [97.sup.r]] Recipe pe pokes of pe pike & wesch it clene, & scrape it, pe pike, & wesh it clene, & take pe lyver of pe pike & shop it small, & grind it were, & cast perto podyr of galyngay & of gynger & crows, salt & saferon; & fyll pe pokutt full & boyle it were, & serof it forth.

20 For to make Soopys. Recipe fyne almond mylk standyng, & colour it with safron and a porcyon of hony; pen take shyves of brede tostyd & wete pam in whyte wyne or rede, & dresse pe shyves in a dysh, & boyle in a lityll of pe mylk, & cast peron, & strew peron sugure, & serof.

21 To make a Balowbroth. Recipe pikes & splate pam on brede, or els if pu have; stokfysh, if pu list, pu may smyte pam in gobyts; & seth pam, half in wyne & half in water; pan tak vp pe fysh & kepe it warme, & draw pe broth throgh a cloth, & do perto powder of gynger & of galingay, pepyur, cannell; pan lat pe broth boyle & do perin pe fysh, & serof.

22 To make Doth. Recipe cow mylk & lye pais in wastell brede, & colour it with saferon; fors it with pepyr & gynger & crows, & bole it with hard sodyn egges, & seth it with hony & sugure, & serof.

23 To make Amydon. Recipe whete & stepe it ix dayes, & change pe water every day twyes; than bray it in a morter right small, & clens it throgh a haryn syve, & let it stonde tyll it be sets; pen put onto pe morter & bray it in a clothe to it be dry.

24 Gely of Fysh. Recipe tench or pykes, elys, turbot, or place, & cut pam in pecis. Skald pam & wesh pam & dry pam with a clothe, & do pam in a pane, & do perto half vinegre & half wyne, & seth pam were; & take vp pe fysh & pike pam smale & take pe broth & cole it throgh a clothe into an erthyn pan, & do perto powdyr of pepyr & saferon. [fol. [97.sup.v]] Then let it sethe & scom it were, & lay pi fysh in chargours & cole pe sew, & put it in dyshys & serof.

25 Cawdeyle of Muskyls. Recipe muskyls & seth pam, & pike team clene, & wesh pam vp with wyne. Take almondes & bray pam, & take a fone of pe muskyls grunde with pe fysh broth, & wring vp pe mylk with pe broth of pe muskyls; & do all pies togyder & put perto vergeious & vinegre. Then take be whyte of lekes perboled & hev pam small, & do perto plenty of powdyrs & saferon & salt, & seth it not to standyng, & pen serof it forth.

26 Gaude Grene. Recipe be lyver of codlyng & pe gusts of pe saide codlyng & dice pam, & seth team in water; pen make a lyur of brede with pe same broth, & colour it with grene, & do perto strong powdyr, comyn, & salt, & serof it forth.

27 Ryce Mole. Recipe almonds & blanche pam, & draw pam vp with water, & lay it vp with floure of rice; & do perto powdyr of gyngere, sugyr, & salt so pat it be standyng; & serof it forth.

28 Viandre Cypyre de Salmon. Recipe & bray almonds vnblaunched; pan take caluer salmon & seth it in water, & draw vp pinne almonds mylk with pe broth of pe salmon. Pan pike out pe bonys clene, & grind it small, & cast pi mylk & pat togyder, & ley it with floure of rice, & seth it; & pan do perto strong powdyr, sugure & salt, & colour it with alkenet so pat it be standyng, & serof it forth.

29 Laumpray in Galantyne. Recipe a lamprey & sla hym with wyne & salt, & skald hym in wature & salt, & cut a lityl at pe navyll & take oute pe gut & pe eyghener, & kepe pe blode; pan rost hym on a spyt, & kepe wele pe grece; pan grind rasyns o[f] curans & draw pam vp with whyte wyne & vynegre & with crusts of brede, & do perto powder of gynger & of galyngale, floure of rice, powdyr of canell, crows & macis, & ras[yns of] corance hole, with pe blode & grece of pe lamprey. [fol. [98.sup.r]] Cast salt perto; bole it not to standyng & lay pe sewe aboue, & serof it forth.

30 To mak a Cawdell in Capon Broth. Recipe fayr capons broth & wastell brede or whyte brede, & stvewe it as pu weld make perof a sew, & colour it wele with saferon; & pan when pe sew is bolyd set it fro pe fyre, pen take a gode porcyon of egges 3olkes & strene pam & let pe eggs ryn in to pe sew, & styre it wele til it be smoth & rynnyng, & pan take pe fat of pe capon broth or of pestell of pork & do perto, & serof it forth.

31 Muskyls Broth. Recipe muskyls & seth pam in water to pai go owte of pe shels; pan put a part of pe broth to whyte brede & pe remland put onto pe grondes; pan pike pi muskyls, pan put into pe broth mynesid onyons, & let it seth; pen put in pi muskyls to bole, and do perto pepyr & saferon, & put perto pi lyure etc.

32 Gruell Forsyd. Recipe pork & seth it, & when it begyns to aly take oute part of pat broth & take out pork, & stren pe broth; pen put in otemele small, or else paynmain; pan colour it with saferon, & serof it forth.

33 To make a Frose. Recipe pork & seth it, & when it is half sothen chop it small, & take egges & swyng pam; pan put pat pork with pe egges & fry pam in fayre grece.

34 And if it be Fyshday. Recipe trutys or barbels or molets with such egges swung & fayr buttyr; fry pam & serof.

35 To make Gynger Sawce. Recipe whyte brede & stepe it in vinegre, & strene it throgh a cloth, & put on powdyr of gynger & salt, & serof.

36 To make Potage of Ostyrs. Recipe ostyrs & perbole pam in fayr water, pan tak pam oute; pan schop pam small & bray pam in a morter; pan cast pam into pat same broth & put perto almond mylk & amydon & myncyd onyons & bole all pise togydre; pan put in powdyr of gynger & colour it with saferon, & serof it forth.

37 Fruturs of Fygis. Recipe & make bature of flour, ale, peper & saferon, with oper spices; pan cast pam in to a frying pann with batur & ole & bake team & [serof].

38 [fol. [98.sup.v]] Charlet. Recipe pork & seth it were, & hew it small & cast it in a pan, & breke egges perto & swyng all togydyre; & put perto pe mylk of a kow & saferon, & bole it togydere, & salt it & serof.

39 Jussell. Recipe brede gratyd & egges & swyng pam togydere, & do perto sawge & saferon & salt; pan take gode broth & cast it perto, & bole it enforesayd, & do perto as to charlete, & serof.

40 Cherysse. Recipe almonds vnblaunched & wesh pam clene, and grynd pam & draw pam vp with gode broth, & do perto pe thyrd part of pe cherysse, pe stonys pikyd oute, & grynd pam small; & make a lyure of whyte brede & of powdyrs & do perto salt & colour it with sawndyrs so pat it be standyng, & mese it forth with anneys & with cherys.

41 Sopis de Roy. Recipe almonds & bray pam, & wryng pam oute with wyne, & pan east perto saferon & salt. Take brede & lay it in wyne; lay a layu of pe brede & put on pe mylk, & so forth tyl pow have enohw; pen florish it with sugyre & powdyr of gynger & serof it forth.

42 Cawdell of Almonds. Recipe almondes blaunched & bray pam & draw pam vp with wyne, & do perto powdyr of gynger & sugur, & bole it, & cast perto a lityll salt, etc.

43 Cald Brewyt. Recipe creme of almonds, & dry it vpon a cloth, and when it is dry do it in a boll, & do perto salt & sugur with pe powdyr of gynger & pe juse [of fen]nell with wyne, & let it stand by pe fenell, & mese it forth.

44 Peris in Comfytt. Recipe perys & payr pam clene; take gode rede wyne & mulberys or sawndyrs. Seth pe parys perin, & whan pai bene sodyn wele take pam vp & make a syrup of vernage or of oper swete wyne, with blawnchyd powdyr or with sugur, & do perto pe peres, & serof.

45 [fol. [99.sup.r] Tarts on Fysh Dayes. Recipe & perbole on3uns with erbs, & pres oute pe wawtyr & chop pam small. Take egges & do perto powder of saferon & salt & rasyns of curans, & aley it with sugyr & powdyre deuce, & put it in a pastre & bake it, & serof it forth.

46 Rysshellis of Frute. Recipe figis & rasyns & wesh pam in wyne, & pike pam & grind pam with appyls & peres paryd clene, & do perto powdyre & hole spices; & make it in balls, & fry pam in oyle & serof it forth.

47 Defoyles. Recipe creme of cow mylk or of almondes, & do perto egges with suger, saferon, & salt; & mell it togyder & do it in a coffyn of .ij. ynche depe & bake it.

48 For to bake a Gournard. 3e schall make a coffyn o[f] pe same lenthe pat pe gurnard is on, safe .iij. ynche or .iiij. pat 3e sall turne it of pe gurnards tayle. 3e schal ly his bely vpward, & put perin rasyns of corans with peper & clowis & .iij. sponefull of rumney or oper wyne, & if 3e wyll, put in his bely a fresh ele.

49 Creme of Almonds. Recipe & blawnch almondes, & grinde pam & kepe pam als whyte as 3e mey, & temper it thyk with watur & draw it, & put it in a pott. And sett it oure be fyre & styr it were; and when it begyns to rise take it of. If 3e wyll haue mykyll, pan do a lityll perto of vinegre & let it stance a whyle, & take a clene cloth haldyn abrode betwene tiw men, & trast perin with a ladyl als brode as be cloth wyll striche towards & froward ay with be ege of pe ladyll bat 3e may draw oute all pe watyrs; & ban gedyre it to pe corners togydyrs & hang it vpon a pyn, & let pe water soke oute into a boll; & temper it with whyte wyne, & bruse it with a sawcer tyll it be als softe as 3e wyll haue it, & serof it forth.

50 Payne Puredew. Recipe shyves of whyte brede & toste pam; pan take pe 3olkes of egges & swyng team, & turn pe brede perin, & fry it in grece or buttur, & serof it forth.

51 [fol. [99.sup.v]] Lech Lumbard. Take fayre brawne & wesh it, & seth it tyl euery pece go fro oper; pan put it in a morter & grind it with almondes; pan take whyte wyne or rede & bole it perin. Loke als mych as pu wyll haue whyte, put perto of pe whyte of eyren, & 3alow take perto 3olkys of egges & bete pam wele to gydere, ich be it self. And if pu wylt haue it grene, take it of pe spicer, or els take grene whete pe gress, or els of barly, & grind it small, & tak perof pe juse & put perto & pu wyll make it grene. But loke pat isch be sodyn be hymself, & rede in be same wyse safe colour it with sawnders; but fyrst lay pe whyte beneth pe 3alow. Ly it peron pe grene perapon, & when pu wylt dress it pu mast kerve it als long & als small as pu wylt.

52 For to make Conys in Hogepoche. Scald hyr, pan hew hyre in gobets all raw & seth hyr in hyr awne grece, & cast perto ale or wyne a gode cup full, & mynce on3ons small & do perto, & bole it & serof it forth.

53 Jonreye. Recipe bolace & seth pam & strene pam throgh a cloth, & cast team in broth; & do whyte grece perto & gratyd brede & bole it togyder, & alye it with 3olkes of egges; pan take hony & bole it & cast it peron, & serof it forth.

54 Sauce Madame. Recipe sauge, percely, ysop & saueray, quyncis, gode perys, & garlic, & put in be gosse, & sew be hole agayn pat no grece go oute; & roste it & leye pe grece bat drops fro pe sawce & etc.

55 To mend Mete pat is Brynt in pe Pott. Take small bagges .ij. or .iij. & fill pam full of malt, & sew pam fast, & take oute pe mete & put it in a clene pot, & pan hang pe saide bags in pe mete. Say it it touche not pe bothom of pe pot, & lett it seth perin a gode whyle, & styr it were, & let it kele.

56 Mete of Lyfe. Recipe sodyn wardons or rostyd, & pike of be skyn; [fol. [100.sup.r]] teen take fayre marow & creme of almonds & put it in a cofyn of past, & mess perwith mynced datis, powdyre of canell, sugyre & rasyns of corans, powdyre of gynger, & ban let it bake.

57 Cenellis. Recipe braynes of calvis heds or piges heds & put it in a pan or in a pott; & put perto raw eggs & peper, saferon & vinegre, & stir it wele tyl it be thyk, & serof it forth.

58 Mawmeny. Recipe brawne of capons or of hennys & dry pam were, & taise pam small; pan take thyk mylk of almonds & put be saide brawne perto, & styr it wele ouer pe fyre, & seven it with suger & powder of canell, with mase & quibibs & anneys in confete, & serof it forth.

59 To seth a Tench. Schla hym in the tale & let hym blede to cede, & skald hym in hote water, & rub it with a cloth till he be clene; & take ale & water & salt & make a sharp sauce, & splat it & let it kele; & lay it in a chaergeoure, an cast vinegre & powdere of peper, percely & saferon with on3ons, & serof.

60 To make a Syrop of Wardons. Recipe wardons & seth pam til pai be softe in clene water, or cast pam in a syve & rost pam. Pyl pam & shere pam in resonabyl byg pecis; pan take rede wyne or swete wyn or whyte wyne or gode ale, sugur & pressyd hony & bole it, & take powdyr of gynger & canell & cast it perin boylyng, & annis in confyt; & when it is sodyn cast in pi wardons & serof it forth.

61 For to make Jowtis. Recipe many erbis, & hake & boyle team tenderly, & pan take pam oute of the pot & cast team on a dressour, & press oute pe water & hew pam small, & bray team with gratyd brede; pan take clere broth of caponis or of pesters of pork or of befe, & alay it vp perwith, & boyle it till it be sothen enogh.

62 Movn Amy Recipe creme of cow mylk & boyle it, pan take it of & kele it; pan take swete raw cruds & press oute pe cruds of wey [fol. [100.sup.v]] & bray pam, & cast pam in pe same creme & boyle all togydere, and put perto sugur and saferon, buttur; pan take 3olkes of egges strened & betyn, & in pe settyng downe cast in pe 3olkes perto, & stire it, & lat pat potage be standyng; & dress it in .v. or .vj. lechys in a dysh and plant it with floure of violets, & serof it forth.

63 Elus Bakyn in Dyshes. Recipe eles, & cowche pam in a dysh, & cast on salt & saferon & powdyre of pepyr, & couer pat dysh with anoper dysh & set it on pe cores, & turn be dysh aboute and put in a lityll wyne in pe fyrst tyrne for savyng of pe vessell, & put be hote cores in a hole in be erth & so let it boyle, & serof it forth.

64 Papyns. Recipe clene cow mylk, & take pe flour of rice or of whete & draw be flour with sum of pe mylk, & colour it with saferon & let it boyle, & do a lityll hony perto; pan tak water & well it in a frying panne; pan cast in brokyn egges & fry team hard in pe water, & lay iij in a dysh & pe colourd mylk peron, & serof it forth

65 Creme. Recipe swete creme of cow mylk & 3olkes of egges, & draw pam throgh a cloth; pan do it in pe creme & set it on pe fyre & well pam togyder; ban take saferon & hony with a lityll fayre buttur & let team boyle tyll pai be standyng, & dress .iij. or .iiij. in a dysh & serof.

66 Caudell Farce. Recipe whyte wyne or rede, & take egg yolkes & draw pam throgh a cloth with pe same wyne; pan put perto hony & colour it with saferon, & set it oure be fyre & styr it were, & when it is in poynt to welle set it of & let it be standyng & serof.

67 Soppus Dorre. Recipe myncyd onyons & fry pam in oyle de olyff, pan take wyne & boyle with be onyons; pan toste brede & do it in disshys, & gode almond mylk, & serof.

68 Potage of Rice. Recipe rice, & pike team & wash pam clene, & seth pam to pai breste; pan let pam kele & cast perto almond mylke, & do perto a lityll porcyon of wyne, anoper of hony, [fol. [100.sup.r]] and colour it with saferon, & boyle it & serof it forth.

69 Gelis of Mylk. Recipe gode almond mylk or swete cow mylk, & colour it wele with saferon; pan take wastell brede & cut it on small pecis, & set mylk on pe fyre, & when it is in poynt to seth cast pe brede perin & let it bole, & serof.

70 Mortrows of Wylkys. Recipe & boyle pam were, & dight pam clene & wash pam in water & salt, & grynde pam in a morter & draw team throgh a stren3our with gode almond mylk; & do pam in a fayre pot, & cast in grated brede, salt & saferon & boyle it vp, & cast on powder of gynger & serof.

71 Ryce Moyes. Recipe ryce, & wash team & bray team were, & cast perto almond mylk, sugar & salt, & serof it forth.

72 Oysters in Brewete. Recipe ostyrs, & shell team & seth pam in clene water Grind peper & saferon, brede & ale, & temper it with pe broth of be ostyrs perin, & boyle it & cast in salt, & serof it forth

73 Elis in Brewette. Recipe ells, & cut team in gobyts & seth team; & grind peper & saferon, mynt, percely, brede & ale, & temper it with pe broth, & bole it & serof.

74 Blawnk de Surre. Recipe egg 3olkes soden hard, & comyn, saferon, & flour of ryce or wastell brede, & grind it in a morter & temper it vp with pe mylk of a cow, & make it to boyl; & do perto whyte of pe eggs, & cut pam small, & take feet chese & cut it perto, & when it hath boyld serof

75 Tarts of Appyls. Recipe gode appyls & gode spyces, fygis & rasyns, peris; & bray pam, & colour pam with saferon, & do team in a coffyn & bake pam wele & serof.

76 Appylmoes. Recipe & seth appyls, & frete pam throgh a cloth, & do team in a pot, & cast perto almond mylk with gode broth of flesh dayes, & put perto gratyd brede & seth it; & put perto whyte grece on be flesh day & on be fysh day oyle de olyfe, & do perto sugur, & colour it with saferon, & strewe perin gynger, & serof it forth.

77 [fol. [101.sup.v]] Ostyrs in Gravy. Recipe ostyrs, & shell pam & seth team in wyne or in watur; grind pam & draw team vp with pe brothe, & alay it with pe flour of ryce, & do perto pe ostyrs; & cast perto powdyr of gynger, sugur, maces, quibibs, salt, & seth it to it be standyng & serof.

78 Mortrows on Fysh Dayes. Recipe codlyng & hadoc with be lyver, & seth pam wele in water, & pike oute be bones & grind be fysh small. Draw a lyre of almondes & brede with pe fysh broth, & do berto be gronden fysh, strewing powdyr, saferon & salt, & make it standyng & serof.

79 Rasyns o[n/f] Fysh Dayes. Recipe almonds, & wash pam clene & grinde team, & draw team vp with fayr water Seth it, alay it vp with rasyns; cast perto salt, saferon & sugur; mese it forth & florych it with solyaundres & serof.

80 Saborsawce. Recipe reysyns, & grind pam with crosses of brede, & temper it with wyne; & do perto powder & salt, & seth it were, & fry rochys or loches or solis or oper gode fyshes, & cast pe sawce peron & serof.

81 To make a Froyse. Recipe vele, & seth it & hak it were, & grind peper & saferon & brede & do perto, & fry it & press it vpon a bord.

82 Flawnes. Recipe past makd in coffyns & fyll pam full of blanchyd almounds mylk, & cast perin powder of gynger, safran & salt; pan bake & serof it forth.

83 Quynces in Composte. Recipe fayre quynces & payr pam clene, & cut team oute pe kyrnyls; pan tak sugur enogh & a lityll powdyre of gynger Stop pe hole full; & pan make rownde cophyns & close .iij. or .iiij. in a cophyn, & let it bake; & els take clarifyed hony in stede of sugur; & serof.

84 To bake a Lawmpray. Recipe & make a rowed cophyn of past; pan tak a fresh lawmpray & let hym blode. Pan take brown brede and stepe it in vynegre, & let pe lawmpray dy in his awn blode, & strene pe brede & pe vinegre; pan take be blode & powdyr of canell, & cast perto til it browne, & cast [fol. 10[2.sup.r]] perto powder of peper & salt, & wyne, a lityl, pat it be not to strong of pe vinegre; & skald pe lawmpray & payr hym clene, & cowch hym in pe cophyn & couer it with a lyd safe a lityl hole. At be hole blow in with pi mowth a gode blast of wynd, & sodainely stop pe hole [p]at pe wynd may abide berin, & rayse vp pe cophyn pat it fall not down; & when it is a lityll hard prik it, & let it bake enogh, & serof of it forth cold; & when be lawmpray is enogh tak it oute of be owen

85 Soppis Dorre. Recipe mylk & boyle it, & strene egges 30lks & put team berto; ban set it ouer pe fyre, but let it not boyle, & teen styr it wele tyll it be thyk, & cast perto sugur & salt Pan take fayr paynemane & make it in sopis, & put pe stuff above peron, & serof it forth in be maner of potage.

86 Buknade. Recipe blawnched almondes & grind pam, & draw pam throgh a strene3our with gode fresh broth & wyne And pan take vele, kyd, henne, pike, & perboile hym in fresh broth, & cast perto crows, maces, & gode erbis, & let it boyle enogh, & cast berto a lityl sugur, gynger, & salt, & serof it forth

87 Muskyls in Gravy. Recipe muskyls, & pike pam clene & seth team oute of pe shells; ban draw pam throgh a strene3our & set pam oure pe fyre; pan take fayr brede & stepe it in pe same broth; pen put berto mynced on30ns, wyne & peper, pan boyle team togyder & cast perto gynger & saferon & salt & serof

88 Storgeon in Broth. Recipe fresh storgeon; perboyle it in fayr water & chop it small, & strene be broth with a strene3our in to a pot, & pyke clene pat fysh, & cast berto small mynced on30ns, peper & crows, macis & canell; & take fayr brede & stepe it in pe same licoure, & draw it with a strene3our, & let it boyle to gydere, & cast perto powdyr of gynger, vinagre, & saferon & salt, & serof

89 To rost Mylk. Recipe swete mylk & do it in a pan, & swyng egges perwith, & colour it with saferon & put perto flour; ban set it on pe fyre & let it boyle, & strene all pise to gydyr & cast [fol. 10[2.sup.v]] it agayn into be pan Pen take hard 30lkes of egges & breke team small, & do team in be mylk tyll it be right thyk Pen set it down & let it kele, & lech it & roste it on a gyrdyren, & cast perto sugur, & serof it forth

90 Frutowr for Lentyn. Recipe flour & almondes mylk, & temper pam togyder; pan take fyges & rasyns of corance & fry team with pe batour with oyle & tyrne [pis] & serof

91 Letards. Recipe mylk & egges & swyng pam togyder, & take fresh pork sodyn wele & cut it on small pecis, & cast it perin & set it on be fyre, & let it boyle, & styre it wele till it wrap in a crud; pan lech it & lay it on a gyrdyron & roste it. But aftyr pe foresaide sethyng let it bole, & breke it as it is aforesaide, & sesyn it vp with sugur & serof it forth with be frotows.

92 Melesade. Recipe egges, & strene team with buttur, & gedyr it togyder with a sklise pe brede of a dyshe, & cowche perin morsells of brede apon pe egges, & turne be brede donwards in be pan & cast berto sugur, & serof it forth.

93 To Clarify Hony. Recipe hony, & do it in a pot, & cast perto clere of egges with a lityl watur, & bete it wele togydyr with a stik & set it on pe fyre, & boyle it; pan set it downe & let it kele, & when it is almost cold take of pe whyte with a sklise & serof it forth.

94 Lete Lorre. Recipe egges & strene pam throgh a strene30ur, & do berto cow mylk & buttur & saferon, & seth it welle & mak it stondyng; & colour it with saferon, & serof it forth.

95 To Claryfy Butter. Recipe fayr fresh water, als mych water in quantyte as buttur; set pe watur on pe fyre in a fayr pan & loke per be no smoke, & when pe water is ny hote put in pe buttur & take a fayr sklyse & styr it wele unto pe tyme pe water begyn to walme; ban take & sette fro pe [fol. [10[3.sup.r]] fyre & skom it clene; pen let it stonde tyl it be nye cold. Pan put it in a basyn with a lityll watur & poure pe saide buttur from pat hote water, & salt it; & pis butter 3e schull kepe on warandise .iij. or .iiij. 3ere, & kepe it cold & close.

96 To make Char de Crabb. Recipe crabbs & seth pam in watur tyll pai be softe, & take hony & strene pe crabbs perwith throgh a cloth. Put to a iijd part of claryfyed hony & a quantyte of sawndyrs, & colour it with saforun; pen put perto a quantyte of powdyr of peper & ij d worth of pe flour of anneys & a quantyte of powdyre of licorys. Pen take grated brede & mold it vp perwith, & put it in cophyns & serof it forth, & bene facis. Quod Don Thomas Awkbarow.

NOTES TO THE RECIPES

(1) 3 pervinches `periwinkles'; MED, AND and OED do not record this spelling for the mollusc, but all give one close to it for the plant. (2) qualing `curdling' (see MED `qualinge'). (3) 4 pat saferon no doubt refers to the following recipe. (4) 1 merlyng `whiling', < A-N merlin (cf. MED, s.v. `merling'). 2 sothen = sithen, then; cuper = culpons, pieces (possibly < A-N coupeure, `cutting'; not in MED or OED). (6) In the margin before flesh, salmon is, in the same hand, fish; probably as an alternative reading for flesh. (7) As remarked above, MS Arundel 334's `Barleeg'. (8) 6 masz `mace'. (9) This recipe is one in London, British Library, MS Sloane 7: see remarks in OP, p. 167. (10) draghtis `liver and giblets'. (11) 1 smale: MS `salmalet with the first al underdotted; penypines (.?): perhaps `penny loaves'? The abbreviation mark may, rather, mean something like penypernes, which could be a variant of pety pernels (variously spelled), a rich pastry found in various collections. (12) DS 86, which gives a more comprehensible `feyre bord' in place of 4 fote bord, also has a helpful phrase omitted in this version, `& kerf yt in' (four parts). (14) < DS 76, porreyne, which (sensibly) specifies a syue (`sieve') rather than a cup for rubbing out the juice. 1 prvnes = fresh plums. 5 galngay, the usual spelling for galingale in this MS, elaborates on an unspecified `powder'. (15) < DS 25; 3 & do perin is an addition which makes no sense. Also added is the lever -- an unusual kitchen utensil! (16) DS 34, `sandale pat is perty to blomanger'. `Cawdale' is the correct tide: a version entitled `Caudel ferry departyd with a blamanger' appears in MSS Harley 279 (CB, p. 31) and Ashmole 1439, and later versions entitled `Caudell ferres' are in MSS Arundel 334 and Sloane 7. But this recipe is much closer to DS 34, which apparently took its name from the (optional) sanders colouring mentioned there. This calls into question the accuracy of the DS version; later titles may be closer to that of the original, source, except when they call it `cawdell ferry', which is an entirely different dish. (17) < DS 8 3, `rys alkere', or its source: the DS title does not make sense either (as noted in CI, p. 211). Neither source tells us to cook the pottage, which is clearly necessary. (18) DS 40, `fruturs', but again MS Harley 5401 may be closer to the `original'. Fruturs suggests that the dish is a fritter, which it is not; calls for apple blossoms, which are less likely than apples: and has what may be later elaborations (e.g. bray them `togedere in a morter' instead of simply `were'). difference (19) 2 it, pe pike something has evidently been either miscopied or omitted here; perhaps the poke of the pike is to be put with the liver as stuffing -- cf. OP's `Gyngaudre', p. 39, and the `Gaude Grene' recipe below (no. 26) (21) DS 92, `Balough broth'. 2 els `eels', not `else'; if pu have modifies eels, not stockfish, the addition of which is the main difference between these two versions of the recipe. (22) Recipe appears twice here, once before the title. (23) < MS Royal 8 .B.iv's `Formete', with few changes; the only downright error is at the end: the original says `Ley it on a cloth. Turn it til it be dry' (CI, p. 148). This is, as remarked above, unusually close to that early recipe. (24) FC 104, with few changes, but again the end is a little garbled: the original probably read `cowche fisshe on chargours & cole the sewe throw a cloth onoward, and serue it forth colde'-- but most of the manuscripts omit some of this. (25) < FC 127, with `wringing' the mussels with broth and drawing up almond milk with water consolidated, and some omissions. 2-3 a fone `a few'. 5 lekes perboled MS `lekes perboled pam' (the original probably read `lekes & perboile hem wel'); her `hew, chop'. (26) < FC 97; despite variants, this is closer than other related recipes: most even omit the green colouring. 3 strong powdyr = powdour fort, see a pp. 208-9. (27) FC 99; 3 so pat for the more sensible `and loke' or `make hem' of other manuscripts. (28) FC FC 101so,6at for the `and make' of most manuscripts. (29) FC 130, sporadically agreeing with one or another FC manuscript; no one manuscript collated in a agrees in all respects, but most variants are found in one or another. 3 eyghener some FC manuscripts give eyne `eggs, roe'. 4 dram pam: MS `& draw pam & draw pam'. 6 macis appears to be a unique addition here. (30) Cf FC 3 5,`Chykens in cawdel', but not the same recipe. (31) Cf. FC 125, but not the same recipe: perhaps closer to the source of MS Harley 4016's `Muscules in broth' (Austen, p. 90). 2 remland `remnant'. 3 grondes the previously ground mussels, or the soup-base itself (`la fond de cuisine')? 4 to bole this is probably a miscopied direction to put the mussels in a bowl, not to reboil them. (33) Cf. LCCp. 50, `a froyse', calling for pork or veal; and no. 81 below. (37) 2 batur `batter', not a miswritten `butter' since such recipes never call for butter and oil; thus the preceding parn presumably refers to figs -- if the tide is correct. (38) FC 41. (39) < FC 44; 3 enforesayd. . . charlete added. (40) FC 59; 5 he originally omitted, then added with marks indicating where it was to be inserted. (41) FC 84; 3 layu = leyue `leaf'. (42) FC 90. (43) FC 135; letters in [ ] supplied from other manuscripts of FC, but there is enough visible to suggest these must be correct. (44) FC 136. (45) FC 173, `Tart in ymbre day,' omitting cheese. 3 porvdyre daure = `powdour douce'; see CI, pp. 208-9 (46) FC 190, `Rysshews of fruyt'. (47) FC 191, `Daryols', illustrating the treacherous nature of recipe tides in England: darioles were common in English cookery for centuries, although sometimes called by other names (such as `Maids of Honour' in colonial Williamsburg). (48) 4 rumney: a sweet wine; see MED, s.v. `romenei'; or QED, s.v. `running'. (49) OP 103, with many errors and omissions. 3 oure `over'. 6 trast `thrust' (or error: OP reads `cast the creme')? (51) The right-hand margin has been cut off so that some letters are not visible. 4 eyren: MS Cyren: perhaps the scribe did not recognize this spelling for `eggs' -- which might explain the strange omission of eggs in no. 65. 5-6 take it of pe spicer. i.e. buy it ready made? 6 gress i.e. leaves. (52) This may be an adapted or mistitled version of the more usual `goose in hogepot' (variously spelled): note feminine pronoun -- and a goose would yield grease more readily than a rabbit. (53) < MS Harley 279's `Lorey de Boolas' (CB, p. 25); < FC 98?? The tide here may be a carelessly written `Joureye', but it is not `Loureye'. See CB, p. 135 for Austin's etymology of his title. (54) FC 32, first half; whatever the original included, it certainly must have said what to leye `mix' the grease with. (55) 3 Say it `see that'. The only recipes for this purpose I have seen are those in the Viandier de Taillevent and the Menagier de Paris, none of which correspond at all to this. (56) 2 pen: MS `pan pen'. (57) Cf FC 4, `Caruel of pork'; this recipe is simpler and thus may be earlier in origin. The title has no doubt been miscopied somewhere along the line: it ought to be `Ceruellus'. (58) The relative simplicity of this recipe suggests an early origin: the history of this dish is discussed in CI, pp. 9-10. (59) 1 Schla = sla, `slay' or `strike'? (cf. no. 29, line 1). The whole beginning here reads suspiciously like a lamprey recipe. (62) NBC 18 (also in MS Sloane 7), with some minor omissions. (64) Cf DS 38, `a pench of egges': see remarks above. (65) Cf. FC 92, `Pochee'; while this recipe does not say what one should put three or four of on a dish, it is almost undoubtedly another sauce for poached eggs. If it were not for that final direction, this would resemble the `Papyos' of MS Harley 279: see remarks above (including those on recipe 5 1). 3-4: the recipe neglects to tell us to add the honey etc. to the milk mixture (66) This is certainly caudle ferry (ferre/fery/fere,etc), etc.), but not the same recipe as any other I know. 3 oure `over'. (67) DS 65, almost word-for-word spelled as in MS Douce 257. (68) DS 67; 2-3 do . . .bony: not in manuscripts collated for CI. < DC 61, `woelkeye'? (71) DS 64 `rys moyle', but here `& boyle it' is omitted. (72) DS 73, slightly miscopied: thus a misplaced `perin' (3). (73) DS 74. (74) DS 78. (75) DS 82. (76) DS 35 `apylmose', but cf DS 17 and MS Laud 553 (CB p. 113). (77) FC 124, which seems to have been elaborated. (78) FC 128, with minor omissions. (79) FC 129, `Ryse of fische daye', so confused that raisins implausibly take the place of the principal ingredient (with the title changed to reflect this). 4 soyaundres perhaps `coriander'? (cf. MED, s.v. `colia(u)ndre), but probably a misreading of FC's `almonds'. (80) FC 134. (81) DS 18. (83) Mistitled: this should be `quinces in paste'. CE MS Harley 279 (CB, p. 51), but that is for pears or quinces and starts with the pastry. Note the odd spelling cophyn here and in two following recipes, suggesting a different manuscript as a source. (84) MS Harley 279 (CB, p. 52); after cold (11) the scribe apparently became confused and gave it up. 11 owen `oven'. (85) Douce 55 (CB, p. 1 1 5), `Oyle Soppes'; but also MS Harley 279, `Lyode soppes' (CB, p. 11) -- the correct title -- but simpler. (86) Cf MS Harley 279, `Vele, kede, or henne in Bokenade' (CB, p. 13), but not exactly the same. The unique `pike' as an alternate meat suggests a misreading of MS Harley 279's `an pyke hem clene'. (87) MS Harley 4016, `muscules in broth' (CB, p. 9o). (88) MS Harley 279 (CB, p. 13), plus onions and an error -- chopping it small (2). (89) < DS 5 (and/or MS Harley 279; CB, p. 40)? -- elaborated. (90) While `Frutoure Rasyn' appears on at least one menu (CB, p. 69), no recipe corresponds to this. 3 with: MS `or with'. (91) Cf. MS Harley 279, `Lette Lardes' (CB, p. 35), but it soon diverges; to be served with the immediately preceding fritters. (92) Cf MS Harley 279, `Meselade' (CB, p. 42), and MS Douce 55, `Malesade': but those are more elaborated -- and more correctly add butter after suggesting heating a frying-pan, here omitted. `Malesade' in Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Rawlinson D 1222 (fol. [68.sup.v]) is somewhat closer. (93) FC 60, HJC version: see note in CI, p. 111. (94) FC 83, with a superfluous second call for saffron. (96) This is (of course) a confection made with crabapples, not seafood; recipes for `Char de quince' are fairly common, but the only other recipe for `Char de Crabb' I have seen is one in MS Sloane 1201 (fol. [72.sup.r]), which is not the same recipe. 2 & take: MS' & take & take'. 6 bene facis: `you do well'.

NOTES

(1) Witness the increasing number of conferences devoted to medieval culinary matters: e.g. the 1994 and 1995 ACTA conferences at Binghamton and Stony Brook, New York, which were be concerned exclusively with this subject. (2) EETS, os 91 (London, 1888; repr. 1964). (3) The scribal hand is fairly typical of the later fifteenth century. This manuscript is not referred to in C. E. Wright's Fontes Harleiani (London, 1972); the only reference I have found to it apart from that in A Catalogue of the Harleian Manuscripts in the British Museum, III (London, 1812), p. 265, is in The Babees Book . . ., ed. F. J. Furnivall, EETS os 32 (1868; repr. New York, 1969), which prints four recipes from this collection (p. 53) but gives no information about the manuscript except an estimate of the date: `ab. 1480 -- 1500'. (4) So labelled by the British Library; the Harleian Catalogue describes it as `Johannis de Ardene, Chirurgica & Medica'. John Arderne fl. 1370: see DNB, I, 548-9. Note that the foliation has been changed since the publication of the Catalogue, which cannot be trusted in these matters. (5) Who is not listed -- under any spelling I could think of -- in the Biographical Register for the University of Oxford to A.D. 1500 or the Alumni Cantabrigienses (I:1), let alone DNB. Nor could I find anything like `Awkbarow' as a place-name in England or Scotland. (6) He does record the plural form eyghener in no. 29, but that may simply mean he was correctly copying the text before him, whether he understood it or not. The forms here are not conclusively `northern' es against north Midlands: there is only one instance of sail for `shall', for example; but it is very odd to find whyte of eyren miswritten as `whyte of Cyren' and to have what appears to be a recipe for a sauce for poached eggs fail to identify the eggs. (7) Some of the northern spellings here, such as sla for `slay', are ones also characteristic of the north-east Midlands; but oure for `over' (unless a scribal error) is north or north-west Midlands. Constance B. Hieatt and Sharon Butler, Curye on Ingysch: English Culinay Manuscripts of the Fourteenth Century (Including the `Forme of Cury'), EETS, ss 8 (London, 1985); Constance B. Hieat and Robin F. Jones, `Two Anglo-Norman culinary collections edited from British Library manuscripts Additional 32085 and Royal 12.C.xii', Speculum, 61 (1986), 859-82; Constance B. Hieatt, An Ordinance of Pottage: An Edition of the Fifteenth Century Culinay Recipes in Yale University's MSBeinecke 163 (London, 1988). (9) Such as the eminent French scholars Jean Louis Flandrin and Bruno Laurioux; see, e.g., Flandrin's article `Brouet, potages et bouillons', Medievales, 5 (1983), 5-14, which argues, among other things, that a number of recipes are exclusively French because the same titles do not appear in English recipe collections. In some cases, at least, he is wrong: the titles have simply been corrupted or translated. This sort of misunderstanding is one of the reasons why we badly need a more carefully edited, and analysed, body of evidence for comparison purposes. (10) See Curye on lnglysch, pp. 31, 148. (11) Such as those in Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Laud Misc. 553 and Holkham Hall, MS 674. (12) The only clear `cluster' (in this sense) begins with no. 72 and ends with no. 75, representing Diversa servicia 73, 74, 78, and 82 (13) E.g. `Gely of Fysh' omits a word elsewhere omitted in only two manuscripts, Durham, Cathedral Library, MS Cosin v.iii. 11, and London, British Library, MS Cotton Julius D.viii; but it then includes another word omitted in the same two manuscripts. The wording of `Cawdeyle of Muskyls' is notably closer to the wording in Aberystwyth, National Library of Wales, MS Peniarth 349D than to any other, but the other recipes in this group show no consistent link with Peniarth. (14) The Forme of Cury's `Noumbles in Lent' (117) and other recipes for fish nombles use fish, but call for fish-blood and other ingredients which would make the fish resemble the `flesh-day' stew, such as a breadcrumb thickening, while the Harley 5401 recipe is simply mussels stewed in almond milk. (15) Abbreviations used from here on are as follows: CB = Two Fifteenth-Century Cookey Books (see n. 2 above), which prints MSS Harley 279 and Harley 4016, with extracts from MSS Ashmole 1439, Laud Misc. 553 and Douce 55; CI = Curye on Ingysch (see n. 8 above); DS = Diversa servicia, part II of Cl; FC = the Forme of Cury, part IV of CI; LCC = Liber cure cocorum (B.L. MS Sloane 1986), ed. R. Morris (London, 1862); NBC = A Noble Boke off Cookry, Holkham Hall MS 674, e d. [very inaccurately, unfortunately] Mrs Alexander [Robina] Napier (London, 1882); 0P = An Ordinance of Pottage (see n. 8 above). (16) CB, p. 9; the same recipe appears in at least three other parallel collections, those of MSS Ashmole 1439, Douce 55 and BL Add. 5467. (17) MED's tentative suggestion of a derivanon from paunche seems implausible.
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Author:Hieatt, Constance B.
Publication:Medium Aevum
Date:Mar 22, 1996
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