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Text considerations in the stage works of Carl Orff.

THE BAVARIAN COMPOSER CARL ORFF (1895-1982) has always occupied an unusual niche in the chronicle of 20th century music. During his lifetime, he was celebrated throughout German-speaking Europe for an array of close to twenty stage works that redefined the relationship between text, music, and drama, based upon artistic ideals rooted in the distant past, from classical Greece to the early Baroque. Elsewhere, and in North America in particular, he is remembered today for little more than two things: his ubiquitous and ever popular Carmina burana, and his work in music education for children, Schulwerk. Outside of Germany, Orff received scant attention for the other artistic products of his lifelong labors--an obscurity that has only increased with time. Even professional musicians of today are hard pressed to recall the titles of any other of Orff's works (Catulli carmina, Der Mond, and Die Kluge, possibly), let alone have a familiarity with the music. Orff garners the attention of the scholars and historians of 20th century musical stage drama, not the theatrical houses of the world.

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The immediate appeal of Carmina burana notwithstanding, Orff's musical style was often uncompromising, and his approach to dramatic style and textual declamation difficult in its high artistic ideals--much in the way that the early efforts of the Florentine Camerata (Peri, Caccini, Mei) to reinstate the purity of the ancient drama resulted in a monodic style that glorified the preeminence of text over musical complexity. Arguably, Orff was foremost a man of the theater, and a composer only to the extent necessary to enhance the dramatic effect.

Table 1 lists Orff's dramatic works according to chronology of composition. The data is readily available, given here simply for convenience, and to establish the language requirements of each work.

The fame of Carmina burana has meant that the issues of dealing with its mixture of medieval Latin, Middle High German, and Old French are well known. Every choral conductor who has performed this work must come to grips with the questions of historically informed pronunciation, and guidelines to assist in this pursuit are readily available online and in book form. (1) It is thus not the purpose of this article to provide yet another walkthrough of these challenges. Advance correspondence between soloists and conductor will be necessary to ensure that there is a single lyric diction policy in place for the performance.

A glance at the Language(s) column of Table 1 will reveal that three other uncommon lyric diction considerations arise in Orffs stage works, all diachronic: classical Latin, classical Greek, and Bavarian dialect. The first of these, classical Latin, has its own phonology, distinct from medieval Latin. In a recent article, the author dealt with these differences, and provided lists of musical works that require familiarity with classical Latin pronunciation, as well as classical Greek. (2) The balance of this article will concern itself with classical Greek (or Attic dialect, as it is sometimes known), as appropriate for Orff and other composers who have employed such texts, with particular reference to Prometheus and Die Bernauerin. A brief note on Bavarian dialect will conclude, but a full examination of the dialect considerations in Orffs Bavarian world theater works lies outside the scope of this article.

Orff's theatrical works resist traditional labels, and embrace five categories:

1. Fairy tales (Marchenstucke) Ein Sommernachtstraum / Der Mond / Die Kluge

2. Lamenti

Klage der Ariadne / Orpheus / Tanz der Sproden

3. Trionfi

Carmina burana / Catulli carmina / Trionfo di A frodite

4. Theatrum mundi

Antigonae / Oedipus der Tyrann / Prometheus / De temporum fine comoedia

5. Bavarian world theater (Bairisches Welttheater)

Die Bernauerin / Astutuli / Comoedia de Christi resurrectione / Ludus de nato Infanto mirificus

The great plays of ancient Greece and Rome, like classical mythology, have been revered and been renowned since the Renaissance throughout the western world. They were required study in liberal arts curricula of universities until the mid-20th century. The plays of Aeschylus, Euripides, and others have been adapted and set as operas since the earliest years of operatic history, and thousands of operas based on classical mythology have been written. But the vast majority of these adaptations, whether presented in operatic setting or as spoken theater, have employed the modern vernacular in the interest of intelligibility. Orff's own Antigonae and Oedipus der Tyrann were written to the German adaptations of Holderlin, and it wasn't until Prometheus that he committed to a purist linguistic approach to revivifying classical Greek drama. (3) Richard Strauss revisited classical literature and mythology several times, but always with German libretti.

The essence of ancient Greek euphony lies in the primacy of the spoken word. In fact, "The primacy of the spoken word" is the title of the first chapter of W. B. Stanford's book on the subject. (4) We know that the dramas of Sophocles, Aeschylus, Euripides, and others were sung, at least in part, in ancient Greek times. The line of demarcation between speech and singing was, in ancient oratory, merely a matter of continuity vs. fluctuation in pitch over time, rather than a physiological distinction in terms of supported vs. collapsed utterance. In order to revive that primacy of text in his theatrical works, Orff adopted three levels of musical text setting, as illustrated in Examples 1 to 3 from Trionfo di Afrodite.

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These three types of word setting will often intermingle, as the words and the dramatic situation demand. Melody in a traditional sense has no place in Orff's musical language. Typically, Orff's text setting will be either unremittingly syllabic, or highly melismatic and ornate, with little in between. This is matched with frequent extremes of register, again with little in between. Readers are likely to be familiar with this aspect of his writing from the solo passages in Carmina burana that tax singers' technical command to the limit.

MODERN GREEK MUSICAL THEATER

Opera was nonexistent in Greece until the mid-19th century, and early productions were of Italian opera. A national genre dates from 1867, when O Ypopsyphios Vouleftis (The Parliamentary Candidate) by Spiridon Xyndas was produced. Of course, much of the repertory with Greek libretti is based on nonclassical literature, and as such naturally requires modern Greek in performance--a consideration beyond the scope of this article. For instance, the five operas of the prominent nationalist composer and founder of the Greek National School of Music, Manolis Kalomiris, all deal with modern themes. None of Spyridon Samaras's fifteen stage works are based on ancient drama. There has been less interest than might be expected in reviving ancient Greek drama on the modern operatic stage on the part of Greek composers, and those that exist have had little currency internationally. A notable exception is Panagiotis Carousos's opera, Prometheus Bound (1994), which has received many performances in North America and Europe, with a libretto in English, French, modern Greek, etc., as required. A few others can be mentioned in conjunction with this article, since the diction model in performance will be classical or demotic Greek, at the discretion of the directors:
Pallandios, Menelaos  Antigone  1942
Michailidis, Solon    Odysseus  1955
Stathis, Theodore     Antigone  2011


Orff's first use of the Greek language was in Catulli carmina. The libretto begins with the phrase "Eis aiona! Tui sum." (In eternity! I am yours.), sung by youths revelling in the ecstasy of Eros. This gesture symbolically united Catullus's Latin with the Hellenistic roots of his poetry. But apart from that isolated, prominent caption, Orff's first significant foray into musical setting of Greek text was in Trionfo di Afrodite. In this work, Catullus poetry and quotations from Euripides and Sappho accompany a nuptial celebration and the worship of Aphrodite and Hymeneos.

Orff returned to Greek in three later works: Prometheus, Comoedia de Christi resurrectione, and De temporum fine comoedia. In the Easter play, Comoedia de Christi resurrectione, a women's chorus laments over Christ's grave in Greek, with Bion of Smyrna's words from his Epitaphios. In the triumphant finale, the male Anachorite chorus chants the "Christos aneste" (Christ is risen) hymn of the orthodox liturgy, while the boys' choir sings the vernacular "Christ ist erstanden!" In his final work, De temporum fine comoedia, the nine Sibyls prophesy in Greek the end of the world, while the Anachorite chorus retorts in Greek, Latin, and German with words taken from the relevant Orphic hymn by the composer. The play (and Orff's creative life) ends with the celestial chorus chanting the words of Anaxagoras, "Ta panta nous" (purpose to all things).

Arguably the most daring and uncompromisingly purist compositional project of Orff's life was his setting of Prometheus desmotes, in which the original Greek text of Aeschylus was employed throughout. It is his only work written entirely in Greek. We shall look at an excerpt from this work in detail below, after a brief review of classical Greek phonological rules.

CLASSICAL GREEK

When scholars refer to "classical Greek," they mean primarily the Attic dialect between the fifth and mid-fourth centuries B.C. Athens was the cultural heart of Greece at this time, and the period covers Aeschylus, Euripides, and other playwrights. Thus, it can be taken as the pronunciation standard for modern productions in Greek, with or without music. The pronunciation developed from the "ancient Greek" that preceded it, and differs from Hellenistic or koine Greek, which came after. Like classical Latin, the establishment of a pronunciation for classical Greek is largely a matter of inference from extant written sources. These have been exhaustively researched, and we know a great deal. The consistency in orthography and pronunciation of Greek is remarkable, for a language that has an unbroken history of more than 3000 years. Authorities disagree in details about classical Greek pronunciation, especially regarding precise vowel colors. This is due both to the process of phonological reconstruction through inference, and because we know that pronunciation was evolving quite rapidly during this time. Specifically, diphthongs (as indicated in the orthography) evolved into long pure vowels early on in this period. The arrows in Table 2 indicate the pronunciation changes that occurred.

A cautionary note is in order regarding nomenclature. The IPA employs several phonetic symbols derived from, and very similar or identical to, cursive Greek letters. It is important to distinguish between <[beta]> / [[beta]], <[gamma]> / [??], <[delta]> / [[eth]], <[theta]> / [[theta]], <[lambda]> / [[??]], <[v]> / [v], and <[chi]> / [x]. Others, such as <[alpha]> / [a], <[epsilon]> / [[epsilon]], <[kappa]> / [k], are unproblematic, because of the expected correspondence between the symbol and the sound.

Note that the open vowels <[eta]> [??] and <[omega]> [??] are always long, while the more tense <[epsilon]> [e] and <[omicron]> [o] are short. <[alpha]> [a a:], <[iota]> [i i:] and <[upsilon]> [y y:] may be short or long. Short [[epsilon]] and [??] are thus gaps in the phonology. Long [o:] and [u:] will only be written as the digraph <[omicron][upsilon]>. Because the classical period witnessed diphthong loss, [a:] can be written as both <[alpha]> and <[alpha][iota]>, and [y:] as both <[upsilon]> and <[upsilon][iota]>. [i:] will be written only as <[iota]>, and [e:] only as <[epsilon][iota]>. Such asymmetries make for a confusing relationship between orthographic symbols, vowel and diphthongs (Table 3).

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Existence of the neutral schwa [??] is highly unlikely during this period. Vowel length is distinctive with [i], [e], [a], [o], and [y], and with the [ai] and [au] diphthongs. In the case of [a], [i], and [y] length is distinctive, but not signalled in the orthography, except by diacritics. [y] and [y:] were used only in the Attic-Ionic dialect, and were pronounced [u] and [u:] elsewhere. The long diphthongs [[iota]:i], [a:i] and [a:i] were uncommon, and merged with the long pure vowels [e:], [a:], and [o:] very early on. Thus [e] and [e:] are distinguished orthographically as <[epsilon]> and <[epsilon][iota]>, respectively.

There are gaps in the diphthongs: [??-.u] does not occur, and short [ei] and [ou] became monophthongal [e:] and [o:] very early on. Thus, not all digraphs are phonetic diphthongs in ancient Greek. Modern Greek treats vowel digraphs as pure vowels, or vowel + consonant. Some authorities claim that E--H is contrasted in length, but not in quality as in modern Greek. Thus, <[epsilon]> is transcribed as [[epsilon]] instead of [e]. In this article, we have followed <[epsilon]> [e] and <[eta]> [[epsilon]:].

Ancient Greek has fifteen consonant phonemes, nine of which are plosive:
/p/ /b/      /t/ /d/     /k/ /g/
/[p.sup.h]/  /[t.sup.h]  /[k.sup.h]/


The remaining six are /s/, /h/, /m/, /n/, /l/, and /r/.

There are three confirmed allophones:
/s/   [right arrow]  [z]
                     [s] elsewhere
/n/   [right arrow]  [[eta]] before [gamma] [g], [kappa] [k],
                     [chi] [[k.sup.h]], and [xi] [ks]
                     [n] elsewhere
/r/  [right arrow]   [??] word-initially
                     [r] elsewhere


Voiced [r] was not permitted in initial position. The only final consonants permitted are [r], [s], and [n]. Singers are aware of the need to avoid aspiration of plosives in French and Italian, but in no common languages of vocal music are aspirated plosives contrasted with unaspirated--as they are in Sanskrit. This distinction must be learned and applied consistently in ancient Greek, as there are minimal pairs. They are contrastive phonemically as well as distinct orthographically. The three voiced plosives are not aspirated.

The three aspirated plosives and the three voiced plosives have evolved into fricatives in more modern forms of Greek. This change occurred as early as the Hellenistic period. It is important to retain their aspirated plosive quality in classical Greek--a distinction that singers possessing familiarity with modern Greek will need to watch for.
Classical                   Modern

[p.sup.h]    [right arrow]  [f] [pi] [right arrow] [phi] ([pi]
                            [omicron][rho][omicron][zeta],--[phi]
                            [omicron][rho][omicron][zeta],)
[t.sup.h]    [right arrow]  [9] [TAU] [RIGHT ARROW] [THETA] ([pi]
                            [alpha][TAU][omicron][zeta]--[pi][alpha]
                            [THETA][omicron][zeta])
[[k.sup.h]]  [right arrow]  [x] [kappa][right arrow]
                            [chi]([lambda][epsilon][kappa][omicron]
                            [zeta];--[lambda][epsilon][chi][omicron]
                            [zeta])
[bb]         [right arrow]  [v], except after nasals
[dd]         [right arrow]  [??], except after nasals
[gg]         [right arrow]  [??], except after nasals


A further trap for Greek speakers is the modern presence of palatal consonants, which must be avoided in ancient Greek.

An orthographic doubling of a consonant is a reliable guide to gemination. Gemination was much more a feature of ancient than modern Greek. In the latter, its use is restricted mainly to southeastern dialects. In ancient Greek, [ p b k s m n 1 r ] were all doubled in both orthography and pronunciation.

In setting ancient Greek to music, Orff ignores the verse structure of the original, with its long and short syllables, and frees himself from the stress patterns of words and phrases. Much of the declamation unfolds in triplet patterns, whether the long vowels of the text parallel that S-w-w rhythmic pattern or not. This is not to be construed as a weakness of the declamation. Greek accentuation in ancient times was pitch-based rather than length- or stress-based, and in any event unfolded in a manner independent of the arrangement of long and short vowels. It may always be an open philological question whether the pitch-based accentual pattern of ancient Greek was also paralleled by patterns of dynamic or agogic stress. There is no evidence to suggest that they coexisted, and the sources of the time speak only in terms of pitch contour, with the strong syllables declaimed at a pitch roughly a fifth above weak syllables, with or without spoken "portamenti" between the extremities. Orff was thus probably wise to elect not to attempt a slavish adherence to a text-based rhythmic formula for his text settings--thereby in a sense "passing the buck" to the performer, who may or may not have familiarity with Greek meter and the accentuation patterns of the lyric. "This produces a type of stylised "paralanguage" without a rational-logical communication of meaning, but charged with monumental original effects in the manner of a myth." (5)

Example 4 (on the following four pages), from scene 6 of Prometheus, features a large part of the sung and declaimed monologue of Io, as she describes her night visions to Prometheus, and relates to him the prophecy of the oracle of Loxias. (6) The chorus then laments her hapless state in intense chromatic harmony. The example provides the vocal lines, the Greek text of Aeschylus, a transliteration into Roman script, and an IPA transcription.

The words are grouped consistently into triplet rhythmic patterns, without obvious adherence to either stress patterns (pitch or accent) of words or phrases, or vowel length. Thus, the performer can feel entitled to considerable declamatory freedom from the printed page, based on the dramatic intensity of words and ideas. A familiarity with the rhythmic and accentual flow of ancient Greek oratory is a crucial component of authentic performance throughout this score. In that few performers are also Greek scholars, casting this work can present immense challenges. Moreover, the Roman transliteration provided is misleading, especially with respect to the several diphthongs of ancient Greek. The [epsilon]v [eu] diphthong for instance, as in [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], will encourage a German singer to pronounce [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], as indeed it is in German, instead of [zdeus]. This is all well and good for intelligibility for a German audience, but is hardly faithful to Aeschylus's Greek. The transliteration in the score is also problematic with the [ei] diphthong, transliterated as <ei> (= [ae] to a German singer).

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A NOTE ON ORFF'S "BAIRISCHES WELTTHEATER"

There are a number of so-called "upper German" dialects, spanning at least from Munich to Vienna. Musicians may have some acquaintance with orthographic attempts to capture one of these dialects, as in the dialogue of Strauss's Der Rosenkavalier, when Octavian feigns, as Mariandel, a working class Austrian dialect:
Na, zu den Herrn, da ging i net
da hatt i an Respect,
na was mir da passieren konnt
da war i gar zu g'schreckt.
i wass net, was er meint,
i wass net, was er will,
Aber was z'viel is, das ist zuviel.


While similarities exist, Austrians speak a dialect different to Bavarian German in informal situations, except in the western regions bordering Bavaria, where Bavarian dialect is used.

"Orff-Bairisch," as it is sometimes known, is not so much an authentic Bavarian dialect as a stylized artistic construct of the composer, derived from his intensive study of Andreas Schmeller's Bayerisches Worterbuch (1832-37), the first lexicographic treatment of Upper German dialects. Although no orthographic standard exists for the modern Bavarian dialects, authors such as Ludwig Thoma have attempted to capture the dialect in literature.

Dialogue can be extracted more or less at random from Orff's first Bavarian stage work, Die Bernauerin, in illustration of the textual challenges of this very specific genre. Here is a sample of text, from one of the townsfolk:
'S hat gsunga
grad wiar i ruastertn tua
aus'm Haus,
aus'm Fletz,
bin im Turstock no gstandn,
da siehg i's aa scho
hoch drobn auf der Hausrin
ihr'm schel katn Giebl
is's Amixl gsessn
hat gsunga, grad gsunga.


Because this is spoken rather than sung, authenticity of dialect is even more difficult and elusive than in the sung portions of the score. While there are some pitched and harmonic vocal sections, most of the accompanied vocal lines are set in unpitched rhythmic notation, much like the notation of the percussion instruments that dominate the instrumental accompaniment. The witches of scene 6, declaim throughout, alone and in ensemble, as in Example 5 (on the following three pages). Here the verbiage is closer to colloquial standard German--more akin to the alliterative, onomatopoetic Zungenbrecher of Wagner's Alberich.

The Bavarian world theater works of Orff after Die Bernauerin are a heterogeneous mix. Astutuli is unlike any other stage work of the composer, being a "Kumedi" for actors. All text is declaimed, either freely or in rhythmic counterpoint to the percussion ensemble that accompanies. Trained singers are unnecessary, so although the text declamation requires the same familiarity with the stylized dialect employed, the work lies outside our present consideration.

The remaining two Bavarian works also bear Latin titles. The Comoedia de Christi resurrectione was a commission for an Easter play for a television production. The opening section is choral, sung in Greek, then Latin. The heart of the play is spoken dialogue between twelve sentries guarding the grave and the devil. Once the devil has been vanquished, a boys' chorus singing in German joins with the chorus of angels in Latin, and the anchorite male chorus in Greek. It is in the dialogue of the central play itself that the composer utilizes the artistic language, "Orff-Bairisch," of Die Bernauerin.

Ludus de nato Infanto mirificus adopts the same structure as his Easter play, with a spoken central play framed by musical sections. As in Die Bernauerin, Hexen (witches) make an appearance, dominating the music of the opening scene, and declaiming warped phrases to Orff's trademark triplet rhythms:

Labts d'Schneewinder treibn, werfts d'Windschaufeln auf! Windrader, Treibwinder, hellischer Blasbalg, Blasbalg vom Teifl!

Stickts Gfrier, schickts Gfrier, grobmachtinge Grfier!

Hauts Gfriernagi nei, dab allssamt verbeint, verbeint und versteint!

Mendax sibilla, so zwing'ma den Stern!

So zwing'ma den Zauber, dan Spruch und den Stern!

The central spoken play is an "Orff-Bairisch" dialogue between five shepherds. The fourth and fifth shepherds have extended dialogues. The following excerpt from the fifth shepherd captures the flavor:
   Eingschlafn bin i,
da gspur i a Liecht,
      und siech,
wiar an Engl dahockt,
grad nebn meiner,
an Kopf in d'Hand gstutzt,
  so hat er sinniert,
      und gwart't.
     Na find i mi wieder
grad wiar i den Steig
bei der Leitn 'rakimm.
Da stenga drei Hiittn
--tief im Schnee--
zwoa san ganz nachti,
do aus der kloanern
    mitm Stall
  kummt a Liecht,
des zwengt si durch alle Spaltn
    und Ritzn.
    I frag mi,
,,Wia kummt so viel Liecht
wia kummt da des Liecht
    in die Hiittn,
    zum Heu?"


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Orff's Bavarian works are self-limiting in their specific appeal to an audience that will be able to comprehend their textual demands. They are virtually untranslatable into other vernaculars, but have retained their appeal in Germanic Europe, where imaginative productions have been mounted, involving actors, dancers, and regional choirs, and where children trained in the Schulwerk tradition can join hands with professional singers and orchestral players.

NOTES

(1.) Most of the available pronunciation keys for this work avoid IPA symbols, as the target audience is the choral conductor and chorister.

(2.) Leslie De'Ath, "The Latin Problem--How Much Does a Singer Really Need to Know?", Journal of Singing 72, no.5 (May/June 2016): 589-604. In endnote 6 of that article, reference was made to a Victorian era tradition in Cambridge and Oxford of mounting performances of ancient Greek plays, with music by Stanford, Parry, and other prominent composers of the time. While the present article treats of Greek lyric diction in the context of Orff's dramatic works, the principles apply equally to any musical compositions involving classical Greek text. (Marc-Anthony Turnage's 1988 opera, Greek, however, has a libretto in English.)

(3.) The performance of Prometheus in Munich in 1975, honoring Orff's 80th birthday, was by all accounts a watershed in 20th century musical theater performance. Orff's collaborator and kindred spirit, Rafael Kubelik, conducted, and Roland Hermann magisterially assumed the title role--one of the most challenging, merciless singing-acting roles in all musical theater. A live performance commercial recording of that event exists (Orfeo, C 526 9921).

(4.) W. B. Stanford, The Sound of Greek: Studies in the Greek Theory and Practice of Euphony (Berkeley/Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1967), 1-26.

(5.) Werner Thomas, Pipers Enzyklopadie des Musiktheaters, vol. 4 (Munich/Zurich: Piper, 1991), 581 ff.

(6.) Io's monologue includes lines 647-659 and 660-668 of the play. The chorus part consists of lines 687-693.

(7.) In Example 4, falling diphthongs are symbolized [eu], [a:i], etc. for convenience, but the understanding is that the second element is a semivowel, as [e[??]], [a:[??]], the first vowel being syllabic.

FURTHER READING

Brown, Peter, and Suzana Ograjensek, eds. Ancient Drama in Music for the Modern Stage. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Comrie, Bernard, ed. The World's Major Languages. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Greek

Allen, W[illiam] Sidney. Vox graeca: The Pronunciation of Classical Greek, 3rd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Bubenik, Vit. The Phonological Interpretation of Ancient Greek: A Pandialectal Analysis. Toronto/Buffalo/London: University of Toronto Press, 1983. A feature-based analysis, without IPA.

Christidis, A.-F., ed. A History of Ancient Greek from the Beginnings to Late Antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. This vast standard work on Greek grammar is an English translation, and originally appeared in 2001 in Greek, and compiled for the Centre for the Greek Language. The first six chapters of Part IV are of particular relevance to this article, especially E. B. Petrounias, "The Pronunciation of Classical Greek," 556-570.

Daitz, Stephen G. The Pronunciation and Reading of Ancient Greek: A Practical Guide, 2nd ed. (Living Voice of Greek and Latin series). Guilford, CT: J. Norton, 1984.

Holton, David, Peter Mackridge, and Irene Philippaki-Warburton. Greek: A Comprehensive Grammar of the Modern Language (Routledge Grammars). London/New York: Routledge, 1997.

Liddell, H. G., and R. Scott. Greek-English Lexicon, 10th ed. (rev., Henry Stuart Jones) Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.

Mackridge, Peter A. The Modern Greek Language: A Descriptive Analysis of Standard Modern Greek. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Pring, Julian T. A Grammar of Modern Greek on a Phonetic Basis. London: University of London Press, 1950.

Probert, Philomen. A New Short Guide to the Accentuation of Ancient Greek (BCP Advanced Language Series). London: Bristol Classical Press, 2003.

Sommerstein, Alan H. The Sound Pattern of Ancient Greek (Publications of the Philological Society 23). Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1973. A feature-based analysis, without IPA.

Stanford, W. B. The Sound of Greek: Studies in the Greek Theory and Practice of Euphony. Berkeley/Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1967.

Sturtevant, Edgar H[oward]. The Pronunciation of Greek and Latin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1920.

--, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Linguistic Society of America, University of Pennsylvania / Groningen: Bouma, 1940.

--, 2nd ed., reprint. Chicago: Ares, 1975.

--, 2nd ed., reprint. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1977.

Teodorsson, Sven-Tage. The Phonemic System of the Attic Dialect, 400-340 BC (Studia Graeca et Latina Gothoburgensia 32) Goteborg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis, 1974.

Teodorsson, Sven-Tage. The Phonology of Attic in the Hellenistic Period (Studia Graeca et Latina Gothoburgensia 40). Goteborg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis, 1978.

Bavarian dialect

Frank, Rupert. Bayrisches-Worterbuch (online resource); http://www.bayrisches-woerterbuch.de/.

Schmeller, Johann Andreas. Bayerisches Worterbuch. Stuttgart/Tubingen: J. G. Cotta, 1827. Modern edition: Munich: R. Oldenbourg, 2008.

A Wikipedia site exists (Bayrisch-Ostereichischen Wikipedia), completely in modern Bavarian; https://bar.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoamseitn.

Leslie De'Ath, Associate Editor
TABLE 1.

                                      Date
Title                Genre            composed    Author(s)

Gisei, das Opfer     Music drama      1913        Japanese drama,
[60']                                             "Terakoya"


Ein                  Schauspiel       1917/1962   Shakespeare
Sommernachtstraum
[145']
Klage der Ariadne    Lamento          1925        Rinuccini/Orff
[12']
Orpheus [60']                         1923-24     Striggio/Orff

Tanz der Sproden     Ballo            1925        Rinuccini/Orff
[30']
Carmina burana       Cantiones        1935-36     anon.
[65']                profanae


Der Mond [90']       Ein kleines      1936-38     after J. L. & W. C.
                     Welttheater                  Grimm
Antigonae [160']     Trauerspiel      1941-49     Sophocles
Catulli carmina      Ludi scaenici    1941-43     after Catullus
[45']
Die Kluge: die                        1941-42     after J. L. & W. C.
Geschichte von dem                                Grimm
Konig und der klu-
gen Frau [90']
Die Bernauerin       Ein bairisches   1944-46     Orff
[80']                Stuck
Astutuli [50']       Ein bairische    1946-48     Orff
                     Komodie
Trionfo di Afrodite  Concerto         1950-51     Catullus/
[45']                scenico                      Sappho/
                                                  Euripides
Oedipus der Tyrann   Trauerspiel      1951-58     Sophocles
[165']
Comoedia de          Osterspiel       1955        Orff
Christi resurrec-
tione [55']

Ludus de nato        Weihnachtsspiel  1960        Orff
Infanto mirificus
[60']
Prometheus [130']    Figurentheater   1963-67     Orff (after
                                                  Aeschylus,
                                                  "Prometheus
                                                  desmotes")
De temporum fine     Buhnenspiel      1970-71;    Orff
comoedia: Das                         rev. 1979;
Spiel vom Ende der                    rev. 1981
Zeiten [70']


Title                Language(s)     Translator      Theatrical genre

Gisei, das Opfer     German          Florenz, K.     (early stage work,
[60']                                                influenced by
                                                     Japanese Noh
                                                     drama)
Ein                  German          Schlegel, A.W.  Marchenstuck
Sommernachtstraum
[145']
Klage der Ariadne    German          Orff            Lamenti, I
[12']
Orpheus [60']        German          Gunther, D.     Lamenti, II
                     (+ spoken)
Tanz der Sproden     German          Gunther, D.     Lamenti, III
[30']
Carmina burana       12c Germanic                    Trionfi, I
[65']                Latin/Middle
                     High German/
                     Old French
Der Mond [90']       German          Orff            Marchenstuck

Antigonae [160']     German          Holderlin       [Theatrum mundi]
Catulli carmina      Latin (Greek)   Orff            Trionfi, II
[45']
Die Kluge: die       German (+                       Marchenstuck
Geschichte von dem   spoken)
Konig und der klu-
gen Frau [90']
Die Bernauerin       Orff-Bairisch                   [Bairisches
[80']                (+ spoken)                      Welttheater]
Astutuli [50']       Orff-Bairisch                   [Bairisches
                     (+ spoken)                      Welttheater]
Trionfo di Afrodite  Latin/Greek                     Trionfl, III
[45']

Oedipus der Tyrann   German          Holderlin       [Theatrum mundi]
[165']               (+ intoning)
Comoedia de          Greek/Latin/                    [Bairisches
Christi resurrec-    Orff-Bairisch                   Welttheater]
tione [55']

Ludus de nato        Orff-Bairisch/                  [Bairisches
Infanto mirificus    Latin                           Welttheater]
[60']
Prometheus [130']    Greek                           [Theatrum mundi]



De temporum fine     Greek,                          [Theatrum mundi]
comoedia: Das        German, Latin
Spiel vom Ende der
Zeiten [70']

TABLE 2.

Cap        Cursive             Name     Classical

A          [alpha]             alpha    [a] [a:]
B          [beta]              beta     [b]
[gamma]    gamma                        [g]
                                        [Q]

                                        [gk]
A          [delta]             delta    [d]
E          [epsilon]           epsilon  [e]
Z          [zeta]              zeta     [zd]
H          [eta]               eta      [e:]
[THETA]    [theta]             theta    [[t.sup.h]]
I          [iota]              iota     [i] [i:]
K          [kappa]             kappa    [k]
[LAMBDA]   [lambda]            lambda   [1]
[MU]       [mu]                mu       [m]
[NU]       [nu]                nu       [n]
[XI]       [xi]                ksi      [ks]
[OMICRON]  [omicron]           omicron  [o]
[PI]       [pi]                Pi       [p]
[RHO]      [rho]               rho      [r]
[SIGMA]    [sigma];            sigma    [s]
[TAU]      [tau]               tau      [t]
[UPSILON]  [upsilon]           upsilon  [y] y:
[PHI]      [phi]               phi      [[p.sup.h]]
[CHI]      [chi]               chi      [[k.sup.h]]
[PSI]      [psi]               psi      [ps]
[OMEGA]    [omega]             omega    [??]
Dipbthongs
           [alpha][iota]                [a:i][right arrow][a:]
           [eta][iota]                  [[epsilon]:i]
           [omega][iota]                [??:i]
           [alpha][iota]                [ai]
           [epsilon][iota]              [ei][right arrow][e:]
           [omicron][iota]              [oi]
           [upsilon][iota]              [yi][right arrow][y:]
           [alpha][upsilon]             [au]
           [epsilon][upsilon]           [eu]
           [omicron][upsilon]           [o:u][right arrow][o:]
                                        [right arrow][u:]

Cap        Modern

A          [a]
B          [v]
[gamma]    [j]
           [rj] before y,
           x,t
           [(rj)g] before K
A          [5]
E          [i]
Z          [z]
H          [i]
[THETA]    [??]
I          [i]
K          [k]
[LAMBDA]   [1]
[MU]       [m]
[NU]       [n]
[XI]       [ks]
[OMICRON]  [o]
[PI]       [p]
[RHO]      [r]
[SIGMA]    [s]
[TAU]      [t]
[UPSILON]  [i]
[PHI]      [f]
[CHI]      X
[PSI]      [ps]
[OMEGA]    [o]
Dipbthongs
           [a]
           [i]
           [0]
           [[epsilon]]
           [i]
           [i]
           [i]
           [av], [af]
           [ev], [ef]
           [u]
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Language and Diction
Author:De'Ath, Leslie
Publication:Journal of Singing
Article Type:Column
Geographic Code:1CANA
Date:Sep 1, 2016
Words:5012
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