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Technical sessions & interactive sessions: Tuesday, June 23.

INT1

Composites Interactive Session

1:30 PM

0417--AE Characteristics Of Short And Long Fiber Reinforced PP Injection Moldings

Tohru Morii

Shonan Institute of Technology

This study dealt with effect of fiber length on AE characteristics of glass fiber reinforced PP injection moldings. Short and long fiber reinforced PP was molded by injection molding, and static tensile tests were conducted with AE monitoring. In AE monitoring, dual transducer system with resonant frequency of 140kHz and 1MHz was adopted. Effect of fiber length on fracture was discussed by AE initiation stress and maximum amplitude. From these parameters fracture process was divided into two phases; interfacial fracture dominated by fibers oriented perpendicular to loading and fiber breakage and following matrix cracking by fibers oriented parallel to loading.

0204--Study On Dispersibility Of Carbon Nanotubes In Chitosan Composites

Yeong-Tarng Shieh

National University of Kaohsiung

The dispersibilities of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in water of different pH and in aqueous chitosan (CS) solution acidified with different acids were investigated. The untreated CNT could not disperse in water of 1 [??][empty set] pH < 13 whereas the acid-treated CNT could well disperse in this range except the pH[??][empty set] 3. CS was soluble in water of pH[??][empty set] 3. This paper presents an investigation on the dispersibility of CNT in CS in aqueous solutions and in composite films.

0497--Nanocomposites Of Thermotropic Liquid Crystal Polymer With Carboxylated Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube

Seong Hun KIM

Hanyang University

Incorporation of multi wall carbon nanotube (CNT) into the thermotropic liquid crystal polymer matrix to obtain high performance polymer nanocomposites, and its major challenge is to improve the dispersion of CNT in the polymer matrix and the interfacial adhesion between CNT and the polymer matrix. In this study, the CNT was functionalized with chemical modification to introduce carboxylic groups onto the surfaces of CNT for uniform dispersion and induce excellent interfacial adhesion. The rheological, mechanical, morphological, and thermal properties of TLCP/c-CNT nanocomposites were investigated.

0936--Fatigue Properties Of Jute Fabric Reinforced Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) Molding

Masanori Okano

Kyoto Institute of Technology

Recent earth environmental concern requires easy recycle material system, and the use of natural fiber is noticed in composite materials. Considering that fiber reinforced composite is used for structural part, the design of the strength is very difficult because the failure mechanism is complicated. In this study, SMC that reinforcement was jute cloth was prepared. The low-cycle bending fatigue test and the cross sectional observation of fracture part were performed. As a result, the brittle crack propagation in the interface around the fiber bundle was seen in the specimen of warp and weft direction, and the brittle crack propagation was not confirmed in the 45-degree specimen.

0101--Structural Composites From Recycled Hdpe And Calcium Sulfite Crystallites

Vivak Malhotra

Southern Illinois University

Typically wood plastic composites are manufactured from HDPE and wood byproducts. However, to mitigate the concerns associated with the environment and costs, we are attempting to develop structural composite materials from calcium sulfite hydrate (hannebachite), produced during the scrubbing of flue gases, natural fibers, and recycled HDPE. The structural, thermal, and mechanical behaviors of the composites, as well as of raw materials, were determined by SEM, DSC, DMA, and flexural measurements at 300 K<T<600 K. Interestingly, the strength of the composites did not scale with the concentration of the recycled HDPE, and the maximum strength was obtained for 50 wt% HDPE composites.

0836--High Performance Polymer Nanocomposite Blends Of PEI And PEEK

Pritesh Patel

Zyvex Performance Materials

Multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) range 1, 3 & 5 wt% have been used in the blend of poly (ether imide) and poly (ether ether Ketone). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) have been used to investigate the changes in glass transition temperature. The dynamic mechanical behavior of polymer blends was found to be affected by the nanotubes inclusion, dispersion and interaction between the components. At high filler inclusion, nanotubes align anisotropic during injection molding processing likely due to high melt viscosity of final composition.

0848--Study Of The Morphology And Properties Of PP/Epoxy Blends

Jiang Xueliang

School of Materials Science and Engineering

In this paper, effects of dynamical cure and compatibilization on the morphology and properties of the PP/epoxy blends were studied. The addition of maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene (MAH-g-PP) and dynamical cure of epoxy by dicyanamide give rise to decrease the average diameter of epoxy particles in the PP/epoxy blends. Dynamical cure of the epoxy resin leads to an improvement in the modulus and strength of the PP/epoxy blends, and the addition of MAH-g-PP results in an increase in the impact strength. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) analysis shows that dynamical cure and compatibilization do not disturb the crystalline structure of the PP/epoxy blends.

0616--Reinforcement Of Polypropylene Composite Systems: Effect Of Fillers And Compatibilizers.

Santanu Dutta

Machino Polymers Limited

The purpose of this work is to compare the mechanical properties of the different PP/Filler composites. We considered the effect of treatment of the filler on the adhesion between the filler and the matrix .Modification of polypropylene (PP) with different coated and uncoated fillers is investigated in this paper. Six types of different fillers are used for preparation of filled PP composites. The composite samples were homogenized in a twin screw extruder. The compatibility of PP and fillers focused in this study and modified by using coupling agent. The obtained values of composites were correlated with mechanical properties.

0442--Electrical Conductivity Of Melt Compounded Functionized Graphene Sheets Filled Polyethylene Terephthalate Nanocomposites

Haobin Zhang

Ningbo Institute of Material Technology &amp; Engineering, Chinese Academy of

Sciences

Functionalized graphene sheets (FGS) filled Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) nanocomposites were prepared via melt compounding. The nanocomposites have a very low electrical percolation threshold of 0.47 vol%, even lower than that of single wall carbon nanotubes filled PET composites reported. The electrical conductivity of PET nanocomposite with FGS content of 0.56 vol% reaches to 3.32. [??] 10-5S/m, and reached up to 2.11 S/m for PET nanocomposite with FGS content of 3.0 vol%. Furthermore, the relationship of crystallization temperature of PET in PET nanocomposites versus FGS content may provide another approach to determine the fomation of graphene percolation networks in PET nanocomposites.

0416--Fracture Behavior Of Glass Fiber/Unsaturated Polyester Resin Laminate By Dual AE Transducer Monitoring System

Tohru Morii

Shonan Institute of Technology

AE was applied to evaluate fracture mechanism of glass fabric reinforced unsaturated polyester laminates with different fiber surface treatment. For AE monitoring dual transducer monitoring system was adopted to discuss dominant fracture under tensile loading. AE transducers with resonant frequency of 140kHz and 1MHz were applied to monitor matrix and fiber dominant fracture, respectively. By this system, effect of fiber surface treatment on fracture was discussed. Cumulative AE counts from fiber dominant fracture were constant independent of fiber surface treatment and loading pattern. This result suggested laminate strength was determined by accumulation of fiber related fracture.

0857--The Role Of Grafting Degree In The Dispersion Of Guava-Like Silica/Polyacrylate Nanocomposite Particles Into Polyacrylate Matrix

Dongming Qi

Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou, China

A series of [??] guava-like [??] [+ or -] silica/polyacrylate nanocornposite particles with different grafting degrees were prepared via mini-emulsion polymerization. The silica/polyacrylate composite particles were melt-mixed with unfilled polyacrylate (PA) resin to prepare the corresponding silica/PA molded composites. The dispersion mechanism of these silica particles from the [??] guava-like [??] [+ or -] composite particles into PA matrix was studied by section-TEM micrographs of silica/PA molded composites. It was found that the grafting degree of silica particles played a crucial role in the dispersion of silica/PA composite particles into the PA matrix.

INT2

Flexible Packaging Interactive Session

1:30 PM

0773--Investigation of EVOH/Kaolinite Nanocomposite Films

Danielle Froio

US Army NSRDEC

Two grades of ethylene co-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) were compounded with kaolinite nanoparticles at a loading level of 5%, and subsequently extruded into blown and cast monolayer films. Films were analyzed for oxygen and water vapor barrier, mechanical performance and thermal properties. The films showed an improvement in barrier properties, a decrease in Young's modulus and no change in thermal properties, such as melt and glass transition temperature. Films are currently undergoing morphology analysis.

0971--Influence of Different Surface Treatments Over Resolution of Printed Silver Traces

Renato Bonadiman

Nokia technology Institute

Printed electronics is a promising technology to obtain electronic devices with low cost. Printing techniques using nano-size materials at low temperatures can revolutionize the electronics industry in coming years. Therefore, the challenge is to provide sufficient quality of interconnecting traces by the selection of appropriate materials and printing conditions. In this work, the influence of different surface treatments over polyimide, polyester and polysulphone, and its effect on the resolution of printed silver traces was evaluated. It was possible to observe a high dependence between traces resolution and surface treatments.

INT3

Injection Molding Interactive Session

1:30 PM

0132--Study on the In-Mold Punching of the Thermoplastic Injection Molding

Yu Pin Tsai

National Chiao Tung University

An in-mold punch device was designed; the shear break mechanism was installed in the position of the holes of the product. The surface of the product is integrated during the plastic injection forming process; therefore, no appearance defect like weld lines will occur. Experimental results showed that lower processing temperature and faster shear velocity are helpful to reduce the difference between the punch dimension and the hole dimension. The shorter cooling time is advantageous for the product shrink; while if the point is the smoothness of the circular hole; the correct way is to enhance the punch velocity and prolong the cooling time.

0143--Reducing Residual Stress of Polycarbonate Products by Heat Treatment

Yu Pin Tsai

National Chiao Tung University

As a kind of thermoplastic with excellent performance, polycarbonate is an ideal substitute for traditional glass applied in many optical products for its lightness and good transparency. Most of the products are made by injection molding, but yield of the products could not be improved for the problems on residual stress. Transparent polycarbonate will be used in the experiments; photoelasticity is to be used to calculate residual stress of specimen. The results indicate that residual stress decreases as the heating time increases during the heat treatment. In addition, thickness of specimens also may exert an influence on the effect of heat treatment.

0329--Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Flow Fronts Advancing in Micro Injection Molding Weld Line Developing Process

Lei Xie

TU Clausthal

In the paper, a glass insert visualizing mold is devised to record melts flowing and weld line forming process. Arburg&reg; 220S is molding machine and PP is processing material. Molding part is a micro tensile bar, which is totally 24 mm long and has 12 mm long test area with rectangular cross section (0.4 mm width [??] 0.1 mm depth). Numerical simulation is realized by Comsol&reg; Multiphysics considering surface tension. Flow visualizing results show processing parameters affect flowing speed of the melts, as well as the shape of flow fronts. Numerical simulation results are consistent with experimental flow front shape. Characteristic prediction for the v notch size is also carried out.

0915--Effects Of Processing Conditions On Part Moldability Of In-Mold Decoration Nylon6 Nanocomposites Molding

Pao-Lin Su

Chung Chou Institute of Technology

In mold decoration (IMD) has attracted attention for industrial applications. In this paper, PC films with thickness of 0.125 mm and 0.175 mm combined varied ink formulas were utilized and the effects of processing conditions on Nylon6 nanocomposites and Nylon6 molding were investigated. Related processing conditions include melting temperature, mold temperature, injection speed and packing pressure. It was found that high injection speed would increase shear stress, leading to much printed ink being washed out, whereas high melt temperature would decrease shear stress.

0414--Interfacial Strength and Scratch Resistance of Metallocene PE Film Inserted PP Injection Molded Parts

Katushisa Kitano

Sumitomo Chemical Co.

Interfacial strength of mPE film-inserted PP injection molded parts (mPE/PP FIMs) was evaluated by micro-cutting tests in comparison with zPE film-inserted PP injection molded parts(zPE/PP FIMs). Scratch properties of the FIMs were characterized by progressive load scratch tests. It was found that delamination between PE film and PP substrate was generated by scratch tests and the critical load of onset of the delamination was depending on the interfacial strength, i.e. higher interfacial strength led to higher critical delamination load. Influence of processing conditions and mPE structure on the relationship between interfacial strength and scratch resistance of the FIMs was discussed.

0615--Optimization Of Hot Runner System Geometry For LGF Reinforced Thermoplastics

Alessandro Cellere

University of Padova

During the injection molding process of long glass fiber reinforced thermoplastics, the glass fibers initial length is reduced by breakage and this phenomenon strongly affects some mechanical properties of the components. The aim of this study is to minimize the fibers breakage in a hot runner channel by optimizing its geometry Geometrical control parameters were selected to model different geometries using a 3D modeller, and fluid dynamic numerical simulations were conducted using ANSYS Polyflow [absolute value of *bsup*[absolute value of [R]]*esup*]. An SQP optimization algorithm, implemented in a multi-objective optimization software, was used to determine the values of geometrical control parameters that minimize the fibres breakage.

0439--Visualization study on the filling process of PS/Sc-CO2 during microcellular injection molding

Wang JianKang

Zhuhai College of Jilin University

Microcellular injection molding attracts more and more interests in industry because of its advantages, such as weight reduction, energy saving, cycle time reduction, etc.. In order to investigate the filling process of microcellular injection molding, a visual mold was developed in this work. The filling processes of polystyrene/carbon dioxide was observed and recorded using a digital camera, while the mold cavity pressure was measured by a sensor. The final bubble morphology was observed using scanning electron microscope. The experiment results showed that melt temperature and mold cavity pressure were two most prominent factors influencing bubble morphology.

0837--Development of an Automated Runner-Valve System for the Filling Balance in Multi-Cavity Molds

Byung-Ohk Rhee

Ajou University

The runner-valve system (RVS) proposed by the authors for the filling balance in multi-cavity molds has proved its balancing capability in many experiments. However, it is not practical to adjust the valve manually during the molding process. Therefore, authors developed an automated RVS. A motorized actuator with a small installation area was designed and built into a test mold with 4 cavities. In order to reliably determine the resin-arrival-time in the automated RVS, a new method based on the sigmoid function approximation was developed, and optimum sampling range was obtained in terms of a characteristic time. The data processing program for the approximation was designed by the LabVIEW.

0533--Production cycle time optimization and part quality improvement using novel cooling channels in plastic injection moulding

Abul Saifullah

Swinburne University of Technology

This paper presents an investigation on the optimisation of mould design of conformal cooling channels of different cross sections for plastic injection moulding. Both experimental and simulation work have been done with these novel cooling channels. Moldflow simulation software and Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) freeform fabrication technique have been used to analyse and manufacture the mould respectively. Comparative results are presented based on temperature distribution and cooling time for conventional and conformal cooling channels. The results provide a uniform temperature distribution with reduced shrinkage and warpage and reduction in cycle time for the plastic part.

0625--Compression Induced Solidification (CIS)--an injection molding strategy for high precision parts

Natalie Rudoiph

Lehrstuhl fuer Kunststofftechnik

During polymer processing the solidification is accompanied by local varying temperature and pressure distributions, The concurrent existance of the molten and solid state leads to inhomogeneous shrinkage. With a novel approach (CIS), the solidification is achieved by uniform compression over the entire part, which leads to an even shrinkage. In this paper, the fundamentals for this process were investigated. It was found that the specific volume is dependent on the pathway of compression due to viscoelasticity. As main impact factors the compression speed and holding time were detected. Finally, the compression heating of the melt was measured and a relation to the volume change was found.

0583--Development of rapid mold heating/cooling technology to improve the surface defects of injection molded parts

Baeg-Soon Cha

Korea Institute of Industrial Technology

Painting process or coating with acrylic film may improve the surface defects of injection molded parts deteriorated by weldlines, flowmarks, and etc. However such processes increase the production costs and increase environmental problems. In this study, the heating and cooling performance of a telephone case mold is investigated by heat transfer analysis, in which the rapid mold heating/cooling technology is applied. The surface temperature of the mold was measured using thermal image camera and compared with analysis result. The influence of the rapid mold heating/cooling technology on weldline appearance and cycle time increase were also examined.

0356--Simulation and Analysis of Injection Molded Bipolar Plates for Fuel Cell

Sheng-Jye Hwang

National Cheng Kung University

This paper took injection molded bipolar plate of fuel cell as the study case. PA6 (Nylon6) with 40% carbon fiber was used. Round corner design was adopted for the channel on the bipolar plate. Mold filling analysis software was used in helping design molding tool. Different processing conditions were applied when molding the test samples. Electrical resistances on the bipolar plate were measured as the quality characteristics. Taguchi method was utilized to analyze the experiment results. The results showed that the simulation agreed well with the experiments. With proper geometry design and material selection, low and uniform electrical resistance in the bipolar plate could be achieved.

0869--Effect Of Molding Parameters And Orientation On The Properties And Skin-Core Structure Of Polypropylene Plaques

Sobeida Villarroel

Universidad Simon Bolivar

The major objective of this work was the study of the influence of the injection molding process conditions (holding/packing pressure, injection temperature, injection velocity) and the geometry of the mold over the mechanical properties, morphology, orientation and core-skin structure of a semicrystalline polymer (Polypropylene (PP)). Tensile test type IV specimens were cut in MD and TD directions of injected plaques (100 x 100 x 1 mm) with a 1 mm-thick-fan gate. Two different behaviors were clearly observed: there were groups with strain at break lower than 25% and other groups higher than 700%.

0457--Verification and Simulation of Melt Flow Behavior in Ultra High-Speed Injection Molding

Shia-Chung Chen

Chung Yuan Christian University

CAE technology can anticipate the injection conditions before the real injection molding. However, the parameter settings of software would be modified in ultra high-speed injection molding. In this study, we used the Mold Flow software to simulate melt flow length comparison with the experiments. The model is a spiral shape with 0.4 mm in thickness and the injection speed was from 500 mm/s to 1000 mm/s. In the results, the trend of melt flow length in experiment is the same in simulation, but the margin of error is 35% in 500 mm/s, and 2% in 1000 mm/s. Therefore, the parameter setting of ultra high-speed injection molding is different from simulation of conventional injection molding.

0525--Study of Processing Parameters on Part Warpage of In-Mold Roller Injection Molding

Hui-Li Chen

Far East University

In-Mold Roller (IMR) injection molding is the most commonly used In-Mold Decoration technology for ink transfer. Effect of IMR processing parameters on part warpage is a main concern of product qualities. PET film of 0.05mm and 0.036mm thick and PC film of 0.175 mm thick were used for IMR. Both experiments and Simulations are carried out to study the warpage due to asymmetrical cooling. It was found that higher melt temperature and thicker film slow down heat transfer in melt-film-mold interface leading to larger part warpage. The observed mold temperature different between core and cavity surface about 6~10centsJ and the measured warpage vary from 0.15mm (without film) to 0.6mm with IMD film.

0458--Application of Ultra High Speed Injection Molding to Secure Digital (SD) Card Housing

Hsin-Shu Peng

Chung Yuan Christian University

Ultra high speed injection molding plays a more significant role in molding thin-wall part in recent 3C products. Systematic studies on the proper molding window of Secure Digital (SD) card housing of 0.25 mm thick using ultra high speed injection molding have not yet been reported. In this study, a proper molding window for SD Card housing using ABS and HDPE by varying mold temperatures from 30centsJ to 100centsJ and injection speeds from 100mm/sec to 1200mm/sec was investigated in details. Molded dimension and weight were measured experimentally It was found that higher mold temperature and faster injection speed are two critical molding parameters that leading to good moldablilty for SD card.

0910--Research On Dynamic Injection Molding For Metal Powder Green Part

Bin Liu

National Engineering Research Center of Novel

Equipment for Polymer Processing; South China University of Technology An experiment study on the effect of vibration force field on metal powder 316L/binder under steady and dynamic injection conditions was carried out. Experimental results show that the filling pressure will be reduced when the vibration is introduced, the flow of melts becomes more uniform and the distribution of different components is also more uniform in the green parts during the dynamic injection molding. The mixing dispersion and distribution effect are better and the density is also larger than the green part [??] s with traditional injection molding. The existing of vibration can effectively promete not only the microcosmic structure and also quality of green part.

0951--Enzymatically and chemically modified abaca fibre for PP composites

Abdullah Mamun

Material Engineering

Abaca fibre reinforced PP composites were prepared using a high speed mixer followed by injection moulding with 30% of fibre load. Prior to composite production, the fibre was modified by o- hydroxy benzene diazonium salts, synthetic and natural enzyme. The effect of modification of the fibre was assessed on the basis of moisture resistance, mechanical, thermal properties of the resulting composites. Coupling agent (PPMA 6452) has been used to increase the interaction between fibre and polymer matrix.

0970--Flow Front Analysis Of TIR Lens Of LEDS With Injection Molding

Chao-Chang Chen

National Taiwan University of Science and Technology

This research is to investigate the TIR (Total Internal Reflection) lens as secondary optical element mounted on LED for landscape and indoor illumination. The TIR lens is like a cone bell with the ratio of gate thickness to cavity thickness is about 1: 10. The simulation software, Moldex 3D is used to simulate the melt front behavior for 3D filling. Experimental results show that injection speed, mold temperature and melt temperature significantly affect the final quality of TIR lens. Molding parameters are obtained in this research to improve the optical performance and that can be applied on LED market in the future.

1009--Standard for Energy Rating with Resin Dryers and Classification of Dry Air Quality

Sonny Morneault

Wittmann Battenfeld Inc.

When it comes to drying, energy consumption is quickly becoming a key factor in the decision making process for one technology over another. However, drying energy consumption has several elements and key factors that affect the overall energy use of a dryer. It is a combination of heat-up energy and sustainable drying energy that are the elements that will, in the end, affect how much it costs to dry your resin on an annual basis. A uniform industry test standard would define the air capacity, basic load and kWh/unit of material. An industry test standard would allow users to plug in there given material, throughput and local energy rate, to calculate the true annual energy cost.

0933--Enhanced Resin for Metal Insert Molding Applications

Nicolas Sunderland

Bayer MaterialScience

The use of metal insert molding (where plastic is injected around a thin metal insert) enables manufacturers to have ultra thin designs and a superior surface finish for decoration. However, metal insert molding can lead to high molded-in stresses due to differential shrinkage of the plastic resin, which in turn can lead to stress cracking in the surrounding plastic, especially when exposed to heat/humidity aging and various chemical environments. Bayer MaterialScience has formulated a new Makroblend[R] PC/PBT resin (UT5205) to successfully be used in the encapsulation of a sheet metal insert for cell phone and music player applications.

0979--Improvement of impact properties of recycled Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) injection moldings

Yuki Makata

Kyoto Institute of Technology

Recycling PET is emerging issue for protecting the earth environments and using petrochemical products effectively. R-PET has been used in the form of film, fibers, and sheet. In the industries R-PET injection moldings are demanded, however there are still some problems in injection molding, pellet making and properties of products. The most important problem is low impact strength. In this paper we found effective modifier of R-PET to increase impact strength. The effects of modifier contents on not only impact strength but static strength and rigidity were discussed.

INT4

Plastic Pipe and Fittings Interactive Session

1:30 PM 0164--Numerical simulation of the failure behavior of PE pressure pipes with additional loads

Gerald Pinter

University Leoben

Using linear elastic fracture mechanics concepts a simulation methodology for the assessment of internally pressurized pipe lifetimes was developed. The concept is based on the numerical calculation of stress intensity factors for pipes under different loading conditions and on using experimentally generated creep crack growth kinetics for lifetime calculations. Comparison of simulated lifetimes with experimental data from tests with internally pressurized pipes proved the principal applicability of the concept, but also identified major parameters affecting pipe lifetime.

0410--The effects of residual stress and crystallinity on RCP resistance in PE-100 polyethylenes

Patrick Leevers

Imperial College London

PE-100 pipe materials owe their excellent impact and brittle rapid crack propagation (RCP) resistance to ductile regions adjoining the inside and outside pipe surfaces. Slow cooling after extrusion seems to further toughen these regions by increasing crystallinity, but slow cooling also changes the distribution and magnitude of residual strain in the pipe wall ***** which may reduce the RCP driving force. This paper describes an experimental technique which decouples these two effects and shows that crystallinity has less effect than expected. The effect of residual strain, meanwhile, is analysed using a semi-analytical model of RCP which indicates that its role has indeed been underestimated.

0159--Lifetime Prediction Of Polyethylene Pipes Based On An Accelerated Extrapolation Concept For Creep Crack Growth With Fatigue Tests On Cracked Round Bar Specimens

Andreas Frank

Polymer Competence Center Leoben

Fracture mechanics lifetime and safety assessment of pressurized polyethylene (PE) pipes is based on the knowledge of material specific creep crack growth (CCG). However, with common test methods the investigation of this failure mechanism is not possible in modern PE-pipe materials in a feasible time. For an accelerated generation of CCG an extrapolation concept based on fatigue tests with cracked round bar (CRB) specimens was developed. In the present work this concept was applied to a common PE-pipe material to generate the material specific CCG-data within a few weeks. With the integration of this data into a lifetime prediction model a simulation of a real pipe was possible.

INT5

Polymer Modifiers and Additives Interactive Session

1:30 PM

0061--Study on antiblocking masterbatches for LDPE plant

Shengxian Cao

Daqing Petrochemical Research Center

Study on formulations of antiblocking masterbatch with 3 kinds of domestic materials. The effectiveness of different antiblocking agents in trial applications was evaluated in a low density polyethylene(LDPE) plant. The investigation show that there exits a difference in efficiency for different kinds of antiblocking agents used in the identical LDPE plant [??] and the one made from calcium hydrophosphate is the best among the tested samples [??] [R]Adding a given amount of antiblocking agent into film product can benefit the antiblocking property of the film. The mechanical properties of the film vary a little though its optical property declines somewhat after blending the antiblocking agent.

0125--A New Mechanism For Flame Retarded, Non-Halogen Wire And Cable Compounds

Julie Lin

JLS Chemical Inc.

The use of mica as a filler to produce fire resistant tapes for the wire and cable industry is well known. However, mica can be difficult to process and is prone to premature exfoliation during extrusion. This paper presents the utilization in wire applications of a unique intumescent coating technology long used to protect steel beams during fire conditions. This technology uses organic components that intumesce snd form a non-flammable char in a fire to prevent flaking off and provides thermal protection. This new FR technology is much easier to process than mica, cost effective, & efficient enough to formulate non-halogen FR polyolefin based jacketing compounds w/o sacrificing fire resistance.

0808--Anomalous Mechanical Anisotropy Of Beta-Forrn Polypropylene Obtained By T-Die Processing

Masayuki Yamaguchi

Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology

Structure and mechanical properties are studied for extruded sheets of isotactic polypropylene (PP) containing a small amount of N,Ni-dicyclohexyl-2,6- naphthalenedicarboxamide, as a betaform nucleating agent. It is found that the beta trigonal crystals are predominantly formed in the extruded samples containing the nucleating agent. Since the beta-form crystals are responsible for the marked mechanical toughness, the impact strength of the sheet sample containing the nucleating agent is higher than that of the pure PP. Further, PP molecules in the extruded sheet are found to orient perpendicular to the applied flow direction. As a result, the sheet shows anomalous mechanical anisotropy.

0986--Influence of luminescent compound derivate of aldol condensation in PVC degradation

Sofia Vazquez-Rodriguez

Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon

New conjugated oligomers have been synthesized through aldol condensation from chemical reaction between different kinds of ketone and aromatic dialdehydes. These novel compounds showed absorption in UV-vis spectrum from 275 to 525 nm. In this work, we reported the synthesis of an organic compound prepared by reaction of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and terephthalaldehyde (TPA), following a typical aldol condensation route. The luminescent adduct was mixed with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in solution (in THF). Films of PVC-adduct were evaluated in a degradation chamber and changes in chemical structure were evaluated by FTIR. This new compound can be used to promote degradation of PVC under UV radiation

0674--Conventional Processing and Rheology of Nanocomposites ABS/montmorillonite

Saul Sanchez

Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados

ABS/montmorillonite nanocomposites were obtained via conventional melt mixing by single screw and and capillary extrusion. Nanocomposites from 1 to 6% wt of nanoclay were formulated. Melt rheology shows a decrease in the Newtonian range as modified clay increases. The opposite is true for the viscosity at zero shear. Shear thinning behavior is observed as clay content is increased. From XRD, it is inferred an increase of nanoclay d-spacing independent from the clay content in samples from the capillary rheometer. TEM shows both intercalated and exfoliated clay structures obtained from capillary extrusion. The processing conditions in conventional equipment may lead to obtain nanocomposites.

0870--A Comparison Of Blown And Cast HDPE Film Using Expandable Microsphere Technology

Sarah Schirmer

US Army NSRDEC

High-density polyethylene (HDPE) blown and cast films were extruded with 0.5%, 0.75% and 1.0% microspheres by weight, comparing two different grades of microspheres using two different temperature profiles. All films were analyzed for oxygen and water vapor barrier, as well as tensile properties. The blown film samples demonstrated significantly lower oxygen and water vapor permeation rates than the cast films, as well as a higher Youngis modulus; however the cast films showed a higher toughness.

INT6

Thermoforming Interactive Session

1:30 PM

0818--Plug Material And Sheet Temperature Effect Over The Force Penetration Curves Under Biaxial Deformation

Rosa Morales

Universidad Simon Bolivar

The main objective of this work is to study the variables affecting the force produced by a plug on a polymer sheet during the thermoforming process, under different testing conditions. The considered variables are: the sheet temperature, the plug speed penetration, and the plug material. The plug material selection, speed and the temperature of testing under biaxial deformation play an important role in the registration of the force and, at the same time, it shall has a strong effect on the experimental data used to set the parameters of the material to determine a constitutive equation.

INT7

Thermoplastic Materials and Foams Interactive Session

1:30 PM

0795--The Effect Of Vibration On Cell Morphology Of PC Foam

Mingyi Wang

South China University of Technology

In this study, foamed PC was produced using a dynamic simulation foaming setup designed by ourselves, with supercritical CO2 as foaming agent. Cell morphology was compared as vibration frequency varied from 2.5Hz to 10Hz and vibration amplitude varied from 25 [??] m to 100 [??] m respectively under the same condition. The cell morphology of foamed samples was characterized by using SEM. It was found that foamed samples with better morphology could be obtained as vibration frequency increased [??] foamed samples with better morphology could be obtained as vibration amplitude increased to 75 [??] m, then morphology became worse with further increase of vibration amplitude.
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Title Annotation:ANTEC 2009
Publication:Plastics Engineering
Article Type:Conference news
Date:Apr 1, 2009
Words:5460
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