Printer Friendly

Temperature-dependent development and host range of crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae).

The crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae), is an invasive pest of crapemyrtles, Lagerstroemia spp. L. (Lythraceae) (Wang et al. 2016). Native to Asia, this pest was first reported in Richardson, Texas, USA, in 2004 (Merchant et al. 2014), and it is currently present in 11 other states including Louisiana (EDDMapS 2017). Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae is a sexual dimorphic with the adult female being sessile on the bark for most of her lifetime (Wang et al. 2016). Honeydew secreted by this scale facilitates sooty mold accumulation on the crapemyrtles, thus reducing aesthetic values as well as producing limited photosynthesis (Gu et al. 2014). Crapemyrtles are ornamentals with the highest economic value in the southeastern US (USDA NASS 2014). With more than 130 cultivars, Lagerstroemia spp. have a wide range of plant size, flower, foliage, and bark color (Chappell et al. 2012). Before the arrival of A. lagerstroemiae, crapemyrtles were valued as an ornamental with low pest problems (Knox 2003; Chappell et al. 2012). Current management of A. lagerstroemiae relies on insecticides such as imidacloprid, cypermethrin, and dinotefuran both in China (He et al. 2008; Zhang 2011) and the US (Gu et al. 2014; Robbins 2014), though most of these chemicals have been prohibited on bee-attractive plants including crapemyrtle (Riddle & Mizell 2016).

Temperature is one of the most important abiotic factors influencing the survival and development of insects and consequently population growth (Ratte 1984; Amarasekare & Savage 2011; Regniere et al. 2012). For A. lagerstroemiae, most of its phenology comes from field observations both in the native range and the US (Gu et al. 2014). In China, the number of generations of A. lagerstroemiae increased latitudinally from 2 to 4 generations from 32 to 26 [degrees]N (Jiang & Xu 1998; Luo et al. 2000; He et al. 2008; Ma 2011). Despite the importance for the development of phenological models, there is no information on the immature survival and developmental times of A. lagerstroemiae at constant temperatures. By understanding the developmental time of a pest, effective management plans can be developed, such as better timing of insecticide applications, delivering preventive strategies, or releasing biological control agents (Waage et al. 1985; May et al. 1988; Tang et al. 2010).

Understanding the host range of exotic pests is critical to determine potential risks and economic losses (Venette et al. 2010; Zalucki et al. 2012). In Asia and Hungary, A. lagerstroemiae was reported to attack 13 species of ecological and economic importance (Hoy 1963; Hua 2000; Kozar et al. 2013). Some of the reported hosts of this scale are also important crops in the US, including pomegranate, Punica granatum L. (Lythraceae), persimmon, Diospyros kaki Thunb. (Ebenaceae), and edible fig, Ficus carica L. (Moraceae) (USDA NASS 2012). In addition, polyphagous pests including A. lagerstroemiae may expand or shift the host range in the adventive area (Strong 1979). These changes in the host range have been reported for invasive scales in different regions (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) (Cham et al. 2011; Culik et al. 2013; Silva et al. 2017). However, there are no studies in the US of the host range of the population of A. lagerstroemiae.

The purpose of this study was to understand the temperature-dependent development and host range of A. lagerstroemiae. The specific objectives were (1) to assess the effects of temperature on the development and survival of immature stages; and (2) to determine the host range of the scale under no-choice conditions. Temperature-dependent development was evaluated at constant temperatures in the laboratory. Thirteen plant species from 7 families were tested under no-choice conditions. Preventive strategies and improvement of IPM plans for this scale are discussed.

Materials and Methods


Branches of crapemyrtles infested with different stages of A. lagerstroemiae were collected in Shreveport (32.5500[degrees]N, 93.7800[degrees]W), Louisiana, USA, from Apr 2016 to Jul 2016. Upon arrival at the laboratory, infested branches were immediately placed in a growth chamber at 25 [+ or -] 1 [degrees]C with a photoperiod of 12:12 h (L:D). Experiments were conducted 1 or 2 d after the field collection to ensure that the insects were alive.

Crapemyrtles, Lagerstroemiae indica x fauriei 'Natchez White' (Lythraceae) in 1 L pots were purchased from local nurseries in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Other plant species were purchased from local nurseries or were obtained from the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center (LSUAC) Hammond Research Station, Hammond, Louisiana, with container sizes ranging from 1 to 3.8 L. All plants were placed under full sun, fertilized every 3 mo with 14 g of a controlled release fertilizer (OsmocotePlus", 15N-9P-12K; The Scotts Miracle-Gro Company, Marysville, Ohio, USA), and watered daily.


The immature development and survival of A. lagerstroemiae were examined at 7 constant temperatures (17.5, 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5, 30, and 32.5 [+ or -] 1 [degrees]C) in environmental growth chambers (Series 101, Percival Scientific", Perry, Iowa, USA) set at 12:12 h (L:D) photoperiod. Short branches (< 5 cm) containing gravid females were placed inside Petri dishes (9 cm diam) and monitored for the presence of eggs. Recently deposited eggs (< 1 d old) were gently removed using a pin, and transferred to new Petri dishes containing dry filter paper. One Petri dish was assigned to each temperature, and 40 eggs laid by at least 3 females were pooled at each temperature. A single egg was considered a replicate. All Petri dishes were examined daily under a microscope, and the numbers of crawlers were counted and recorded until all eggs had hatched or died.

For nymphal development, 50 newly hatched crawlers (< 1 d old) were inoculated on a potted crapemyrtle plant, and 4 plants (replicates) were used per temperature (20, 25, and 30 [+ or -] 1 [degrees]C; photoperiod 12:12 h [L:D]). Each infested plant was kept inside a 49 L plastic wastebasket (20 x 30 x 45 cm; Mainstays[TM], Kenmore, Virginia, USA) that was modified by removing the plastic material from each of the 4 sides and the bottom, then covering with fine mesh. The fine mesh served to maintain air ventilation and humidity inside the container and prevented the crawlers from escaping. The top of the basket was covered with transparent plastic wrap. Because of the minute size and similar morphology among different A. lagerstroemiae instars (Wang et al. 2016), it was difficult to differentiate each molting during the nymphal stages. However, the presence of white waxy coverings of male prepupa and gravid female was considered in this study to be the end of the nymphal stage for male and female, respectively. Because females produce a white covering when they are ready to lay eggs, the developmental time for female nymphs measured in this study could be overestimated. All plants were examined daily, and individuals with the presence of white coverings were recorded and marked with a permanent marker on the bark. Because most nymphs cannot finish their development at 20 [degrees]C, we harvested all plants at 7 mo. For the nymphs that were left on the plant, we confirmed the mortality under a microscope by leg movement. Developmental time and survival per observed life stage were compared among temperatures using 1-way analysis of the variance (ANOVA) in PROC MIXED (SAS Version 9.3; SAS Institute 2011), and the LSMEANS were compared using Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test at a = 0.05.


The immature development and reproduction of A. lagerstroemiae reared on different plant species were examined under no-choice conditions. A total of 13 plant species were selected based on 3 criteria: (1) plants previously were reported as hosts (reviewed in Wang et al. 2016), (2) plants are closely related as determined by the centrifugal phylogenetic method (Wapshere 1989), and (3) Callicarpa americana L. (Lamiaceae) that was observed infested with A. lagerstroemiae in the field (Wang et al. 2016) (Table 1). Plant species reported as hosts in Asia and found in the United States were Buxus microphylla Siebold & Zucc. (Buxaceae), Celtis laevigata Willdenow (Combretaceae), Diospyros kaki Thunb. (Ebenaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Punica granatum L. (Lythraceae), and Rubus fruticosus L. 'Kiowa' (Rosaceae). According to the phylogenetic analysis of Lythraceae (Myrtales) (Graham et al. 2005), another 4 plant species were selected including Cuphea ignea A. DC., Heimia salicifolia Link, Lawsonia inermis L., and Lythrum alatum Pursh. Four plants (replicates) of each species were used in this study, and Lagerstroemiae indica x fauriei 'Natchez White' was considered the control. Plants were inoculated by tying infested branches (8-10 cm in length) to the main stem of test plants for 1 wk. Then each plant was placed inside a cage (61 x 61 x 91 cm) (BioQuip[R] Compton, California, USA) and allowed to grow under greenhouse conditions.

Gravid females, recognized by the white ovisacs found on each plant, were counted and recorded every wk for a total of 14 wk. The experiment was conducted from Apr to Oct 2016. Plant species that supported complete life cycle development from egg to adult and the reproduction of adults were defined as host plants of A. lagerstroemiae (Heard 1997). When no gravid females were found after 4 wk of inoculation, plants were re-infested using the same protocol to confirm the non-host status. The total number of gravid females by wk 12 were compared among host plants using 1-way ANOVA in PROC MIXED (SAS Version 9.3; SAS Institute 2011), and the LSMEANS were separated using Tukey's HSD test at [alpha] = 0.05.



Developmental time differed among temperatures for eggs (F = 1076.0; df = 5,159; P < 0.001; Fig. 1), male nymphs (F = 84.9; df = 2,48; P < 0.001), and female nymphs (F = 350.2; df = 1,65; P < 0.001; Table 2). Mean developmental time for eggs decreased from 36 d at 17.5 [degrees]C to 10 d at 27.5 [degrees]C, and then increased to 11 d at 30 [degrees]C (Fig. 1). Development time from nymph to male prepupa increased from 56 d at 30 [degrees]C to 154 d at 20 [degrees]C, and the time from nymph to gravid female was 68 and 137 d at 30 and 25 [degrees]C, respectively.

Survival was different for eggs (Fig. 1) and nymphs at different temperatures (F = 7.4; df = 2,9; P < 0.01; Table 2). Lower egg survival ([less than or equal to] 55%) was recorded for temperatures lower than 25 [degrees]C, and most eggs hatched ([greater than or equal to] 90%) when the temperature ranged from 25 to 30 [degrees]C (Fig. 1). No eggs hatched at 32 [degrees]C. For nymphs, the highest survival rate (30%) was found at 25 [degrees]C and the lowest (16%) at 20 [degrees]C (Table 2).


Results under no-choice conditions indicated that La. inermis, H. salicifolia, P. granatum, Ly. alatum, and C. americana supported nymphal development and reproduction of A. lagerstroemiae. The number of females on all hosts was lower than 100 after the first 6 wk, then increased to different levels (Fig. 2). The number of gravid females at wk 12 also differed among species (F = 8.5; df = 5,19; P < 0.001; Fig. 2). Crapemyrtle (L. indica x fauriei) had the highest number of gravid females (482 [+ or -] 92; mean [+ or -] SE), followed by C. americana (200 [+ or -] 70), and lower numbers (< 150) were obtained on the other 4 plants (Fig. 2). Sooty mold accumulated on all these plant species, and the amount of accumulation varied with the density of A. lagerstroemiae. Branch dieback was reported for L. indica x fauriei and C. americana.


The developmental time and survival for A. lagerstroemiae eggs and nymphs varied among temperatures. The optimum temperature for egg hatching is 27.5 [degrees]C, which was determined by the shortest hatching time and highest hatching rate. Constant temperatures below 25 [degrees]C resulted in lower egg hatching whereas temperatures above 32 [degrees]C led to complete mortality. However, the ovisacs of scales could prevent heat and moisture exchanges and maintain a relatively stable microenvironment inside (Gullan & Kosztarab 1997); thus, air temperature may not represent the best predictor for temperature inside the ovisac. Nymphs of A. lagerstroemiae have a much slower growth rate than other scales. The development from crawler to gravid female was 137 d at 25 [degrees]C for A. lagerstroemiae, but 54 d for Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) (Erkilic & Uygun 1997), 65 d for Hemiberlesia rapax (Comstock) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) (Blank et al. 2000), and 24 d for Phenacoccus solani Ferris (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) (Nakahira & Arakawa 2006). Nymphal survival of A. lagerstroemiae was lower (< 35%) compared to other scales (70-90%), including P. solani (Nakahira & Arakawa 2006), Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) (Amarasekare et al. 2008), and Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) (Prasad et al. 2012). Another factor that may lead to the slower development and lower survival in this study could be less favorable conditions with artificial light and constant temperatures inside the growth chamber (Colinet et al. 2015).

The developmental time of A. lagerstroemiae estimated in this study can be used to understand the phenology of this pest in the field. The time for A. lagerstroemiae to complete 1 generation is about 4 mo at 25 [degrees]C and 3.5 mo at 30 [degrees]C, and could be shorter at relatively warmer temperatures. Nymphs of A. lagerstroemiae stayed quiescent and did not reach the reproductive stage at constant 20 [degrees]C. According to the National Climatic Data Center (, the daily average temperatures in subtropical areas such as Louisiana and Texas increase above 20[degrees]C from mid-Apr to Oct and decrease to lower than 20[degrees]C from Oct to mid-Apr, suggesting the potential time of crawler emergence and beginning of overwintering for A. lagerstroemiae. Therefore, A. lagerstroemiae should have more than 2 generations per yr in Louisiana and Texas. The information obtained from this study could help build models combined with data collected by our collaborators to predict the population dynamics in different locations (Yurk & Powell 2010), as demonstrated for the population growth of P. solenopsis (Fand et al. 2014), and for crawler emergence of Unaspis yanonensis Kuwana (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) (Kim & Kim 2013).

Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae is polyphagous, and can develop and reproduce on at least 5 species from different genera and families. Four out of the 5 plant species are phylogenetically related to the crapemyrtle (Lythraceae), but the American beautyberry (C. americana; Lamiales) is relatively distant to Lythraceae phylogenetically (AGP II 2003). Reasons for the polyphagy of A. lagerstroemiae are unknown but one speculation is that these plant species could share somewhat similar plant chemistry (Ehrlich & Murphy 1988; Erbilgin et al. 2014), or simply that A. lagerstroemiae has the adaptations to overcome the chemical defense of plants in multiple families and orders (Dicke 2000; Harrison et al. 2016). The phylogenetic relationship of scales in Acanthococcus (= Eriococcus; Eriococcidae) is still ambiguous (Cook et al. 2002; Kozar et al. 2013), and the host ranges for these scales are poorly investigated. However, several phylogenetically related species to A. lagerstroemiae including Acanthococcus (= Eriococcus) macedoniensis Fetyko & Kaydan, Acanthococcus (= Eriococcus) melnikinensis (Kuwana), and Acanthococcus (= Eriococcus) onukii (Kuwana) were collected from several families and orders of plants (Kozar et al. 2013). Furthermore, the host species of A. lager-stroemiae found in this study are different from reports in Asia, except for pomegranate (P. granatum) (Wang et al. 2016). Considering the potential of a wider host range, additional plant species having been reported to be suitable in the native range, or phylogenetically related to confirmed hosts, should be evaluated.

Prevention should be the primary approach to manage A. lagerstroemiae in nurseries growing potential host plants. Host species of A. lagerstroemiae found in this study are economically and ecologically important. Pomegranate (P. granatum) is a fruit crop produced in 13,309 ha in the US as recorded in 2012 (USDA NASS 2014), with a value of about US $184 million reported in California alone (CD-FA 2016). American beautyberry (C. americana) (Wiersema & Leon 2016) and winged loosestrife (L. alatum) (Clute 1901) are important native plants that also are grown as ornamentals in nurseries. Sinicuichi (H. salicifolia) is valued for its medicinal traits (Baxter et al. 2001). Though not commercially planted in the US, henna (L. inermis) is an economically important crop in India and several other countries for its medicinal and cosmetic uses (Kumar et al. 2005; Semwal et al. 2014). On all these host species the density of A. lagerstroemiae increased over time, with injuries appearing, including accumulation of black sooty mold and branch dieback. If not detected and controlled in time, A. lagerstroemiae could exert severe impacts on these plant species. Scouting is recommended for all plants in the host range of A. lagerstroemiae, and immediate responses, such as spraying insecticides or removing infested plants, should be carried out to prevent further spread of this invasive scale (Kim et al. 2006; Zalucki et al. 2012).

In summary, temperature-dependent development of A. lagerstroemiae can help to time the delivery of control tactics on development of population growth models. Five out of 13 plant species chosen from different genera and families were found as suitable host species of A. lagerstroemiae. Inspections in all potential host plants are recommended with appropriate treatments in order to prevent the spread of A. lagerstroemiae and potential economic losses.


We thank Joey P. Quebedeaux and Gina Dimm Hebert of the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Hammond Research Station, Hammond, Louisiana, for providing test plants, and Otto Castillo of the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Entomology Department, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, for maintaining plant conditions in the greenhouse. This work was funded in part by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA, under award number 2014-70006-22632, and by the Louisiana State University Department of Entomology.

References Cited

AGP II. 2003. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 399-436.

Amarasekare KG, Chong JH, Epsky ND, Mannion CM. 2008. Effect of temperature on the life history of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 101: 1798-1804.

Amarasekare P, Savage V. 2011. A framework for elucidating the temperature dependence of fitness. American Naturalist 179: 178-191.

Baxter BJ, Baxter H, Harborne JB, Williamson EM [eds.]. 2001. Chemical Dictionary of Economic Plants. John Wiley & Sons, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada.

Blank RH, Gill GSC, Kelly JM. 2000. Development and mortality of greedy scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) at constant temperatures. Environmental Entomology 29: 934-942.

CDFA (California Department of Food and Agriculture). 2016. California county agricultural commissioners' reports: crop year 2014-2015. (online) (last accessed 11 Dec 2018).

Cham D, Davis H, Obeng-Ofori D, Owu E. 2011. Host range of the newly invasive mealybug species Paracocccus marginatus Williams and Granara De Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in two ecological zones of Ghana. Zoological Research 1: 1-7.

Chappell MR, Kristine BS, Williams-Woodward J, Knox G. 2012. Optimizing plant health and pest management of Lagerstroemia spp. in commercial production and landscape situations in the southeastern United States: a review. Journal of Environmental Horticulture 30: 161-172.

Clute WN [ed.]. 1901. The American Botanist: Devoted to Economic and Ecological Botany, Volumes 16-20, W. N. Clute & Company, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

Colinet H, Sinclair BJ, Vernon P, Renault D. 2015. Insects in fluctuating thermal environments. Annual Review of Entomology 60: 123-140.

Cook LG, Gullan PJ, Trueman HE. 2002. A preliminary phylogeny of the scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) based on nuclear small-subunit ribosomal DNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 25: 43-52.

Culik MP, Fornazier MJ, dos Santos Martins D, Zanuncio JS, Ventura JA, Peronti ALB, Zanuncio JC. 2013. The invasive mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus: lessons for its current range expansion in South America and invasive pest management in general. Journal of Pest Science 86: 387-398.

Dicke M. 2000. Chemical ecology of host-plant selection by herbivorous arthropods: a multitrophic perspective. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 28: 601-617.

EDDMapS. 2017. Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System. (online) (last accessed 11 Dec 2018).

Ehrlich PR, Murphy DD. 1988. Plant chemistry and host range in insect herbivores. Ecology 69: 908-909.

Erbilgin N, Ma C, Whitehouse C, Shan B, Najar A, Evenden M. 2014. Chemical similarity between historical and novel host plants promotes range and host expansion of the mountain pine beetle in a naive host ecosystem. New Phytologist 201: 940-950.

Erkilic L, Uygun N. 1997. Development time and fecundity of the white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona, in Turkey. Phytoparasitica 25: 9-16.

Fand BB, Tonnang HE, Kumar M, Kamble AL, Bal SK. 2014. A temperature-based phenology model for predicting development, survival and population growth potential of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Crop Protection 55: 98-108.

Graham SA, Hall J, Sytsma K, Shi SH. 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of the Lythraceae based on four gene regions and morphology. International Journal of Plant Science 166: 995-1017.

Gu M, Merchant M, Robbins J, Hopkins J. 2014. Crape Myrtle Bark Scale: A New Exotic Pest. (online) (last accessed 11 Dec 2018).

Gullan PJ, Kosztarab M. 1997. Adaptations in scale insects. Annual Review of Entomology 42: 23-50.

Harrison JG, Gompert Z, Fordyce JA, Buerkle CA, Grinstead R, Jahner JP, Mikel S, Nice CC, Santamaria A, Forister ML. 2016. The many dimensions of diet breadth: phytochemical, genetic, behavioral, and physiological perspectives on the interaction between a native herbivore and an exotic host. PLoS ONE 11: e0147971. doi: [10.1371/journal.pone.0147971]

He D, Cheng J, Zhao H, Chen S. 2008. Biological characteristic and control efficacy of Eriococcus lagerstroemiae. Chinese Bulletin of Entomology 45: 812-814.

Heard T. 1997. Host range testing of insects, pp. 77-82 In Julien M, White G [eds.], Biological Control of Weeds: Theory and Practical Application. ACIAR Monograph Series, Canberra, Australia.

Hoy JM. 1963. Catalogue of family Eriococcidae, pp. 99 In Owen RE [ed.], A Catalogue of the Eriococcidae (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of the World. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Wellington, New Zealand.

Hua L. 2000. List of Chinese Insects, Volume 1. Zhongshan (Sun Yat-sen) University Press, Guangdong, China.

Jiang N, Xu H. 1998. Observation on Eriococcus lagerstroemiae Kuwana. Journal of Anhui Agriculture University 25: 142-144.

Kim SB, Kim DS. 2013. Temperature-dependent fecundity of overwintered Unaspis yanonensis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) and use of degree-days for the prediction of first crawler. Crop Protection 43: 60-64.

Kim C, Lubowski RN, Lewandrowski J, Eiswerth ME. 2006. Prevention or control: optimal government policies for invasive species management. Agricultural and Resource Economics Review 35: 29-40.

Knox G. 2003. Crapemyrtle in Florida. (online) (last accessed 11 Dec 2018).

Kozar F, Kaydan MB, Benedicty ZK, Szita E [eds.]. 2013. Acanthococcidae and Related Families of the Palaearctic Region. Plant Protection Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.

Kumar S, Singh Y, Singh M [eds.]. 2005. Henna: Cultivation, Improvement and Trade. Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur, India.

Luo Q, Xie X, Zhou L, Wang S, Zongyi X. 2000. A study on the dynamics and biological characteristics of Eriococcus lagerstroemiae Kuwana population in Guiyang. Acta Entomologica Sinica 43: 35-41.

Ma J. 2011. Occurrence and biological characteristics of Eriococcus lagerostroemiae Kuwana in Panxi district. South China Fruits 40: 12-14.

May RM, Hassell MP, Neuenschwander P, Rogers DJ, Southwood TRE. 1988. Population dynamics and biological control and discussion. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Science 318: 129-169.

Merchant ME, Gu M, Robbins J, Vafaie E, Barr N, Tripodi AD, Szalanski AL. 2014. Discovery and spread of Eriococcus lagerstroemiae Kuwana (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae), a new invasive pest of crape myrtle, Lagerstroemia spp. (online) (last accessed 11 Dec 2018).

Nakahira K, Arakawa R. 2006. Development and reproduction of an exotic pest mealybug, Phenacoccus solani (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) at three constant temperatures. Applied Entomology and Zoology 41: 573-575.

Prasad Y, Prabhakar M, Sreedevi G, Rao GR, Venkateswarlu B. 2012. Effect of temperature on development, survival and reproduction of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on cotton. Crop Protection 39: 81-88.

Ratte HT. 1984. Temperature and insect development, pp. 33-66 In Hoffmann KH [ed.], Environmental Physiology and Biochemistry of Insects. Springer, Berlin, Germany.

Regniere J, Powell J, Bentz B, Nealis V. 2012. Effects of temperature on development, survival and reproduction of insects: experimental design, data analysis and modeling. Journal of Insect Physiology 58: 634-647.

Riddle TC, Mizell III RF. 2016. Use of crape myrtle, Lagerstroemia (Myrtales: Lythraceae), cultivars as a pollen source by native and non-native bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Quincy, Florida. Florida Entomologist 99: 38-46.

Robbins J, Hopkins J, Merchant M, Gu M. 2014. Crape myrtle Bark Scale: A New Insect Pest, (last accessed 11 Dec 2018).

SAS Institute. 2011. Base SAS* 9.3 procedures guide. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA.

Semwal RB, Semwal DK, Combrinck S, Cartwright-Jones C, Viljoen A. 2014. Law-sonia inermis L. (henna): ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155: 80-103.

Silva VCPD, Nondillo A, Galzer ECW, Garcia MS, Botton M. 2017. Effect of host plants on the development, survivorship, and reproduction of Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Florida Entomologist 100: 718-724.

Strong Jr DR. 1979. Biogeographic dynamics of insect-host plant communities. Annual Review of Entomology 24: 89-119.

Tang S, Tang G, Cheke RA. 2010. Optimum timing for integrated pest management: modelling rates of pesticide application and natural enemy releases. Journal of Theoretical Biology 264: 623-638.

USDA NASS (USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service). 2012. 2012 Census of Agriculture. (online),_Chapter_1_State_Level/Mississippi/st28_1_039_039.pdf (last accessed 11 Dec 2018).

USDA NASS (USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service). 2014. 2014 Census of horticultural specialties. (online) (last accessed 11 Dec 2018).

Venette RC, Kriticos DJ, Magarey RD, Koch FH, Baker RH, Worner SP, Raboteaux NN, McKenney DW, Dobesberger EJ, Yemshanov D. 2010. Pest risk maps for invasive alien species: a roadmap for improvement. BioScience 60: 349-362.

Waage JK, Hassell MP, Godfray HCJ. 1985. The dynamics of pest-parasitoid-in-secticide interactions. Journal of Application Ecology 22: 825-838.

Wang Z, Chen Y, Gu M, Vafaie E, Merchant M, Diaz R. 2016. Crapemyrtle bark scale: a new threat for crapemyrtles, a popular landscape plant in the US. Insects 7: 78. doi: [10.3390/insects7040078]

Wapshere A. 1989. A testing sequence for reducing rejection of potential biological control agents for weeds. Annals of Applied Biology 114: 515-526.

Wiersema JH, Leon B [eds.]. 2016. World Economic Plants: A Standard Reference, 2nd edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

Yurk BP, Powell JA. 2010. Modeling the effects of developmental variation on insect phenology. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 72: 1334-1360.

Zalucki MP, Shabbir A, Silva R, Adamson D, Sheng SL, Furlong MJ. 2012. Estimating the economic cost of one of the world's major insect pests, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae): just how long is a piece of string? Journal of Economic Entomology 105: 1115-1129.

Zhang Y. 2011. Effects of different insecticides on Eriococcus lagerstroemiae Kuwana (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) in Changzhou District, Jiangsu. Hunan Agriculture Science 14: 32-33.

Zinan Wang (1), Yan Chen (2), and Rodrigo Diaz (1,*)

(1) Louisiana State University, Agricultural Center, Department of Entomology, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA, E-mail: (R. D.); (Z. W.)

(2) Louisiana State University, Agricultural Center, Hammond Research Station, Hammond, Louisiana 70403, USA, E-mail: (Y. C.)

(*) Corresponding author; E-mail:

Caption: Fig. 1. Box plot of the developmental time in d of Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae eggs at 6 constant temperatures. The lines within each box plot corresponds to the median value, the box length to the interquartile range, and the lines emanating from the box (whiskers) extend to the smallest and largest observations. Different letters indicate significantly different developmental times among temperatures at Type I error = 0.05. The number above the box plot is the percent survival of eggs.

Caption: Fig. 2. Number of Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae gravid females on 6 host plant species for 14 wk. Different letters represent statistically different means at wk 12 adjusted by Tukey's HSD method at Type I error = 0.05, and bars are standard errors for comparisons at wk 12.
Table 1. Plant species as host candidates of Acanthococcus
lagerstroemiae used in no-choice tests.

Scientific name          Variety            Common name         Order

Buxus microphylla        'Japonica'         Japanese boxwood    Buxales
Siebold & Zucc.
Diospyros kaki Thunb.    Wild variety       Japanese persimmon  Ericales
Callicarpa americana L.  --                 Beautyberry         Lamiales
Celtis laevigata         --                 Sugarberry          Myrtales
Cuphea ignea A. DC.      'Strybing Sunset'  Cigar flower        Myrtales
Cuphea ignea A. DC.      'Dynamite'         Cigar flower        Myrtales
Cuphea ignea A. DC.      'Vermillionaire'   Cigar flower        Myrtales
Heimia salicifolia Link  --                 Sinicuichi          Myrtales
Lagerstroemia indica     'Natchez White'    Crapemyrtle         Myrtales
x fauriei
Lawsonia inermis L.      --                 Henna               Myrtales
Lythrum alatum Pursh     --                 Winged loosestrife  Myrtales
Punica granatum L.       'Wonderful'        Pomegranate         Myrtales
Ficus carica L.          'Tiger'            Edible fig          Rosales
Rubus fruticosus L.      'Kiowa'            Blackberry          Rosales

Scientific name           Family

Buxus microphylla         Buxaceae
Siebold & Zucc.
Diospyros kaki Thunb.     Ebenaceae
Callicarpa americana L.   Lamiaceae
Celtis laevigata          Combretaceae
Cuphea ignea A. DC.       Lythraceae
Cuphea ignea A. DC.       Lythraceae
Cuphea ignea A. DC.       Lythraceae
Heimia salicifolia Link   Lythraceae
Lagerstroemia indica      Lythraceae
x fauriei
Lawsonia inermis L.       Lythraceae
Lythrum alatum Pursh      Lythraceae
Punica granatum L.        Lythraceae
Ficus carica L.           Moraceae
Rubus fruticosus L.       Rosaceae

Table 2. Mean ([+ or -] SE) developmental time (d) and nymphal survival
(%) of Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae at 3 constant temperatures. Means
within each row followed by different letters are significantly
different (P < 0.05; Tukey's HSD).

                                 Temperature ([degrees]C)
Stage/variable                  20                    25

Nymph to male          154.0 [+ or -] 6.6 a   122.0 [+ or -] 3.8 b
prepupa (d)
Nymph to gravid        NA                     136.7 [+ or -] 2.4 a
female (d)
Nymphal survival (%)    16.0 [+ or -] 0.8 b    30.0 [+ or -] 4.7 a

                       Temperature ([degrees]C)
Stage/variable                  30

Nymph to male          55.5 [+ or -] 5.1 c
prepupa (d)
Nymph to gravid        68.3 [+ or -] 2.7 b
female (d)
Nymphal survival (%)   22.5 [+ or -] 1.8 ab

NA indicates no gravid female developed successfully.

Please Note: Illustration(s) are not available due to copyright restrictions.
COPYRIGHT 2019 Florida Entomological Society
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2019 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Wang, Zinan; Chen, Yan; Diaz, Rodrigo
Publication:Florida Entomologist
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 1, 2019
Previous Article:LED grow lights alter sorghum growth and sugarcane aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) plant interactions in a controlled environment.
Next Article:Impact of cover cropping on non-target arthropod pests of red maple trees in nursery production.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2021 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |