Terminal Pleistocene to mid-Holocene occupation and an early cremation burial at Ille Cave, Palawan, Philippines.
New excavations at Ille Cave, Palawan, Philippines have produced the first well-stratified and dated terminal Pleistocene to mid-Holocene archaeological sequence from the Philippine archipelago. This sequence includes evidence of changing subsistence and settlement patterns, as well as an early cremation burial. The island of Palawan, situated between Borneo to the south and the Philippine archipelago to the north and east (Figure 1), is important for its biogeographic links with the Sundaic region of Southeast Asia (e.g. Heaney 1985; Heaney et al. 2005; Merill 1923; Reis & Garong 2001), and for interpreted patterns of ancient human migration between, and cultural connections with, mainland Southeast Asia, the test of the Philippines, Taiwan, Borneo and Indonesia (Bellwood 1997; 2005; O'Connor 2007; Solheim 2006). Many cave sites are known from the island, including Tabon Cave, which has the earliest recovered human remains in the Philippines (c. 45kya) (Detroit et al. 2002; Dizon 2003; Fox 1970), and some of the earliest in Island Southeast Asia (e.g. O'Connor 2007). There are also several important Neolithic and Metal Age cave cemeteries in Palawan (Fox 1970).
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Ille is a solution cave and rockshelter at the base of a c. 75m-high karst tower near the village of New Ibajay, El Nido, north Palawan (119[degrees] 30'19"E, 11[degrees]1l'46"N). The site comprises east and west rockshelter mouths, opening onto a relatively flat platform of silt loam (Figures 2 and 3), in a setting of light woodland. From the Ille summit other local towers are visible, and 4km to the east lies the sea at Sibaltan Bay (Figure 4). The landscape is dominated by the floodplain of the Dewil river and its tributaries, covered by rice paddies, tree and vegetable crops and secondary rain forest.
In 1998 the National Museum of the Philippines began a long-term survey and excavation programme in the region, including Ille, other nearby caves and their surroundings (Cayron 2004; de la Torre 1999; Hara & Cayron 2001; Jago-on 2000; Kress 2004; Pawlik 2004; Paz 1998; SEAICE 1999; 2000; Solheim 2000; Szabo et al. 2004; Teodosio 2004). Initial investigations in the east mouth of Ille Cave revealed two late prehistoric burials underlain by shell midden layers dated to c. 5000-7000 cal BE The deepest deposits, overlying an apparent rock floor c. 1.5m below the modern ground surface, were dated to c. 10 500 BP on charcoal (Szabo 2004; Szabo et al. 2004). New investigations began in 2004 upon hearing that the site had been looted and that the supposed rock floor of the east mouth trench had been broken through by treasure hunters, exposing a further 40+cm of early Holocene and possibly Late Pleistocene cultural deposits (Paz & Ronquillo 2004).
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The Ille Cave Project was established to investigate the spatial extent, nature and antiquity of the archaeological sequences at the site (ASP 2005-6; Eusebio et al. 2006; Lewis et al. 2006; Ochoa 2005; Vitales 2006). The previously excavated east mouth 1 x 2m trench was extended by 4 x 4m (Figure 2), trowel-excavated by context and sieved (100 per cent of contexts). The extensive cemetery, shell midden and underlying deposits were investigated to a depth of 2m, and the underlying sedimentary sequences exposed by the looters at the north end of the site to a depth of 3.6m. The main stratigraphic sequence is summarised in Table 1. The upper parts of the east mouth sequence, including the large Neolithic-to eighteenth-century AD cemetery and mid-Holocene shell midden are not reported here.
Terminal Pleistocene to mid-Holocene sequence at Ille Cave
The focus of this paper is the early occupation levels identified beneath the c. 5000-7000 cal BP shell midden (Table 1). These comprise a sloping 60 to 100cm-thick unit of burnt deposits in clayey silt, with intact and disturbed hearth features, flaked lithics, numerous faunal remains and one cremated human burial (Contexts 334-807; Figure 5). The deepest deposits comprise steeply sloping alternating layers of very fine red and green, peagrit-sized rounded limestone gravels in yellow-orange clay (20-30cm thick; Contexts 806, 1306, 1308) and stiff yellow clay layers (30+cm thick) (Contexts 866, 1307, 1309). Similar deposits were seen in a test pit south of the karst tower, suggesting they are not simply cave sediments, although their history has yet to be determined. The uppermost of these deposits (Context 806) was devoid of cultural material. Below this, a few stone artefacts, fragments of charred nut and worked chert were recovered in association with a substantial anthropic-derived assemblage of burnt and unburnt animal bones (Context 866; Tables 3 and 4). Twenty charcoal and bone samples from secure contexts produced a sequential range of dates from c. 9000-11 000 cal BE linking the well-stratified archaeological sequence to a high resolution chronology (Table 2). A further sample of charcoal from Context 866 returned a date of c. 14 000 cal BP. The low combustion yield and a depleted [delta][sup.13]C value (Tom Higham, pers. comm.) add some uncertainty to the accuracy of this date, but if confirmed it places this deposit well into the Pleistocene.
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
Deposits dated to c. 9400-11 000 cal BP
Contexts 334 to 807 comprise silty clay layers rich in fragments of decaying limestone and speleothems, with occasional oxidised and reduced clay lumps. Limestone pebbles (some apparently burnt), charcoal, burnt and unburnt animal bones, shells and chert and obsidian flakes occasionally occurred in discrete clusters in apparent activity areas. Several intact individual hearths were found within these units (Table 1), along with hearth rake-out material. Radiocarbon dates from these contexts span c. 9400-11 000 cal BP (Table 2).
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
Human foragers appear to have hunted a diverse range of local fauna from different ecological zones in the forest, including pig, deer, macaque and various small carnivores (Tables 3 and 4). The remains of turtles and snakes are also common in the archaeological record (Table 4), and even though monitor lizards are notorious scavengers and may have been attracted to refuse, the consistent abundant presence of their partial skeletons suggests that they too represent part of human prey.
Intriguingly, in the cultural sequence succeeding Context 866 deer bones diminish in number, and by the mid-Holocene the deer is replaced by pig as the dominant hunted taxon in the assemblage. Even with the extensive sampling and sieving strategies employed at Ille Cave, fish and bird bones are rare in these deposits. The few identifiable fish bones appear to be those of freshwater Cyprinidae. Other small mammals such as bats and murids probably represent inclusions in accumulating sediments, although human consumption of these can never be wholly discounted.
The deposits contained 56 flaked stone artefacts of chert and obsidian, often occurring as isolated scatters. The raw materials have yet to be sourced, but preliminary observations suggest that while chert may be local (Barton 2006, after Hashimoto & Sato 1973) the obsidian is likely to be imported, but is not from a known source in the Philippines (Neri 2006). This is the oldest obsidian recovered from a well-dated and stratified archaeological context in the Philippines. Undated 'Mesolithic' flaked obsidian has been found in Luzon in the north of the country (Scott 1968).
The lithic assemblage contains a high proportion of cores (n = 7, 12.5 per cent), all reduced using bipolar techniques with effort to control core face geometry. Several cores have parallel longitudinal flake scars indicating the production of flakes with blade dimensions (Barton 2006). The ratio of complete flakes (n = 16) and bipolar flakes (n = 9) to cores (n = 7) is 3.6:1. The lack of early stage core reduction debitage and of other debitage from bipolar flaking, and the absence of hammerstones and anvils, indicate that cores were reduced elsewhere and brought to the site with other flakes. The flake assemblage comprises mainly unretouched tools, with only two retouched flakes identified.
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
Use-wear analysis reveals that a high proportion of exhausted cores were subsequently used as tools. These were selected for the use of their flake margins--a unique feature of this assemblage. Sixteen of the chert tools show use-wear in the form of edge damage or micro-traces such as micro-scarring, use polish, rounding and striations (Table 5) (Barton 2006). A subset of six pieces demonstrates use-wear consistent with specialised functions, possibly the planing of siliceous plants, reeds or wood. The use polish on these pieces is very distinctive, with the heaviest polish on the apex of the worked edge; this is very bright, continuous and sometimes extensively pitted. Away from the edge, polish is often reticulate and joined up, like wood-type polish, and similar to polishes described by Vaughan (1985) in experiments on tools used to plane reeds (Phragmites sp.). Most of these tools are bipolar cores with high to obtuse edge angles. These edges would be stable, robust and long-lasting. In general the used artefacts suggest that Ille was a location for the production and/or maintenance of an organic technology, rather than a site of flaked tool production and maintenance.
Initial archaeobotanical results show the presence of untransformed seeds, charred parenchymatous tissues, and charred wild nut fragments. The latter are of at least three types, one of which has been identified as probable Canarium sp., rainforest trees that are sources of edible nuts, oil and resin. This suggests the existence and exploitation of some moist forest resources in the early to mid-Holocene.
An early cremation burial
In square W4N3 at 1.3-1.48m depth, a tight stack of fragmented burnt human bones was found standing on a slab of degraded fallen limestone/speleothem (Figure 6). The compact stacked organisation of the bones suggests that the cremation was originally placed within an organic container that subsequently decayed; no feature cut was observed. The bones were burnt, but most were not fully whitened, only charred. No charcoal was found in direct association with the bones, which appear to have been cleaned before interment. A fragment of calcined bone from the cremation was dated at ORAU using the method outlined by Lanting et al. (2001) and yielded two dates ranging between c. 9000-9500 cal BE To our knowledge, these are the earliest direct dates of cremated human bones ever reported from the region.
The stack of bones includes at least 610 fragments from <1-8cm in size, representing c. 45 skeletal elements, with no replication, suggesting that they are from one individual (Lata 2006). Well-represented elements are the cranium, femora, humeri, radii, ulnae and fibulae; those with minimal representation are those with large cancellous portions (ribs, pelvis and vertebrae). The human remains underwent a series of modifications before burial, including disarticulation, fragmentation, burning and re-fragmentation. There are also indications that the cranium was skinned and the tibia defleshed. Cutmarks are found at various locations, mostly situated at of close to articular joints.
The remains probably represent a female (after Acsadi & Nemeskeri 1970; Bruzek 2002), with an age-at-death from late twenties into middle adulthood (after modern standards; Suchey in Bass 1995). A short stature (<165.2cm) is suggested based on a reconstructed left fibula (after Trotter & Gleser 1958; Pelin & Duyar 2003). Pitting, characterised by small non-coalescing pores, was noted on some of the cranial bone external surfaces, and abnormal bony deposition (mixed lamellae of woven bone and sclerosis) was also observed on the anterior surface of the right femur suggesting active disease with some healing at time of death.
The extent, age range and apparent intensity of the activity observed at the east mouth of Ille Cave suggest long use as a place of frequent habitation during the early to mid-Holocene. Interpreted activities include hunting, food preparation, discard of food refuse, and activities such as planing siliceous plant materials and wood. The lithics suggest that Ille was not a primary stone tool production site; other types of occupation and/or tool production sites must therefore be located elsewhere in the landscape, and remain to be documented.
The record of diminishing deer remains at the cave reflects shifting subsistence trends evident elsewhere on the island. Fox (1970) reported the presence of an extinct deer taxon in the archaeological record from Tabon Cave. He contrasted this with the complete absence of deer remains in any Neolithic or Metal Age archaeological assemblages from the area, and suggested that deer became extinct on Palawan c. 4000 years ago, but we cannot securely date this event. Other shifts in hunting strategy have also been noted from elsewhere in the region at around this time (e.g. Bulbeck 2003). From the zooarchaeological record at Ille Cave we know that deer were under constant, if not intensive, hunting pressure from at least the terminal Pleistocene, and they seem to disappear from the Palawan record in the later Holocene, at which time local foragers switched their primary hunting strategy to concentrate more heavily on pigs. The long-term decrease in deer coincides with major changes in environment as the proposed drier and more open vegetation of the Last Glacial Maximum was gradually replaced with moist forest into the Holocene (Bird et al. 2005; 2007). The pollen record from an adjacent swamp with a basal date of c. 18 000 cal BP is being developed (J. Stevenson pers. comm.) as part of the Ille project to shed more light on vegetation change over the late Pleistocene to mid-Holocene for the region.
[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]
An apparent hiatus in cultural deposition in Context 866, currently lying between deposits dating from c. 14 000 to c.11 500 cal BP reflects broader regional trends. For instance, Semah et al. (2004; Semah & Semah 2006) note at Song Terus, Java, temporary human abandonment at the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, with resumption of intensive human activity c. 10000 cal BP. There is obviously an interesting story to be told regionally regarding the Pleistocene-Holocene transition; ongoing dating and research into palaeolandform, palaeoecological and cultural change in the Ille area will further clarify landscape history and help develop the regional Late Pleistocene and Holocene picture.
The identification and direct dating of a human cremation burial shows that the Late Palaeolithic occupants of Ille Cave buried some of their dead where they lived and that they practised complex burial rites, including cremation and disarticulation with interment in containers in cave and rockshelter entrances. There are some partial parallels with other sites in the region, including Tabon Cave where (unburnt) poorly stratified human remains were found associated with Late Palaeolithic assemblages (Fox 1970) and Niah Cave in Borneo, where (unburnt) Late Palaeolithic inhumation burials have been identified (Harrisson 1967).
However, the interment of a cremated body in a container presages later prehistoric practice in the region, and is significant in light of the possible longevity of this tradition. At Niah and other cave sites, and indeed in Palawan, cremation burials in containers (mainly urns), piles (possibly originally in baskets, wooden containers or cloth), or small pits have been described. These have not been directly dated, but form part of Neolithic and Metal Age cemetery contexts (Bayard 1996-7; Fox 1970; Harrisson 1967). Early, dated, cremations from the larger region appear to be relatively rare. The oldest proposed cremation burial is from Lake Mungo 1, Australia, with bone fragments dated to c. 19 000 and 24 000 BP (Bowler et al. 1972; Gillespie 1997; 1998).
Studies of early human colonisation and prehistoric adaptation to the changing environments of the late Pleistocene and early to mid-Holocene in Southeast Asia have produced evidence for complex adaptations amongst Late Palaeolithic people, as well as for substantial localised variations in environment over the period (Anderson 1997; Barker et al. 2002; 2007; Reynolds 1993; Szabo et al. 2007). The ability of human populations to inhabit Ille Cave throughout this time, despite changing environments, reinforces the evidence from Niah Caves (Barker et al. 2007), where it has been argued that foragers subsisted in a complex mosaic of changing environments that included open woodland, savannah and dense tropical forest. The behavioural flexibility demonstrated by early populations in the region suggests that few, if any, environmental regimes restricted human dispersal (contra e.g. O'Connor 2007) or subsequent success.
An early cremation burial associated with these occupation deposits shows the practice of interment in a container at c. 9000-9500 cal BE much earlier than previously evident for such traditions in the region. In the context of this currently unique find, future efforts to directly date Holocene human burial contexts across the region are greatly needed.
The significance for Southeast Asian archaeology of developing well-dated, stratified sequences with secure contextual data cannot be understated. The development of regional and local landscape and environmental histories has been hampered through limited application of high-resolution methodologies for absolute dating (see Barker et al. 2007; O'Connor 2007; Roberts et al. 2005; Szabo et al. 2007), and limited use of context-oriented excavation strategies, both resulting in numerous uncertainties regarding artefact and site typologies (e.g. Lampert et al. 2003; 2004; White 2004). The archaeological sequence reported here, which also extends into the later Holocene (Szabo et al. 2004), is a rare and important resource for study of the ancient Philippines and Southeast Asia. Ille is, however, just one of thousands of cave sites known in the region; it is clear that we must continue to investigate these sites with a multidisciplinary approach strongly dedicated to understanding and dating extant stratified archaeological sequences.
Thanks to the many local people, colleagues and students who worked with us in the field and laboratory, and to G. Paulino, M. & A. Laririt, E. Lin, S. Dandan, M. Monzales, the staff at Lally & Abet Cottages, M.C. Swete Kelly, K. Szabo, staff of the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, G. Barker, P. Bellwood, C Gosden, C. French, A. Pawlik, M. Eusebio, A. Tiama, D. Jacar, A. Pagulayan, E. Dizon, W. Longacre, E. Bacus, V. Pigott, T. Reynolds, M. Spriggs, M. Carver, an anonymous referee, V. Stoukalov and especially the Solheim household and the Paz family.
Funding: British Academy, the NERC/AHRC Orads programme, Rio Tuba & Coral Bay Nickel Mines, J. Kress, UP Diliman Archaeological Studies Program, the Solheim Foundation for Philippine Archaeology, SEAir airlines. Facilities and support: UP Diliman ASP, National Museum of the Philippines, University of Oxford Institute of Archaeology and Research Laboratory for Archaeology & the History of Art, University College Dublin School of Archaeology, University of Leicester School of Archaeology & Ancient History.
Project & excavation directors HL,VP, WR & WS; co-authors excavating east mouth 2005-6 HL, VP, ML, AJC, TV, VH, HB, PP, JO, ECR, RP, WS & JS; east mouth supervisor AJC; test pit ECR & AR; geoarchaeology HL; archaeobotany VP & AJC; human remains ML; lithics and residue analyses HB; obsidian LN; faunal remains PP and JO; radiocarbon dates HL, TH & ECR; palaeoecology JS; permits & archive WR.
Received: 10 May 2007; Accepted: 13 September 2007; Revised: 30 October 2007
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SZABO, K., M.C. SWETE KELLY & A. PENALOSA. 2004. Preliminary results from excavations in the eastern mouth of Ille Cave, northern Palawan, in V. Paz (ed.) Southeast Asian archaeology. Wilhelm G. Solheim II Festschrift. 209-24. Diliman: University of the Philippines Press.
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TROTTER, M. & G.C. GLESER. 1958. A re-evaluation of estimation of stature based on measurements of stature taken during life and of long bones after death. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 16: 79-123.
VAUGHAN, P.C. 1985. Use-wear analysis of flaked stone tools. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
VITALES, T.J. 2006. Pagsilip sa Isang Natatanging Artefak ng Ille (Looking at a special artefact in Ille). Test Pit 8: 29-30.
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Helen Lewis (1), Victor Paz (2), Myra Lara (2), Huw Barton (3), Philip Piper (2), Janine Ochoa (2), Timothy Vitales (2), A. Jane Carlos (2), Tom Higham (4), Leee Neri (2), Vito Hernandez (2), Janelle Stevenson (5), Emil Charles Robles (2), Andrea Ragragio (2), Rojo Padilla (2), Wilhelm Solheim II (2) & Wilfredo Ronquillo (6)
(1) School of Archaeology, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
(2) Archaeological Studies Program, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City, Manila, Philippines
(3) School of Archaeology and Ancient History, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
(4) Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, RLAHA, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
(5) Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
(6) Archaeology Division, National Museum of the Philippines, Manila, Philippines
Table 1. Main contexts and generalised sequence in the east mouth (east mouth excavation team). Layers 1-2 As Szabo et al. (2004); frequent burials (not listed), cut/fill of pit 727 700 Deepest inhumation; beads, conch, tusks, stone-covered BURIALS 741 Shell line dipping east 732 East of 727, layer of red silt dipping east 733 West of 727, layer of red silt underlying 732 802 = 803 Shell layer in west section, dipping south 731 & 789 Piles & layers of crushed shells, on rock fall 745 Crushed shell layer 746 & 747 Layers of red silt, tipping south (746) & west of rock fall (747) Rock falls (no number) 771 Crushed shells under rock fall, in south end 332 Shell midden (=390 = Layer 3 Szabo et al. 2004) SHELL MIDDEN 334 = 718 Organic silt under shell midden (=391 = Layer 4 Szabo et al. 2004) 763 Hearth within 718 at 150cm W3N2 759-760 Silt layer (759) with layer of small pebbles (760) 758 Clayey silt layer; at base, cremation found on top of 336 stone 336 Reddish-brown silty clay; limestone/ speleothems, hearths & burning deposits (=392 = Layer 5 Szabo et al. 2004) 764 Cobbles within 336 140-160cm W2N4 778 Dark brown silt; crushed shells 771 Dark brown silt, frequent animal bones & turtle carapace 769 'Melted' limestone extending across trench (within 2004 context 336) 784 As 336, but more cobble piles, surfaces and hearth remains (=337) 768 Hearth/activity area; stones, frequent charred & burnt remains, chert 790, 797 Burning & stone arrangements; 790 had 801 chert flakes 850 Similar to 336 338 Clay-rich layer with frequent small limestone boulders 807 Interface of 784 & 806; boulders, animal bones, shells HEARTHS 806 Compact orange clay, limestone pea grit gravels, no finds/bones 866 Compact yellowish-orange clay; animal bones, antler, chert, charcoal 1306 As 806, angular stones 1307 As 866, but no cultural remains; angular to subangular stones 1308 As 806, rounded stones 1309 As 866, no cultural remains; rounded stones CLAY & GRAVELS Table 2. Radiocarbon dates from the east mouth of Ille Cave 2004-6 (compiled by H. Lewis, after T. Higham & Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit 2005-2007, pers. comm.). Results are calibrated using IntCal04 (Reimer et al. 2004). Uncalibrated dates use the half life of 5568 years with isotopic fractionation corrected using the [delta] [sup.13]C values listed (to [+ or -] 0.3 per mil relative to VPDB). The pre-treatment, target preparation and AMS measurement used follow Bronk Ramsey et al. (2004) & Hedges et al. (1989). Dates are presented by depth, although due to slope this does not always equate to stratigraphic sequence (e.e.  underlies --see Table 1). Sample Information ORAU Info Sample Material & Context/location Sample No. IV-1998-P-16943 Charcoal, N1 W3 100-120cm  OxA-14959 IV-1998-P-23076 Charcoal, 100-120cm  OxA-16095 IV-1998-P-23075a Crem. bone, Cremation  OxA-16020 (Specimen A) IV-1998-P-23075b Crem. bone, Cremation  OxA-15982 (Specimen B) IV-1998-P-15837 Charcoal, 2004r 153cm  L5 OxA-14898 IV-1998-P-15839 Charcoal, 20040 153cm [3351 L5 OxA-14893 IV-1998-P-20497 Charcoal, 2004 155cm OxA-16153 IV-1998-P-16782 Charcoal, 2004 166cm OxA-14960 IV-1998-P-15828 Charcoal, 2004k 170cm  OxA-14894 IV-1998-P-15824 Charcoal, 2004a 170cm  OxA-14897 IV-1998-P-1583 Charcoal, 2004h 175cm  OxA-14899 IV-1998-P-15832 Charcoal, 2004d 177cm  OxA-14896 IV-1998-P-18309 Charcoal, 180cm [3361 =  OxA-15817 IV-1998-P-18310 Charcoal, 180cm  OxA-15766 IV-1998-P-15829 Charcoal, 2004g 183cm  OxA-14592 IV-1998-P-18308 Charcoal, 185cm  OxA-15873 IV-1998-P-18311 Charcoal, 185cm  OxA-15818 IV-1998-P-15825 Charcoal, 2004b 200cm  OxA-14163 IV-1998-P-30189 Charcoal, N4W2 240-255cm  OxA-16666 IV-1998-P-30194 Charcoal, N3W3 250-260cm  OxA-16657 Sample Information ORAU Info Calibration [delta] Calibration Sample [sup.13]C Uncal BP Unmod. Cal IV-1998-P-16943 -23.5 5802 [+ or -] 38 4546-4767 IV-1998-P-23076 -29.9 5769 [+ or -] 37 4531-4715 4580-4690 4550-4570 IV-1998-P-23075a -19.4 8155 [+ or -] 50 7057-7313 7230-7250 7060-7190 IV-1998-P-23075b -25.5 8315 [+ or -] 50 7189-7516 7331-7477 7189-7230 IV-1998-P-15837 -24.5 8545 [+ or -] 40 7531-7602 IV-1998-P-15839 -24.3 8705 [+ or -] 40 7597-7936 IV-1998-P-20497 -27.2 8705 [+ or -] 45 7596-7938 7890-7940 7600-7750 IV-1998-P-16782 -27.8 9400 [+ or -] 45 8566-8785 IV-1998-P-15828 -26.6 8920 [+ or -] 45 7956-8250 IV-1998-P-15824 -25.6 8970 [+ or -] 45 7969-8284 IV-1998-P-1583 -26.3 8799 [+ or -] 40 7715-8183 IV-1998-P-15832 -25.8 8860 [+ or -] 45 7817-8223 IV-1998-P-18309 -26.6 8795 [+ or -] 45 7650-8200 IV-1998-P-18310 -25.6 8830 [+ or -] 45 8020-8210 IV-1998-P-15829 -25.4 9340 [+ or -] 45 8740-8470 IV-1998-P-18308 -27.2 8725 [+ or -] 55 7946-7600 7796-7610 7815-7802 IV-1998-P-18311 -25.4 8790 [+ or -] 40 7990-8170 IV-1998-P-15825 -25.0 9740 [+ or -] 75 8838-9338 IV-1998-P-30189 -30.1 12120 [+ or -] 60 11871-12168 IV-1998-P-30194 -25.9 9215 [+ or -] 45 8302-8555 Sample BC/AD % Cal BP Prob. IV-1998-P-16943 BC 95.4% 6494-6677 0.980 6687-6690 0.003 6704-6716 0.017 IV-1998-P-23076 BC 95.4% 6481-6662 1.000 BC 60.3% 6508-6517 0.076 BC 7.9% 6532-6574 0.394 6577-6634 0.530 IV-1998-P-23075a BC 95.4% 9006-9260 1.000 BC 68.3% 9183-9190 0.031 BC 9012-9135 0.969 IV-1998-P-23075b BC 95.4% 9280-9425 1.000 BC 68.2% 9464-9137 0.931 BC 0.069 IV-1998-P-15837 BC 95.4% 9480-9550 1.000 IV-1998-P-15839 BC 95.4% 9546-9784 0.985 9850-9863 0.009 9877-9885 0.006 IV-1998-P-20497 BC 92.7% 9559-9696 1.000 BC 2.7% 9545-9796 0.961 BC 68.2% 9804-9817 0.011 9848-9866 0.018 9875-9886 0.010 IV-1998-P-16782 BC 95.4% 10515-10733 1.000 IV-1998-P-15828 BC 95.4% 9905-10198 1.000 IV-1998-P-15824 BC 95.4% 9918-10071 0.413 10115-10232 0.587 IV-1998-P-1583 BC 95.4% 9663-9951 0.891 9990-10012 0.014 10024-10040 0.010 10061-10132 0.085 IV-1998-P-15832 BC 95.4% 9745-9748 0.003 9766-10171 0.997 IV-1998-P-18309 BC 95.4% 9627-9953 0.881 9989-100013 0.017 10022-10041 0.012 10060-10134 0.089 10143-10146 0.002 IV-1998-P-18310 BC 95.4% 9701-9964 0.656 9984-10154 0.344 IV-1998-P-15829 BC 95.4% 10419-10472 0.097 10476-10687 0.903 IV-1998-P-18308 BC 95.4% 9549-9895 1.000 BC 68.3% 9559-9745 0.945 BC 9751-9764 0.055 IV-1998-P-18311 BC 95.4% 9627-9939 0.934 9994-10006 0.007 10029-10036 0.004 10064-10120 0.056 IV-1998-P-15825 BC 95.4% 10786-10974 0.220 10990-11032 0.240 11062-11273 0.756 IV-1998-P-30189 BC 95.4% 13820-14116 1.000 68.3% 13890-14048 1.000 IV-1998-P-30194 BC 95.4% 10252-10501 1.000 68.3% 10283-10425 0.924 10467-10480 0.076 Table 3. List of hunted mammalian taxa identified in the early to mid-Holocene deposits (P. Piper & J. Ochoa). Taxonomy follows Esselstyn et al. (2004) except (1) Lucchini et al. (2005). * Initial morphometric analyses suggest more than one taxon represented. Analytical data to be published independently. Order Family Taxon Primates Cercopithecidae Macuca fascicularis Pholidota Manidae Manis culionensis Carnivora Felidae Prionailurus bengalensis Mustelidae Amblonyx cinereus Mephitidae Mydaus marchei Herpestidae Herpestes brachyurus Viverridae Paradoxurus hermaphroditus Arctictis binturong Artiodactyla Cervidae Axis/Cervus spp. * Suidae Sus cf. ahoenobarbus (1) Order Family Common name Primates Cercopithecidae Long-tailed macaque Pholidota Manidae Palawan pangolin Carnivora Felidae Leopard cat Mustelidae Oriental small-clawed otter Mephitidae Palawan stink badger Herpestidae Short-tailed mongoose Viverridae Common palm civet Binturong Artiodactyla Cervidae Deer Suidae Palawan wild boar Table 4. Number of individual specimens (NISP) of selected fauna recorded to date from the east mouth, presented from youngest to oldest major mid-Holocene to late Pleistocene contexts (P. Piper & J. Ochoa). Monitor Small CONTEXT Deer Pig Turtle Lizard Macaque Carnivores 332 (shell midden) 8 190 20 47 41 15 334 0 17 3 4 7 6 336 6 6 70 11 5 3 769 0 10 9 5 6 1 784 8 12 72 37 21 19 807 16 9 43 13 13 4 866 288 14 68 7 13 3 TOTAL 326 258 285 124 106 51 Table 5. Summary of use-wear analysis of 16 used tools from the east mouth deep occupation sequence (H. Barton). Tool number is National Museum of the Philippines accession number, beginning with IV-1998-P (site code), or an independent series (IC) where no accession number was given. Individual used edges are identified by letters, where number of letters denotes number of used edges. Scars: SN (snap), F (feather), H (hinge), ST (step). Number Type Used edge Macro Micro IC001 (no #) Retouched A ST, H None broken flake B H None IC003 (no #) Retouched A H -- flake 14726 Unretouched A None SN, F H flake 14727 Core A, B, C None ST 16310 Flake A None F 14730 Flake A None None 15228 Bipolar flake A None F IC016 (no #) Bipolar core A, B F F IC017 (no #) Flaked piece A, B None None 16309A Bipolar core A None None 16309B Bipolar flake A F F B None F, SN 16309C Bipolar core A None None 14775 Bipolar flake A F, H, SN, ST F IC044 (no #) Flaked piece A None None IC045 (no #) Bipolar core A None None 14090 Bipolar A None None fragment Number Rounding Striations Polish IC001 (no #) Slight None Present Heavy Parallel Present IC003 (no #) Moderate None Present 14726 Slight None Present 14727 Heavy Transverse Present 16310 None None None 14730 Heavy None None 15228 None None None IC016 (no #) Heavy Transverse Present IC017 (no #) Heavy Transverse Present 16309A Heavy Transverse Present 16309B None None Present None None Present 16309C Slight None Present 14775 Slight None Present IC044 (no #) Slight None Present IC045 (no #) Heavy None Present 14090 Heavy Transverse Present Number Development Mode of use IC001 (no #) Weak Unknown Weak Cutting IC003 (no #) Weak, restricted to Scraping edge and high zones of flake scars 14726 Bright, patchy, smooth Shaving/slicing with pitting and reticulate away from the edge 14727 Bright, smooth Planing 16310 Weak Scraping 14730 N/A Scraping 15228 N/A Unknown IC016 (no #) Bright, smooth Planing IC017 (no #) Bright, smooth with Planing some pitting 16309A Bright, smooth with some pitting 16309B Weak Shaving/slicing Weak Shaving/slicing 16309C Weak Planing 14775 Weak Cutting/slicing IC044 (no #) Weak Cutting/slicing IC045 (no #) Bright, reticulate Planing 14090 Bright, smooth with Planing some pitting Number Interpretation IC001 (no #) Unknown use Cutting/slicing soft material--plant? IC003 (no #) Scraping medium/hard material 14726 Shaving medium wood/plant 14727 Planing siliceous plant; very heavily worn edge, flattened 16310 Light duty scraping 14730 Scraping hard material (residue) 15228 Possibly not used IC016 (no #) Planing siliceous plant; edge very heavily worn, flattened in places IC017 (no #) Planing siliceous plant; edge very heavily worn, flattened in places 16309A Planing siliceous plant 16309B Medium material Medium material 16309C Planing siliceous plant 14775 Soft to medium material IC044 (no #) Cutting/slicing soft to medium plant IC045 (no #) Planing wood or siliceous plant 14090 Planing siliceous plant
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|Author:||Lewis, Helen; Paz, Victor; Lara, Myra; Barton, Huw; Piper, Philip; Ochoa, Janine; Vitales, Timothy;|
|Date:||Jun 1, 2008|
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