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Terminal Pleistocene to mid-Holocene occupation and an early cremation burial at Ille Cave, Palawan, Philippines.

Introduction

New excavations at Ille Cave, Palawan, Philippines have produced the first well-stratified and dated terminal Pleistocene to mid-Holocene archaeological sequence from the Philippine archipelago. This sequence includes evidence of changing subsistence and settlement patterns, as well as an early cremation burial. The island of Palawan, situated between Borneo to the south and the Philippine archipelago to the north and east (Figure 1), is important for its biogeographic links with the Sundaic region of Southeast Asia (e.g. Heaney 1985; Heaney et al. 2005; Merill 1923; Reis & Garong 2001), and for interpreted patterns of ancient human migration between, and cultural connections with, mainland Southeast Asia, the test of the Philippines, Taiwan, Borneo and Indonesia (Bellwood 1997; 2005; O'Connor 2007; Solheim 2006). Many cave sites are known from the island, including Tabon Cave, which has the earliest recovered human remains in the Philippines (c. 45kya) (Detroit et al. 2002; Dizon 2003; Fox 1970), and some of the earliest in Island Southeast Asia (e.g. O'Connor 2007). There are also several important Neolithic and Metal Age cave cemeteries in Palawan (Fox 1970).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Ille is a solution cave and rockshelter at the base of a c. 75m-high karst tower near the village of New Ibajay, El Nido, north Palawan (119[degrees] 30'19"E, 11[degrees]1l'46"N). The site comprises east and west rockshelter mouths, opening onto a relatively flat platform of silt loam (Figures 2 and 3), in a setting of light woodland. From the Ille summit other local towers are visible, and 4km to the east lies the sea at Sibaltan Bay (Figure 4). The landscape is dominated by the floodplain of the Dewil river and its tributaries, covered by rice paddies, tree and vegetable crops and secondary rain forest.

In 1998 the National Museum of the Philippines began a long-term survey and excavation programme in the region, including Ille, other nearby caves and their surroundings (Cayron 2004; de la Torre 1999; Hara & Cayron 2001; Jago-on 2000; Kress 2004; Pawlik 2004; Paz 1998; SEAICE 1999; 2000; Solheim 2000; Szabo et al. 2004; Teodosio 2004). Initial investigations in the east mouth of Ille Cave revealed two late prehistoric burials underlain by shell midden layers dated to c. 5000-7000 cal BE The deepest deposits, overlying an apparent rock floor c. 1.5m below the modern ground surface, were dated to c. 10 500 BP on charcoal (Szabo 2004; Szabo et al. 2004). New investigations began in 2004 upon hearing that the site had been looted and that the supposed rock floor of the east mouth trench had been broken through by treasure hunters, exposing a further 40+cm of early Holocene and possibly Late Pleistocene cultural deposits (Paz & Ronquillo 2004).

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

The Ille Cave Project was established to investigate the spatial extent, nature and antiquity of the archaeological sequences at the site (ASP 2005-6; Eusebio et al. 2006; Lewis et al. 2006; Ochoa 2005; Vitales 2006). The previously excavated east mouth 1 x 2m trench was extended by 4 x 4m (Figure 2), trowel-excavated by context and sieved (100 per cent of contexts). The extensive cemetery, shell midden and underlying deposits were investigated to a depth of 2m, and the underlying sedimentary sequences exposed by the looters at the north end of the site to a depth of 3.6m. The main stratigraphic sequence is summarised in Table 1. The upper parts of the east mouth sequence, including the large Neolithic-to eighteenth-century AD cemetery and mid-Holocene shell midden are not reported here.

Terminal Pleistocene to mid-Holocene sequence at Ille Cave

The focus of this paper is the early occupation levels identified beneath the c. 5000-7000 cal BP shell midden (Table 1). These comprise a sloping 60 to 100cm-thick unit of burnt deposits in clayey silt, with intact and disturbed hearth features, flaked lithics, numerous faunal remains and one cremated human burial (Contexts 334-807; Figure 5). The deepest deposits comprise steeply sloping alternating layers of very fine red and green, peagrit-sized rounded limestone gravels in yellow-orange clay (20-30cm thick; Contexts 806, 1306, 1308) and stiff yellow clay layers (30+cm thick) (Contexts 866, 1307, 1309). Similar deposits were seen in a test pit south of the karst tower, suggesting they are not simply cave sediments, although their history has yet to be determined. The uppermost of these deposits (Context 806) was devoid of cultural material. Below this, a few stone artefacts, fragments of charred nut and worked chert were recovered in association with a substantial anthropic-derived assemblage of burnt and unburnt animal bones (Context 866; Tables 3 and 4). Twenty charcoal and bone samples from secure contexts produced a sequential range of dates from c. 9000-11 000 cal BE linking the well-stratified archaeological sequence to a high resolution chronology (Table 2). A further sample of charcoal from Context 866 returned a date of c. 14 000 cal BP. The low combustion yield and a depleted [delta][sup.13]C value (Tom Higham, pers. comm.) add some uncertainty to the accuracy of this date, but if confirmed it places this deposit well into the Pleistocene.

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

Deposits dated to c. 9400-11 000 cal BP

Contexts 334 to 807 comprise silty clay layers rich in fragments of decaying limestone and speleothems, with occasional oxidised and reduced clay lumps. Limestone pebbles (some apparently burnt), charcoal, burnt and unburnt animal bones, shells and chert and obsidian flakes occasionally occurred in discrete clusters in apparent activity areas. Several intact individual hearths were found within these units (Table 1), along with hearth rake-out material. Radiocarbon dates from these contexts span c. 9400-11 000 cal BP (Table 2).

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

Human foragers appear to have hunted a diverse range of local fauna from different ecological zones in the forest, including pig, deer, macaque and various small carnivores (Tables 3 and 4). The remains of turtles and snakes are also common in the archaeological record (Table 4), and even though monitor lizards are notorious scavengers and may have been attracted to refuse, the consistent abundant presence of their partial skeletons suggests that they too represent part of human prey.

Intriguingly, in the cultural sequence succeeding Context 866 deer bones diminish in number, and by the mid-Holocene the deer is replaced by pig as the dominant hunted taxon in the assemblage. Even with the extensive sampling and sieving strategies employed at Ille Cave, fish and bird bones are rare in these deposits. The few identifiable fish bones appear to be those of freshwater Cyprinidae. Other small mammals such as bats and murids probably represent inclusions in accumulating sediments, although human consumption of these can never be wholly discounted.

The deposits contained 56 flaked stone artefacts of chert and obsidian, often occurring as isolated scatters. The raw materials have yet to be sourced, but preliminary observations suggest that while chert may be local (Barton 2006, after Hashimoto & Sato 1973) the obsidian is likely to be imported, but is not from a known source in the Philippines (Neri 2006). This is the oldest obsidian recovered from a well-dated and stratified archaeological context in the Philippines. Undated 'Mesolithic' flaked obsidian has been found in Luzon in the north of the country (Scott 1968).

The lithic assemblage contains a high proportion of cores (n = 7, 12.5 per cent), all reduced using bipolar techniques with effort to control core face geometry. Several cores have parallel longitudinal flake scars indicating the production of flakes with blade dimensions (Barton 2006). The ratio of complete flakes (n = 16) and bipolar flakes (n = 9) to cores (n = 7) is 3.6:1. The lack of early stage core reduction debitage and of other debitage from bipolar flaking, and the absence of hammerstones and anvils, indicate that cores were reduced elsewhere and brought to the site with other flakes. The flake assemblage comprises mainly unretouched tools, with only two retouched flakes identified.

[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]

Use-wear analysis reveals that a high proportion of exhausted cores were subsequently used as tools. These were selected for the use of their flake margins--a unique feature of this assemblage. Sixteen of the chert tools show use-wear in the form of edge damage or micro-traces such as micro-scarring, use polish, rounding and striations (Table 5) (Barton 2006). A subset of six pieces demonstrates use-wear consistent with specialised functions, possibly the planing of siliceous plants, reeds or wood. The use polish on these pieces is very distinctive, with the heaviest polish on the apex of the worked edge; this is very bright, continuous and sometimes extensively pitted. Away from the edge, polish is often reticulate and joined up, like wood-type polish, and similar to polishes described by Vaughan (1985) in experiments on tools used to plane reeds (Phragmites sp.). Most of these tools are bipolar cores with high to obtuse edge angles. These edges would be stable, robust and long-lasting. In general the used artefacts suggest that Ille was a location for the production and/or maintenance of an organic technology, rather than a site of flaked tool production and maintenance.

Initial archaeobotanical results show the presence of untransformed seeds, charred parenchymatous tissues, and charred wild nut fragments. The latter are of at least three types, one of which has been identified as probable Canarium sp., rainforest trees that are sources of edible nuts, oil and resin. This suggests the existence and exploitation of some moist forest resources in the early to mid-Holocene.

An early cremation burial

In square W4N3 at 1.3-1.48m depth, a tight stack of fragmented burnt human bones was found standing on a slab of degraded fallen limestone/speleothem (Figure 6). The compact stacked organisation of the bones suggests that the cremation was originally placed within an organic container that subsequently decayed; no feature cut was observed. The bones were burnt, but most were not fully whitened, only charred. No charcoal was found in direct association with the bones, which appear to have been cleaned before interment. A fragment of calcined bone from the cremation was dated at ORAU using the method outlined by Lanting et al. (2001) and yielded two dates ranging between c. 9000-9500 cal BE To our knowledge, these are the earliest direct dates of cremated human bones ever reported from the region.

The stack of bones includes at least 610 fragments from <1-8cm in size, representing c. 45 skeletal elements, with no replication, suggesting that they are from one individual (Lata 2006). Well-represented elements are the cranium, femora, humeri, radii, ulnae and fibulae; those with minimal representation are those with large cancellous portions (ribs, pelvis and vertebrae). The human remains underwent a series of modifications before burial, including disarticulation, fragmentation, burning and re-fragmentation. There are also indications that the cranium was skinned and the tibia defleshed. Cutmarks are found at various locations, mostly situated at of close to articular joints.

The remains probably represent a female (after Acsadi & Nemeskeri 1970; Bruzek 2002), with an age-at-death from late twenties into middle adulthood (after modern standards; Suchey in Bass 1995). A short stature (<165.2cm) is suggested based on a reconstructed left fibula (after Trotter & Gleser 1958; Pelin & Duyar 2003). Pitting, characterised by small non-coalescing pores, was noted on some of the cranial bone external surfaces, and abnormal bony deposition (mixed lamellae of woven bone and sclerosis) was also observed on the anterior surface of the right femur suggesting active disease with some healing at time of death.

Discussion

The extent, age range and apparent intensity of the activity observed at the east mouth of Ille Cave suggest long use as a place of frequent habitation during the early to mid-Holocene. Interpreted activities include hunting, food preparation, discard of food refuse, and activities such as planing siliceous plant materials and wood. The lithics suggest that Ille was not a primary stone tool production site; other types of occupation and/or tool production sites must therefore be located elsewhere in the landscape, and remain to be documented.

The record of diminishing deer remains at the cave reflects shifting subsistence trends evident elsewhere on the island. Fox (1970) reported the presence of an extinct deer taxon in the archaeological record from Tabon Cave. He contrasted this with the complete absence of deer remains in any Neolithic or Metal Age archaeological assemblages from the area, and suggested that deer became extinct on Palawan c. 4000 years ago, but we cannot securely date this event. Other shifts in hunting strategy have also been noted from elsewhere in the region at around this time (e.g. Bulbeck 2003). From the zooarchaeological record at Ille Cave we know that deer were under constant, if not intensive, hunting pressure from at least the terminal Pleistocene, and they seem to disappear from the Palawan record in the later Holocene, at which time local foragers switched their primary hunting strategy to concentrate more heavily on pigs. The long-term decrease in deer coincides with major changes in environment as the proposed drier and more open vegetation of the Last Glacial Maximum was gradually replaced with moist forest into the Holocene (Bird et al. 2005; 2007). The pollen record from an adjacent swamp with a basal date of c. 18 000 cal BP is being developed (J. Stevenson pers. comm.) as part of the Ille project to shed more light on vegetation change over the late Pleistocene to mid-Holocene for the region.

[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]

An apparent hiatus in cultural deposition in Context 866, currently lying between deposits dating from c. 14 000 to c.11 500 cal BP reflects broader regional trends. For instance, Semah et al. (2004; Semah & Semah 2006) note at Song Terus, Java, temporary human abandonment at the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, with resumption of intensive human activity c. 10000 cal BP. There is obviously an interesting story to be told regionally regarding the Pleistocene-Holocene transition; ongoing dating and research into palaeolandform, palaeoecological and cultural change in the Ille area will further clarify landscape history and help develop the regional Late Pleistocene and Holocene picture.

The identification and direct dating of a human cremation burial shows that the Late Palaeolithic occupants of Ille Cave buried some of their dead where they lived and that they practised complex burial rites, including cremation and disarticulation with interment in containers in cave and rockshelter entrances. There are some partial parallels with other sites in the region, including Tabon Cave where (unburnt) poorly stratified human remains were found associated with Late Palaeolithic assemblages (Fox 1970) and Niah Cave in Borneo, where (unburnt) Late Palaeolithic inhumation burials have been identified (Harrisson 1967).

However, the interment of a cremated body in a container presages later prehistoric practice in the region, and is significant in light of the possible longevity of this tradition. At Niah and other cave sites, and indeed in Palawan, cremation burials in containers (mainly urns), piles (possibly originally in baskets, wooden containers or cloth), or small pits have been described. These have not been directly dated, but form part of Neolithic and Metal Age cemetery contexts (Bayard 1996-7; Fox 1970; Harrisson 1967). Early, dated, cremations from the larger region appear to be relatively rare. The oldest proposed cremation burial is from Lake Mungo 1, Australia, with bone fragments dated to c. 19 000 and 24 000 BP (Bowler et al. 1972; Gillespie 1997; 1998).

Conclusion

Studies of early human colonisation and prehistoric adaptation to the changing environments of the late Pleistocene and early to mid-Holocene in Southeast Asia have produced evidence for complex adaptations amongst Late Palaeolithic people, as well as for substantial localised variations in environment over the period (Anderson 1997; Barker et al. 2002; 2007; Reynolds 1993; Szabo et al. 2007). The ability of human populations to inhabit Ille Cave throughout this time, despite changing environments, reinforces the evidence from Niah Caves (Barker et al. 2007), where it has been argued that foragers subsisted in a complex mosaic of changing environments that included open woodland, savannah and dense tropical forest. The behavioural flexibility demonstrated by early populations in the region suggests that few, if any, environmental regimes restricted human dispersal (contra e.g. O'Connor 2007) or subsequent success.

An early cremation burial associated with these occupation deposits shows the practice of interment in a container at c. 9000-9500 cal BE much earlier than previously evident for such traditions in the region. In the context of this currently unique find, future efforts to directly date Holocene human burial contexts across the region are greatly needed.

The significance for Southeast Asian archaeology of developing well-dated, stratified sequences with secure contextual data cannot be understated. The development of regional and local landscape and environmental histories has been hampered through limited application of high-resolution methodologies for absolute dating (see Barker et al. 2007; O'Connor 2007; Roberts et al. 2005; Szabo et al. 2007), and limited use of context-oriented excavation strategies, both resulting in numerous uncertainties regarding artefact and site typologies (e.g. Lampert et al. 2003; 2004; White 2004). The archaeological sequence reported here, which also extends into the later Holocene (Szabo et al. 2004), is a rare and important resource for study of the ancient Philippines and Southeast Asia. Ille is, however, just one of thousands of cave sites known in the region; it is clear that we must continue to investigate these sites with a multidisciplinary approach strongly dedicated to understanding and dating extant stratified archaeological sequences.

Acknowledgements

Thanks to the many local people, colleagues and students who worked with us in the field and laboratory, and to G. Paulino, M. & A. Laririt, E. Lin, S. Dandan, M. Monzales, the staff at Lally & Abet Cottages, M.C. Swete Kelly, K. Szabo, staff of the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, G. Barker, P. Bellwood, C Gosden, C. French, A. Pawlik, M. Eusebio, A. Tiama, D. Jacar, A. Pagulayan, E. Dizon, W. Longacre, E. Bacus, V. Pigott, T. Reynolds, M. Spriggs, M. Carver, an anonymous referee, V. Stoukalov and especially the Solheim household and the Paz family.

Funding: British Academy, the NERC/AHRC Orads programme, Rio Tuba & Coral Bay Nickel Mines, J. Kress, UP Diliman Archaeological Studies Program, the Solheim Foundation for Philippine Archaeology, SEAir airlines. Facilities and support: UP Diliman ASP, National Museum of the Philippines, University of Oxford Institute of Archaeology and Research Laboratory for Archaeology & the History of Art, University College Dublin School of Archaeology, University of Leicester School of Archaeology & Ancient History.

Project & excavation directors HL,VP, WR & WS; co-authors excavating east mouth 2005-6 HL, VP, ML, AJC, TV, VH, HB, PP, JO, ECR, RP, WS & JS; east mouth supervisor AJC; test pit ECR & AR; geoarchaeology HL; archaeobotany VP & AJC; human remains ML; lithics and residue analyses HB; obsidian LN; faunal remains PP and JO; radiocarbon dates HL, TH & ECR; palaeoecology JS; permits & archive WR.

Received: 10 May 2007; Accepted: 13 September 2007; Revised: 30 October 2007

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SZABO, K. 2004. Technique and practice: shell-working in the Western Pacific and Island Southeast Asia. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Australian National University.

SZABO, K., M.C. SWETE KELLY & A. PENALOSA. 2004. Preliminary results from excavations in the eastern mouth of Ille Cave, northern Palawan, in V. Paz (ed.) Southeast Asian archaeology. Wilhelm G. Solheim II Festschrift. 209-24. Diliman: University of the Philippines Press.

SZABO, K., A. BRUMM & P. BELLWOOD. 2007. Shell artefact production at 32,000-28,000 BP in Island Southeast Asia. Current Anthropology 48(5): 701-23.

TEODOSIO, S.F.R. 2004. Preliminary report of the Makangit Cave investigation, in V. Paz & W. Ronquillo (ed.) Report on the Palawan Island Palaeohistoric Research Project for 2004. Unpublished report, University of the Philippines.

TROTTER, M. & G.C. GLESER. 1958. A re-evaluation of estimation of stature based on measurements of stature taken during life and of long bones after death. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 16: 79-123.

VAUGHAN, P.C. 1985. Use-wear analysis of flaked stone tools. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

VITALES, T.J. 2006. Pagsilip sa Isang Natatanging Artefak ng Ille (Looking at a special artefact in Ille). Test Pit 8: 29-30.

WHITE, J.C. 2004. Comment on dates from a resin-coated sherd from Spirit Cave, Thailand. Antiquity 78: 184-6.

Helen Lewis (1), Victor Paz (2), Myra Lara (2), Huw Barton (3), Philip Piper (2), Janine Ochoa (2), Timothy Vitales (2), A. Jane Carlos (2), Tom Higham (4), Leee Neri (2), Vito Hernandez (2), Janelle Stevenson (5), Emil Charles Robles (2), Andrea Ragragio (2), Rojo Padilla (2), Wilhelm Solheim II (2) & Wilfredo Ronquillo (6)

(1) School of Archaeology, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland

(2) Archaeological Studies Program, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City, Manila, Philippines

(3) School of Archaeology and Ancient History, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK

(4) Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, RLAHA, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

(5) Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia

(6) Archaeology Division, National Museum of the Philippines, Manila, Philippines
Table 1. Main contexts and generalised sequence in the east mouth
(east mouth excavation team).

Layers 1-2 As Szabo et al. (2004); frequent
 burials (not listed), cut/fill of
 pit

727 700 Deepest inhumation; beads, conch,
 tusks, stone-covered BURIALS

741 Shell line dipping east
732 East of 727, layer of red silt dipping
 east
733 West of 727, layer of red silt
 underlying 732
802 = 803 Shell layer in west section, dipping
 south
731 & 789 Piles & layers of crushed shells, on
 rock fall
745 Crushed shell layer
746 & 747 Layers of red silt, tipping south
 (746) & west of rock fall (747)
Rock falls (no number)
771 Crushed shells under rock fall,
 in south end
332 Shell midden (=390 = Layer 3 Szabo
 et al. 2004) SHELL MIDDEN

334 = 718 Organic silt under shell midden
 (=391 = Layer 4 Szabo et al. 2004)
763 Hearth within 718 at 150cm W3N2
759-760 Silt layer (759) with layer of small
 pebbles (760)
758 Clayey silt layer; at base, cremation
 found on top of 336 stone
336 Reddish-brown silty clay; limestone/
 speleothems, hearths &
 burning deposits (=392 = Layer 5 Szabo
 et al. 2004)
764 Cobbles within 336 140-160cm W2N4
778 Dark brown silt; crushed shells
771 Dark brown silt, frequent animal bones
 & turtle carapace
769 'Melted' limestone extending across
 trench (within 2004 context 336)
784 As 336, but more cobble piles, surfaces
 and hearth remains (=337)
768 Hearth/activity area; stones, frequent
 charred & burnt remains, chert
790, 797 Burning & stone arrangements; 790 had
 801 chert flakes
850 Similar to 336
338 Clay-rich layer with frequent small
 limestone boulders
807 Interface of 784 & 806; boulders,
 animal bones, shells HEARTHS

806 Compact orange clay, limestone pea
 grit gravels, no finds/bones
866 Compact yellowish-orange clay; animal
 bones, antler, chert, charcoal
1306 As 806, angular stones
1307 As 866, but no cultural remains;
 angular to subangular stones
1308 As 806, rounded stones
1309 As 866, no cultural remains;
 rounded stones CLAY & GRAVELS

Table 2. Radiocarbon dates from the east mouth of Ille Cave 2004-6
(compiled by H. Lewis, after T. Higham & Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator
Unit 2005-2007, pers. comm.). Results are calibrated using IntCal04
(Reimer et al. 2004). Uncalibrated dates use the half life of 5568
years with isotopic fractionation corrected using the [delta] [sup.13]C
values listed (to [+ or -] 0.3 per mil relative to VPDB). The
pre-treatment, target preparation and AMS measurement used follow
Bronk Ramsey et al. (2004) & Hedges et al. (1989). Dates are presented
by depth, although due to slope this does not always equate to
stratigraphic sequence (e.e. [866] underlies [807]--see Table 1).

Sample Information ORAU Info

Sample Material & Context/location Sample No.

IV-1998-P-16943 Charcoal, N1 W3 100-120cm [731] OxA-14959

IV-1998-P-23076 Charcoal, 100-120cm [758] OxA-16095

IV-1998-P-23075a Crem. bone, Cremation [758] OxA-16020
 (Specimen A)

IV-1998-P-23075b Crem. bone, Cremation [758] OxA-15982
 (Specimen B)

IV-1998-P-15837 Charcoal, 2004r 153cm [335] L5 OxA-14898

IV-1998-P-15839 Charcoal, 20040 153cm [3351 L5 OxA-14893

IV-1998-P-20497 Charcoal, 2004 155cm OxA-16153

IV-1998-P-16782 Charcoal, 2004 166cm OxA-14960

IV-1998-P-15828 Charcoal, 2004k 170cm [336] OxA-14894

IV-1998-P-15824 Charcoal, 2004a 170cm [336] OxA-14897

IV-1998-P-1583 Charcoal, 2004h 175cm [336] OxA-14899

IV-1998-P-15832 Charcoal, 2004d 177cm [336] OxA-14896

IV-1998-P-18309 Charcoal, 180cm [3361 = [717] OxA-15817

IV-1998-P-18310 Charcoal, 180cm [769] OxA-15766

IV-1998-P-15829 Charcoal, 2004g 183cm [336] OxA-14592

IV-1998-P-18308 Charcoal, 185cm [784] OxA-15873

IV-1998-P-18311 Charcoal, 185cm [784] OxA-15818

IV-1998-P-15825 Charcoal, 2004b 200cm [337] OxA-14163

IV-1998-P-30189 Charcoal, N4W2 240-255cm [866] OxA-16666

IV-1998-P-30194 Charcoal, N3W3 250-260cm [807] OxA-16657

Sample Information ORAU Info Calibration

 [delta] Calibration
Sample [sup.13]C Uncal BP Unmod. Cal

IV-1998-P-16943 -23.5 5802 [+ or -] 38 4546-4767

IV-1998-P-23076 -29.9 5769 [+ or -] 37 4531-4715
 4580-4690
 4550-4570

IV-1998-P-23075a -19.4 8155 [+ or -] 50 7057-7313
 7230-7250
 7060-7190
IV-1998-P-23075b -25.5 8315 [+ or -] 50 7189-7516
 7331-7477
 7189-7230
IV-1998-P-15837 -24.5 8545 [+ or -] 40 7531-7602

IV-1998-P-15839 -24.3 8705 [+ or -] 40 7597-7936

IV-1998-P-20497 -27.2 8705 [+ or -] 45 7596-7938
 7890-7940
 7600-7750

IV-1998-P-16782 -27.8 9400 [+ or -] 45 8566-8785

IV-1998-P-15828 -26.6 8920 [+ or -] 45 7956-8250

IV-1998-P-15824 -25.6 8970 [+ or -] 45 7969-8284

IV-1998-P-1583 -26.3 8799 [+ or -] 40 7715-8183

IV-1998-P-15832 -25.8 8860 [+ or -] 45 7817-8223

IV-1998-P-18309 -26.6 8795 [+ or -] 45 7650-8200

IV-1998-P-18310 -25.6 8830 [+ or -] 45 8020-8210

IV-1998-P-15829 -25.4 9340 [+ or -] 45 8740-8470

IV-1998-P-18308 -27.2 8725 [+ or -] 55 7946-7600
 7796-7610
 7815-7802
IV-1998-P-18311 -25.4 8790 [+ or -] 40 7990-8170

IV-1998-P-15825 -25.0 9740 [+ or -] 75 8838-9338

IV-1998-P-30189 -30.1 12120 [+ or -] 60 11871-12168

IV-1998-P-30194 -25.9 9215 [+ or -] 45 8302-8555

Sample BC/AD % Cal BP Prob.

IV-1998-P-16943 BC 95.4% 6494-6677 0.980
 6687-6690 0.003
 6704-6716 0.017
IV-1998-P-23076 BC 95.4% 6481-6662 1.000
 BC 60.3% 6508-6517 0.076
 BC 7.9% 6532-6574 0.394
 6577-6634 0.530
IV-1998-P-23075a BC 95.4% 9006-9260 1.000
 BC 68.3% 9183-9190 0.031
 BC 9012-9135 0.969
IV-1998-P-23075b BC 95.4% 9280-9425 1.000
 BC 68.2% 9464-9137 0.931
 BC 0.069
IV-1998-P-15837 BC 95.4% 9480-9550 1.000

IV-1998-P-15839 BC 95.4% 9546-9784 0.985
 9850-9863 0.009
 9877-9885 0.006
IV-1998-P-20497 BC 92.7% 9559-9696 1.000
 BC 2.7% 9545-9796 0.961
 BC 68.2% 9804-9817 0.011
 9848-9866 0.018
 9875-9886 0.010
IV-1998-P-16782 BC 95.4% 10515-10733 1.000

IV-1998-P-15828 BC 95.4% 9905-10198 1.000

IV-1998-P-15824 BC 95.4% 9918-10071 0.413
 10115-10232 0.587

IV-1998-P-1583 BC 95.4% 9663-9951 0.891
 9990-10012 0.014
 10024-10040 0.010
 10061-10132 0.085
IV-1998-P-15832 BC 95.4% 9745-9748 0.003
 9766-10171 0.997
IV-1998-P-18309 BC 95.4% 9627-9953 0.881
 9989-100013 0.017
 10022-10041 0.012
 10060-10134 0.089
 10143-10146 0.002
IV-1998-P-18310 BC 95.4% 9701-9964 0.656
 9984-10154 0.344
IV-1998-P-15829 BC 95.4% 10419-10472 0.097
 10476-10687 0.903
IV-1998-P-18308 BC 95.4% 9549-9895 1.000
 BC 68.3% 9559-9745 0.945
 BC 9751-9764 0.055
IV-1998-P-18311 BC 95.4% 9627-9939 0.934
 9994-10006 0.007
 10029-10036 0.004
 10064-10120 0.056
IV-1998-P-15825 BC 95.4% 10786-10974 0.220
 10990-11032 0.240
 11062-11273 0.756
IV-1998-P-30189 BC 95.4% 13820-14116 1.000
 68.3% 13890-14048 1.000
IV-1998-P-30194 BC 95.4% 10252-10501 1.000
 68.3% 10283-10425 0.924
 10467-10480 0.076

Table 3. List of hunted mammalian taxa identified in the early to
mid-Holocene deposits (P. Piper & J. Ochoa). Taxonomy follows
Esselstyn et al. (2004) except (1) Lucchini et al. (2005). * Initial
morphometric analyses suggest more than one taxon represented.
Analytical data to be published independently.

Order Family Taxon

Primates Cercopithecidae Macuca fascicularis
Pholidota Manidae Manis culionensis
Carnivora Felidae Prionailurus bengalensis
 Mustelidae Amblonyx cinereus
 Mephitidae Mydaus marchei
 Herpestidae Herpestes brachyurus
 Viverridae Paradoxurus hermaphroditus
 Arctictis binturong
Artiodactyla Cervidae Axis/Cervus spp. *
 Suidae Sus cf. ahoenobarbus (1)

Order Family Common name

Primates Cercopithecidae Long-tailed macaque
Pholidota Manidae Palawan pangolin
Carnivora Felidae Leopard cat
 Mustelidae Oriental small-clawed otter
 Mephitidae Palawan stink badger
 Herpestidae Short-tailed mongoose
 Viverridae Common palm civet
 Binturong
Artiodactyla Cervidae Deer
 Suidae Palawan wild boar

Table 4. Number of individual specimens (NISP) of selected fauna
recorded to date from the east mouth, presented from youngest to
oldest major mid-Holocene to late Pleistocene contexts (P. Piper
& J. Ochoa).

 Monitor Small
CONTEXT Deer Pig Turtle Lizard Macaque Carnivores

332 (shell midden) 8 190 20 47 41 15
334 0 17 3 4 7 6
336 6 6 70 11 5 3
769 0 10 9 5 6 1
784 8 12 72 37 21 19
807 16 9 43 13 13 4
866 288 14 68 7 13 3
TOTAL 326 258 285 124 106 51

Table 5. Summary of use-wear analysis of 16 used tools from the east
mouth deep occupation sequence (H. Barton). Tool number is National
Museum of the Philippines accession number, beginning with IV-1998-P
(site code), or an independent series (IC) where no accession number
was given. Individual used edges are identified by letters, where
number of letters denotes number of used edges. Scars: SN (snap),
F (feather), H (hinge), ST (step).

Number Type Used edge Macro Micro

IC001 (no #) Retouched A ST, H None
 broken
 flake
 B H None

IC003 (no #) Retouched A H --
 flake

14726 Unretouched A None SN, F H
 flake

14727 Core A, B, C None ST

16310 Flake A None F
14730 Flake A None None

15228 Bipolar flake A None F
IC016 (no #) Bipolar core A, B F F

IC017 (no #) Flaked piece A, B None None

16309A Bipolar core A None None

16309B Bipolar flake A F F
 B None F, SN
16309C Bipolar core A None None
14775 Bipolar flake A F, H, SN, ST F

IC044 (no #) Flaked piece A None None

IC045 (no #) Bipolar core A None None

14090 Bipolar A None None
 fragment

Number Rounding Striations Polish

IC001 (no #) Slight None Present

 Heavy Parallel Present

IC003 (no #) Moderate None Present

14726 Slight None Present

14727 Heavy Transverse Present

16310 None None None
14730 Heavy None None

15228 None None None
IC016 (no #) Heavy Transverse Present

IC017 (no #) Heavy Transverse Present

16309A Heavy Transverse Present

16309B None None Present
 None None Present
16309C Slight None Present
14775 Slight None Present

IC044 (no #) Slight None Present

IC045 (no #) Heavy None Present

14090 Heavy Transverse Present

Number Development Mode of use

IC001 (no #) Weak Unknown

 Weak Cutting

IC003 (no #) Weak, restricted to Scraping
 edge and high zones
 of flake scars
14726 Bright, patchy, smooth Shaving/slicing
 with pitting and
 reticulate away from
 the edge
14727 Bright, smooth Planing

16310 Weak Scraping
14730 N/A Scraping

15228 N/A Unknown
IC016 (no #) Bright, smooth Planing

IC017 (no #) Bright, smooth with Planing
 some pitting

16309A Bright, smooth with
 some pitting
16309B Weak Shaving/slicing
 Weak Shaving/slicing
16309C Weak Planing
14775 Weak Cutting/slicing

IC044 (no #) Weak Cutting/slicing

IC045 (no #) Bright, reticulate Planing

14090 Bright, smooth with Planing
 some pitting

Number Interpretation

IC001 (no #) Unknown use

 Cutting/slicing soft
 material--plant?
IC003 (no #) Scraping medium/hard
 material

14726 Shaving medium
 wood/plant

14727 Planing siliceous plant;
 very heavily worn
 edge, flattened
16310 Light duty scraping
14730 Scraping hard material
 (residue)
15228 Possibly not used
IC016 (no #) Planing siliceous plant;
 edge very heavily
 worn, flattened in
 places
IC017 (no #) Planing siliceous plant;
 edge very heavily
 worn, flattened in
 places

16309A Planing siliceous plant

16309B Medium material
 Medium material
16309C Planing siliceous plant
14775 Soft to medium
 material
IC044 (no #) Cutting/slicing soft to
 medium plant
IC045 (no #) Planing wood or
 siliceous plant
14090 Planing siliceous plant
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Title Annotation:Research
Author:Lewis, Helen; Paz, Victor; Lara, Myra; Barton, Huw; Piper, Philip; Ochoa, Janine; Vitales, Timothy;
Publication:Antiquity
Geographic Code:9PHIL
Date:Jun 1, 2008
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