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Teaching the election process in ten days.

AN ELECTION YEAR provides the perfect opportunity for teachers to incorporate civics into the curriculum. Through the election process, teachers can implement citizenship lessons and at the same time provide a model for the democratic system in the classroom. (1)

In the 2000 election year, I created and used the below lessons with my fifth grade students. For the month of October, my classroom was inundated with campaign memorabilia. Students diligently watched campaign speeches, brought in articles, marked maps, and even attended rallies. We held a school-wide election the day before the real presidential election, and in our election George W. Bush won. The book we used, The Kid Who Ran for President by Dan Gutman, created the illusion that it might be possible for an ordinary kid to become president. (2) In the book, Judson is elected president but realizes that he is not the right "man" for the job, so he resigns. My students loved the book, and after our election study, many expressed the wish to be president themselves someday.

The following ten lessons and culminating activity on the election process teach students about political parties and campaigns, about how citizens can shape politics, about the powers of local, state, and national governments, and about the rights and responsibilities of citizens. Gutman's book is written for ages nine to twelve and fits well into a fifth grade American history classroom. In the story, which takes place in the 2000 election year, a young boy named Lane convinces his best friend, Judson, to run for president of the United States. My students found the hilarious antics of the two boys--with their creation of the Lemonade Party and promise to abolish homework--very appealing. Aside from its comical aspect, the book is informational, presents the steps to the presidency, and ties in well with the daily lessons.

Although these lessons can be taught anytime, I believe they work best in an election year--whether it be the year of a presidential, congressional, or even school district election. The culminating activity allows teachers to parallel the election process with the election of class officers. In addition, teachers implement a strategy plan for classroom management by establishing officer responsibilities. Class officers can handle many of the daily tasks of a teacher, such as checking attendance or checking homework. The teacher is then able to spend more time on planning and implementing instruction.

The lessons are easily adaptable to state mandated standards and would fit well into any American history classroom for grade levels five through eight. The officer responsibilities presented here work well in a self-contained classroom; however, they could easily be adapted for multiple classes. Because these lessons integrate language arts, math, and social studies, extended time is expected for the presentation of each lesson. Assessment activities are included with each lesson plan and the unit ends with ideas for a mock campaign.

Teaching the Election Process in Ten Days

Objectives

The student will:

1. explain how the powers of the government are distributed, shared, and limited by the U.S. Constitution;

2. identify the rights and responsibilities of citizens and explain their importance to the individual and to society;

3. communicate the importance of knowledge for competent and responsible political participation and leadership;

4. describe the organization and major responsibilities of local, state, and national governments;

5. analyze the importance of political parties, campaigns, and elections in the American political system;

6. explain the essential ideas and historical origins of American constitutional government as well as describe the many ways by which citizens can organize, monitor, and help to shape politics and government at local, state, and national levels.

Materials

Voter registration forms, local election map, Almanacs, U.S. map, and class set of books of The Kid Who Ran For President by Dan Gutman (see resources section for additional books used in this lesson).

Procedure

Day 1: Does Your Vote Count?

1. Begin with questions such as: What is a democracy? Why do we have elections? Why should you vote? (In a democracy your vote is your voice. A vote expresses bow someone believes the government and elected officials should act. Voting is a privilege and a constitutional right.) What happens if you don't vote? (Decisions will be made that will affect your life by people who don't represent your opinions, i.e., war, taxes, health care, and environment). Our Founding Fathers intended that only white male property owners should vote for president. Barriers that kept Americans from voting include: poll taxes, literacy tests, sex discrimination, race, and age discrimination. Who would you vote for today if you could vote for president?The number of citizens actually voting continues to decrease.

2. Discuss the recount of votes in Florida for the 2000 presidential election. What led to the need for a recount? (George W. Bush's thin margin lead prompted an automatic recount. The Supreme Court prohibited manual recounts in Florida). Are secret ballots necessary? Should voting be required or voluntary?

3. Discuss the importance of voting and how one vote can be critical: (3)

* Adolf Hitler became head of Nazi Party by one vote

* one electoral vote decided the president in 1876

* one vote gave America the English language instead of German

* one vote saved President Andrew Jackson from impeachment

4. Introduce the book The Kid Who Ran for President. Throughout the presidential campaign, Lane brings up interesting political issues for discussion, such as Why can't somebody younger than thirty-five run for president? Why are there amendments to the Constitution?Should politicians be sponsored by McDonalds? Have students read the prologue and chapter 1 and answer the questions: Who is running for president? What two parties are trying to win the election? How old do you have to be to run for president? Why does Lane think Judson would make a good president? Continue the discussion with the students with questions such as, Would you vote for a twelve year old to become president? Why or why not?

Assessment

Inform the students that at the end of this unit the class will vote for officers. Challenge students to think about qualities of good leaders and who in the class would make good officers. Have students create a written job description detailing characteristics or requirements for the perfect president.

Day 2: Learning Political Vocabulary

1. Have students look up political terms in the dictionary or place the words in alphabetical order. This would be a good opportunity to use the newspaper and have students search for terms.

POLITICAL TERMS (4)

Ballot--paper that is used in the voting process

Caucus--a closed meeting to select candidates or decide an issue

Conservative--person who believes that the government should stay out of private citizens' lives as much as possible; usually associated with Republicans

Dark horse--a political candidate unexpectedly nominated

Delegate--representative to a convention

Gaffe--a mistake in speaking

Incumbent--a politician running for another term

Inauguration--the swearing-in ceremony of the winning candidate

Liberal--person who believes in a strong government presence to protect people's rights and help them meet their needs; usually associated with Democrats

Mudslinging--making offensive remarks about a candidate's character

Nominee-- a person chosen to run

Platform--a declaration of principles for which group stands

Poll--a survey, or a place where people vote on election day

Primary--an election in which registered voters from each relevant party select candidates to run in the general election

Straw vote--unofficial vote

2. Have students read chapters 2 and 3 in The Kid Who Ran for President and answer questions: How old is Judson and what grade is he in? Who becomes president if the president and the vice-president die? What is the name of the president's airplane? What does Judson have to do to get his name on the ballot? Does Judson have the qualities to make a good president? Why is it important to choose a qualified leader? Do you think the qualifications of a good leader have changed since the first president was chosen? Why or why not?

Assessment

Have students write an imaginative story about an election, using at least half the political terms.

Day 3: Who Can Be President?

1. Introduce students to some suggested titles for the first elected leader of the United States: His Excellency, His Highness, His Serene Highness, His High Mightiness. Congress adopted the title Mr. President.

What other titles can you suggest? Have the students examine the Constitution and answer the following questions:

* How long can a person serve as president? (Four years; and he or she may be re-elected four more years.)

* What does a president do? (As commander-in-chief, the president directs the military and looks after the nation's security. He presents a legislative program to combat economic and social problems. He appoints judges to the Supreme Court. He must approve or veto all bills passed by Congress. He proposes laws and programs to Congress. He receives foreign ambassadors and conducts America's foreign relations. He may pardon those guilty of crimes against the federal government.)

* Who can become president? (Must be a U.S. citizen, age thirty-five or older, and must have been a resident of the United States for at least fourteen years.)

* What qualities should a president have? (possible answers include: courage, tenacity, humanitarianism, curiosity, compassion, integrity, perseverance, and determination). Read So You Want to be President by Judith St. George. Discuss the qualifications for president, and have students vote to prioritize which characteristics they believe are most important. Have students examine candidates currently running for president and determine if these qualities seem present in the candidates. Remind students to look for these qualities in their peers as they consider whom to nominate for class officers.

* What are some former occupations of presidents? (teachers, ranchers or farmers, vice presidents, served in the military, lawyers, storekeepers, reporters, land surveyors, university presidents, carpenter, engineer, tailor, saddle-maker, editor, publisher, wool carder, realtor, movie star)

* What is the Presidential Oath? ("I do solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute the office of the president of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.")

* What is the order of succession? (Vice President, Speaker of the House, President Pro Tempore of the Senate, Secretary of State, Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of Defense, Attorney General, and Secretaries of the Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Health, Housing, Transportation, Energy, Education, and Veterans Affairs. The secretaries of new cabinet positions such as Homeland Security also join the line of succession.

--Presidential Succession Act of 1947)

* What do the symbols on the presidential seal stand for? (In 1945, Truman ordered the presidential seal redesigned, changing the eagle's head away from the arrows of war toward the olive branches for peace. He added 48 stars to stand for each state in the union at that time to show that the president had been elected by all people, not just from one group or area.) (5)

2. A great website for students to learn more about the daily life of the president is the PBS Kids Democracy Project: President For A Day (www.pbs.org/democracy/kids/presforaday). Students can become the president for a day. In the classroom, place the presidents on a timeline according to the years they served. On a map of the United States mark the birthplace of each president.

3. Gather interesting facts about the first ladies. Read the book First Ladies: Women Who Called the White House Home by Beatrice Gormley. Broach a discussion about women and politics. Has any woman ever run for president? (Victoria Claflin Woodhall was the first to run in 1872.) The organization American Women Presidents (www.americanwomenpresidents.org) provides statistics on women in politics.

4. Have students read chapters 4 and 5 in The Kid Who Ran for president and answer questions: What jobs do Judson's parents have? How do they feel about Judson running for president? Who is Abby? How does she feel about Judson running for president? How do you think your parents would feel if you ran for president?

Assessment

1. Ask each student to research a president and create a biography. For information online about former presidents, students can use the Take Your Kids to Vote website (www.takeyourkidstovote.org/links/americanpresident.htm). Include occupations represented by the president, date and place of birth, political party, dates of term(s), name of vice president, name of person he defeated, important achievements while in office, and interesting trivia.

2. Have students design their own presidential seal and explain the meaning behind the symbols they chose.

3. Have students write a story about how they would run the country if they were the president. What promises would you make to the people? Students could also write the biographies that they would want published about themselves if they were elected president.

Day 4: What is a Political Party?

1. Discuss the definition of political party: (Comprised of people with similar beliefs, values, and ideas about how to run local, state, and federal government.)

2. Introduce the Republican (elephant) and Democratic (donkey) parties and their symbols created by cartoonist Thomas Nast. American democracy depends upon the existence of two or more political parties. Citizens make their differing needs and ideas known through political parties. The Constitution guarantees the people of the United States freedom of speech and of assembly. Democrats tend to favor programs that provide national solutions to important social problems. Republicans prefer to pass power back to state and local governments.

3. Introduce students to other political parties and discuss what those parties stand for. Remind students that political parties are not mandated by Congress. The website for American Political Parties is located at politics1.com/parties.htm. (Liberty--anti-slavery; Know Nothing--anti-immigration; Prohibition--anti-liquor; BullMoose--free trade; States Rights--less federal power; American--pro-law and order; Green--environmentalism and social justice).

4. Have students read chapters 6, 7, and 8 in The Kid Who Ran for President and answer the questions: Describe the platforms of the Democratic and Republican parties. Whom did Judson choose as his running mate?

What campaign slogan did Lane create? Whom did Lane choose to be the first lady for Judson? Why is image important in a campaign? Why did Chelsea agree to be first lady? What does Mrs. Syers think about the job of president?

Assessment

Divide the students into two groups and ask students to create their own political party, symbol, and platform. Students must explain the meaning of their symbol and describe the principles of their platform. Use the parties when conducting the class campaign for officers.

Day 5: How, When, and Where Do We Vote?

1. Begin with questions such as: What candidates are currently running for office? What are their views on important issues? When is the election date? Discuss information on voting. Many candidates will have a website that students can visit for further information.

2. Discuss the voter registration requirements in your area (call the city or county clerk's office for information). Have each student fill out a voter registration form. Get a local election map from your city hall. How is the election map divided? Determine where, according to the map, students would vote.

3. Since 1845, federal elections have been held on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November. Ask the students the following questions: (6)

* Why early November? For much of our history, America was predominantly an agrarian society. Lawmakers therefore took into account that November was perhaps the most convenient month for farmers and rural workers to be able to travel to the polls. According to the Federal Election Commission's website, "The fall harvest was over, (remember that spring was planting time and summer was taken up with working the fields and tending the crops) but in the majority of the nation the weather was still mild enough to permit travel over unimproved roads."

* Why Tuesday? Since most residents of rural America had to travel a significant distance to the county seat in order to vote, Monday was not considered reasonable since many people would need to begin travel on Sunday. This would, of course, have conflicted with religious services and Sunday worship.

4. The day before Election Day have students cast ballots on all of the races in your state. Set up a committee to tally the results and announce them before class is dismissed. The day after the election, compare your results with the real election results for your community and state.

5. Discuss the local and state officials. Who is the mayor? Who is the governor? Invite a politician to speak to the class.

6. Have students read chapters 9 and 10 in The Kid Who Ran for President and answer the following questions: Why does a presidential candidate need a lot of money to campaign? How did Lane convince a newspaper reporter to cover the story? Do you think that candidates should endorse products?

Assessment

Have each student write an editorial supporting a candidate or an issue. What are the candidate's views on important issues? Evaluate candidates by openness, accessibility, and fairness.

Day 6: Who Can Vote?

1. Discuss the history of the right to vote. When were African Americans given the right to vote? Women? In the beginning, only white male property owners could vote. After the Civil War, the 15th Amendment in 1870 gave blacks the vote. But in many places this was not upheld until Congress passed the 1965 Voting Rights Act giving minority voters full protection. Ever since, thousands of minority officeholders have been elected, and a major black candidate has run for president. Who was he (Jesse Jackson)? The 19th Amendment in 1920 gave women the right to vote. Native Americans could vote after 1961. The voting age was twenty-one until 1971 when it was lowered to eighteen (because of the Vietnam War). Why do we need amendments to change the voting age? Should former prisoners be allowed to vote? Should the voting age be lowered to sixteen? Or fourteen?(Many teens work and pay taxes.) What are some reasons that people don't vote?(Not enough time, believe vote won't make a difference, never registered, don't know candidates.)

2. This may be a good time to discuss voting rights in other countries. A great book to use to discuss the changes in voting rights in South Africa is Elinor Batezat Sisulu's The Day Gogo Went to Vote.

3. Read chapters 11 and 12 in The Kid Who Ran for President and ask the following questions: What great quote did Pete Guerra get from Judson? What did Judson's morn say about his television interview? What lies did Judson tell in his interview? Why did he lie? Do you think politicians always tell the truth?

Assessment

Have various groups of students create plays, skits, songs, poems, or cheers to convince others of the importance of voting.

Day 7: Where Does the President Live?

1. Introduce students to the White House at www.whitehouse.gov or www.whitehouse.gov/kids/. (It has, among other things, 132 rooms, 32 bathrooms, 28 fireplaces, swimming pool, movie theater, and a bowling lane.) Other names for the White House: President's Palace, President's House, and Executive Mansion. Who was the first president to live there? (John Adams.) (7) Who was the president when your grandparents were in fifth grade? When your parents were in fifth grade?

2. Discuss the District of Columbia (land given by Maryland and Virginia). Use maps of Washington, D.C., to introduce important sites. Have students plan routes through the city. Have students plan a design for a new presidential residence. What would it look like? Where would it be located?

3. Introduce Marc Brown's Arthur Meets the President. The book discusses a variety of different subjects relating to the presidency such as the White House, different sights in Washington, and how kids can write to the president and get a response.

4. Have students read chapters 13, 14, 15, and 16 in The Kid Who Ran for President and answer the questions: What did the kids at school think about Judson? What campaign promise did Judson make? Is this a promise he can keep? Why did Pete say, "Don't trust anybody'? How much money did Judson receive in the mail? What cause did Chelsea want to fight for? How are politics like a cardboard box?

Assessment

Have students write a letter to the president. What would they like changed in our country? Ask students what kind of job they think the president is doing. Have them offer suggestions to the president in their letter on any issues or problems they have noted.

Day 8: The Campaign Process

1. Read the book America Votes: How Our President is Elected by Linda Granfield. Discuss the campaign for president. Introduce campaign-related vocabulary terms. Have students collect campaign memorabilia (buttons, stickers, posters, balloons, etc.) from current elections. Find pictures of candidates in newspapers and magazines and post on a bulletin board. Point out to students that campaigning is expensive. Candidates and their staff have to travel, newspaper ads have to be created and placed, buttons and posters have to be printed and distributed, mailings have to be sent out to thousands of people, and offices have to be staffed and paid for. The biggest single campaign expense is television time. Ask students the following questions: What do you think would happen if there were no campaigns? Do you think voters would be affected? Is it important to follow campaigns? Have campaigns changed over the years? How has technology helped candidates?

2. Create a Republican/Democrat Center. Create a bulletin board entitled "The Steps to the White House" and write each of the following terms on a cutout of a footprint: (8)

* Throwing the Hat in the Ring: Candidates begin announcing their candidacies at least a year before the elections.

* Primaries: Beginning in February in Iowa and New Hampshire, and ending in New Jersey in June, the primary and caucus process has become an exhausting marathon for the candidates. The process results in the selection of two major candidates--a Democrat and a Republican.

* Conventions: Delegates meet to select their party's nominees for president and vice president.

* Eyes on the Prize: During the fall campaign, commercials, media coverage, and debates rise to an intense pitch. The issues that will become the most important in the presidential election begin to surface. Voters start to narrow their selections.

* Election: In November (first Tuesday after the first Monday) citizens over the age of eighteen have the right to vote. They will be voting for local candidates as well as for the president and vice president of the United States. Popular and Electoral College votes are counted. To be elected, a candidate must win a majority of the Electoral College vote.

* Inauguration: the winner becomes the president of the United States following the formal inauguration on January 20.

3. Discuss campaign slogans and quotes of former presidents. Have students create their own quotes.

* Hoover--"a chicken in every pot and a car in every garage"

* Eisenhower--"I Like Ike"

* Harrison--"Tippecanoe and Tyler too"

* Wilson--"He kept us out of war"

* Lincoln--"Don't swap horses"

* Kennedy--"... ask not what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for your country."

* Carter--"not just peanuts"

4. Have students read chapters 17, 18, and 19 in The Kid Who Ran for President and answer questions: What two candidates were running against Judson? How is Judson a "virtual candidate?" How many times has the Constitution been changed? How can the Constitution be changed? How did the kids of America get the amendment passed? How is Judson doing in the polls?

Assessment

One of my university students, Laura Quinn, suggested this assessment task. Present students with the following task:

You are running for president of the United States. You have been given $25,000 to buy promotional items for your campaign. You will need to decide which items you will purchase, how many items you will need, and how you will distribute the items. You must design your own products and include an original slogan and picture to represent your campaign. You will turn in a final product that includes:

1. a drawing of each product you design,

2. a written summary for each product including why you chose the product and an explanation of your slogan and picture, and

3. a record of expenses. (Create a chart depicting typical campaign costs, such as $100,000 to run a television commercial for one month, $250 for 500 buttons, $400 for 1000 bumper stickers, $1000 per day for a half-page newspaper ad, $260 for 1000 magnets, $10 for 100 pencils, etc.)

Day 9: Opinion Polls/Issues

1. Discuss opinion polls that appear each week. To make an intelligent choice, voters need to know what their own opinions are. Take various polls in the class with only the males, then with only four males and four females, and then the whole class. (i.e., What is your favorite game to play?) Compare the poll results. Discuss polls taken in the newspaper or on television during the election process. How accurate are the polls? Who conducts the polls?

2. Discuss the issues that candidates take a stand for and against. What promises are the candidates making? Concerned citizens often write letters to the newspaper; have students check the "Letters to the Editor" section for opinions on controversial issues. Have students conduct a debate on important issues such as school prayer, crime, taxes, health care, or gun control. Create a ballot and have students vote on the issues. Graph the results. Have the students conduct the ballot in another classroom in a different grade level and compare the results. Do students of different grade levels agree on important issues? If the vote were taken in another school district or another state, would the results be the same?

3. Have students read chapters 20, 21, 22, and 23 in The Kid Who Ran for President and answer the questions: What are some issues Americans argue about? What was Judson's problem with opinions? Why did Judson act like a jerk during the debate? Who won the debate?

Assessment

Conduct class debates on important issues. Have the students research the issues and cite sources. (News magazines for children, such as Weekly Reader, present national and global issues and provide a good resource for debates.)

Day 10: What is the Electoral College?

1. Discuss the Electoral College. Assign each student a state to look up in the Almanac to determine electoral votes for each state. Assign students to keep up with any election returns on television or in the newspaper. Distribute U.S. maps to students so that they can keep up with election returns. During the election campaign for class officers, take a vote by popularity, then by state electoral votes. Compare the results. (I assigned each student a state and the state's electoral votes.)

The Electoral College was assigned to keep one large state from dictating the selection of a president. The Electoral College is based on congressional representation, so states with larger populations get more electoral votes. The Electoral College has 538 members. They meet in their respective state capitals on January 6, following a presidential election, to decide who will be the next president. We vote for electors who vote for the president. The presidential candidate who wins the popular vote in a state wins all the votes of the state's electors. The new president needs 270 electoral votes to win. Every ten years a census is taken to determine the population of each state. If a state's population has decreased, it might lose electoral votes.

Bush won the presidency in 2000 with 271 electoral votes, just one more than he needed, although he lost the popular vote by half a million. Should the presidency be determined by popular vote or by electoral vote? What about our class president?

2. Read the book Duck for President by Doreen Cronin. What is wrong with the assumption the book made about Duck being elected president? (Duck won the popular vote but not the electoral vote so he may not have been voted president after all.)

3. Have students read chapters 24, 25, and 26 in The Kid Who Ran for President and answer questions: Describe the Moongate scandal. What was Lane's plan to save the election? Whose speech did Lane copy? When is Election Day? Explain how states get their electoral votes. How many electoral votes does a candidate need to win? What did Judson say in his election speech?Do you agree with his choice? Why or why not?

Assessment

Have the students write a letter to Congress voicing their opinion about the Electoral College.

Culminating Activity: Mock Campaign

Simulate a mock campaign. Have each party hold a mini convention and nominate a candidate for class president. Let the nominated candidate choose a running mate. During the following week the candidates must campaign for office, create a slogan or song, and create posters. Schedule a press conference and have students play the role of the press, the audience, the moderator, and the candidates. Schedule a debate before the election. Assign each student a state and the electoral votes. During the election, post both the popular and the electoral vote count. The winning team will choose the class secretary and treasurer. Discuss the "steps" to becoming a class officer. Post responsibilities of officers.

Conclusion

One of the most successful outcomes of this project was the election of class officers. I was very impressed with the nominations and the winners in my classroom. Amazingly, my president and vice president chose their opposing candidates to serve as secretary and treasurer. These officers kept my classroom running smoothly the rest of the year and truly demonstrated the excellent qualities of good leaders. At the end of the year, I took my officers to eat at a restaurant as a reward for their outstanding service.

For teachers who use these lessons, it is essential to involve the entire class in the creation of the class political parties and the planning of the campaigns. Some students can get very distressed if not nominated for a class officer, and may need encouragement. Teachers should try and ensure that the campaign not become a popularity contest where either athletic ability or physical appearance is the deciding factor. Also, some students resent officers when they report "no homework" to the teacher.

I had a chance to see the impact of this lesson at the end of our school year. My students were disgruntled about having to wear school uniforms. During a class discussion one day, they decided to write a petition to get the school and parents to vote on eliminating uniforms. Armed with more than 300 signatures, the class officers presented the petition to the principal and asked for the right to vote on the issue. The principal was so impressed that she did allow parents and student input on whether or not to require uniforms the next school year. Although the uniforms were not eliminated, the principal did allow students to wear jeans with uniform shirts. I sincerely believe that because of their success and their involvement in the election process, my fifth graders will grow up to become informed and active citizens and participate in the decision-making process afforded every democratic citizen.

Class President

Check attendance

Take absentee cards to office

Monitor the room when the teacher is out

Help plan class parties

Be a good leader and a good citizen

Secretary

Take conduct clipboard to next class

Close door and turn out lights when class leaves

Help plan class parties

Take over when vice president is absent

Be a good leader and a good citizen

Class Vice President

Check homework

Pass out papers

Help plan class parties

Take over when president is absent

Be a good leader and a good citizen

Treasurer

Take money to office

Keep calendar current

Help plan class parties

Take over when secretary is absent

Be a good leader and a good citizen

Notes

(1.) The National Standards for Civics and Government for grades five through eight provides key civic-related questions, which are useful for guiding such lessons (www.civiced.org/58toc.htm).

(2.) Dan Gutman, The Kid Who Ran for President, (New York: Scholastic, 1996).

(3.) Cathy Fox, Secretary of State (Georgia), www.sos.state.ga.us/elections/one_vote.htm

(4.) From M. Cunningham, "Winning by a Nose," Instructor (October 1984): 50.

(5.) From The Presidential Seal, www.krohm.com/tewsp/el/el_seal.htm

(6.) Information from the Federal Election Commission at www.fec.gov.

(7.) From www.whitehousegov/history/facts.html.

(8.) From "The Election: An Overview and Timeline," Creative Classroom (October 1992):44.

Resources

The National Student/Parent Mock Election: 2000 Mock Election Issues Forum. Louisiana's Old State Capitol Center for Political and Governmental History.

"Making the Campaign Count!" Instructor, (October, 1992): 51-54.

Willy Wonka Brands: Vote America. (1984). Libertyville, IL: Instructor Education Service.

Recommended Children's Literature

Brown, Marc. Arthur Meets the President. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1992.

Christelow, Eileen, Vote! New York: Clarion Books, 2003.

Cronin, Doreen. Duck for President. New York: Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, 2004.

Gormley; Beatrice. First Ladies: Women Who Called the White House Home. Scholastic, Inc., 1997.

Granfield, Linda. America Votes: How Our President is Elected. New York: Kids Can Press, 2003.

Gutman, Dan. The Kid Who Ran for President. New York: Scholastic, Inc., 1996.

Sisulu, Elinor Batezat. The Day Gogo Went to Vote. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1996.

St. George, Judith. So, You Want to be President. New Jersey: Philomel Books, 2000.

Websites

Federal Election Commission (www.fec.gov)

Project Vote Smart (www.vote-smart.org)

Kids Voting USA (www.kidsvotingusa.org)

Geographic Information Center: Presidential Elections 1860-1996. (fisher.lib.virginia.edu/elections/maps/)

The Presidential Seal (www.krohm.com/tewsp/el/el_seal.htm)

Ben's Guide to U.S. Government for Kids (bensguide.gpo.gov/3-5/index.html)

United States House of Representatives (www.house.gov)

United States Senate (www.senate.gov)

Congressional Publications (www.access.gpo.gov/congress/#congressional_publications)

PBS Kids Democracy project: President For A Day (www.pbs.org/democracy/kids/presforaday/)

American Women Presidents (www.americanwomenpresidents.org)

Take Your Kids to Vote (www.takeyourkidstovote.org/links/americanpresident.htm)

Directory of U. S. Political Parties (www.politics1.com/parties.htm)

S. KAY GANDY was an elementary classroom teacher for 26 years. She is currently an assistant professor in the department of Curriculum and Instruction at Western Kentucky University in Bowling Green, Kentucky. She can be reached at kay.gandy@wku.edu.
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Title Annotation:Election 2004
Author:Gandy, S. Kay
Publication:Social Education
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Sep 1, 2004
Words:5773
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