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Teachers' Perceptions Regarding Guidance and Counseling Practices at Public and Private Sector Universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Byline: Ihsan Ullah, Wazim Khan and Muqaddas Ullah

Abstract

The main objective of the research study was to know about the perceptions of teachers of the public and private sector universities regarding guidance and counseling practices in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It was a descriptive and survey type research. The population of the study was all teachers of education department at public and private sector universities. The sample size was 54 university teachers of 18 selected public and private sector universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

The collected data were processed, tabulated, explained and interpreted through some statistical tools i.e. tables, percentages and Chi Square test. The major findings showed that most of the teachers agreed that guidance and counseling practices at university level are not available but the teachers are providing guidance and counseling services informally. The study depicted that guidance and counseling practices solve many complex problems of the students effectively. In the light of the said findings, certain major recommendations were made in order to achieve the maximum benefits of the study as university teachers may be equipped and facilitated with modern guidance and counseling practices. Government may develop guidance and counseling cell at every university. The guide workers and counselors may be recruited on permanent basis that provide effective guidance and counseling services to the students.

Keywords: Guidance, counseling, practices, public, private, universities

Introduction

Parsons is considered the pioneer and father of modern guidance and counseling. First it is introduced in the 20th century, a phenomena which was called later "vocational guidance." He was focusing on the early decision making of the young individual and he got much success in this field. In the beginning of 20th century guidance and counseling started but in the middle it got great importance and the educational and vocational institutions established guidance and counseling cells.

Guidance and counseling is a course of action which provides assistance to a person at every field of life. Guidance means a suggestion or an advice which is given to person when he/she needs. In this important process a counselor helps the counselee(s) in solving different kind of problems like decision making, academic, career, psychological problems etc. (Herr and Cramer, 1996). Guidance and counseling is very important for students and teachers because guidance and counseling provide a path to the students on which they can achieve the goals and objectives of their life effectively.

Functions of Guidance and Counseling

There are three main functions of guidance.

1) Adjustive Function

2) Distributive Function

3) Adaptive Function

As the name indicates, Adjustive function means adjustment i.e. how to adjust in a particular environment. The guidance worker tries and extends help to the individual to adjust him and to fulfill and satisfied his needs. This function of guidance is not made for all people but for those who need special assistance for a special problem. In school life one third of the guidance worker time spent on Adjustive function that have unusual problem such as failure, persistence, unhappiness, lack of friends, unsatisfied social life, loneliness and withdrawn.

As the name indicates distributive function is made for all people, all problems and all issues. All types of problems are addressed in this function. The happy, unhappy, ambitious, social, literal and some of them unreal aspirations, physiological problems, psychological problems and all types of problems r discussed and solved in this function of guidance. Distributive function appeals to solution of the all kind of problems of the students.

As the name indicates, adaptive function is a social function where the responsibility of the community and schools are realized to adapt certain procedure and actual needs of students in their classrooms. Mostly this function is using to design curriculum. The personal problems of the people, attitudes and opportunities are dealt with the shaping of courses and the development of the curriculum fails. If the adaptive function is not realized certain techniques are used for the solution of problems for the adaptive function is individual inventory and the follow up study.

Statement of the Problem

Here the problem is the evaluation of guidance and counseling practices at public and private sector universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. At higher level of education the students face many complex problems i.e. academic problems, social, emotional, psychological, sexual and leisure time problems which need proper guidance and counseling. If the government didn't solve these problems, most of the students' personalities will be destroyed. Adjustment problem is also a suffering situation for students. Higher education stage is considered as backbone for a student which provides base to his/her vocational life. At the university level students mostly want to take important and related courses for future profession. Some students feel confusion in the selection of such courses and profession, here they need guidance and counseling from some expert and experienced guide workers and professional counselors.

In Pakistan guidance and counseling courses are included in the curriculum of B.Ed, M.Ed and higher degrees of teacher education. The students study guidance and counseling courses in their particular degrees theoretically. The most important aspect of guidance and counseling is its practical uses means practices, so the researcher tried to evaluate the current guidance and counseling practices in public and private sector universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

Significance of the study

It is very fact that a student whether he/she is intelligent, average or slow leaner needs proper guidance and counseling in every walk of life. Guidance and counseling is very important for higher education students in their future educational and vocational decision. Internationally a great importance is given to guidance and counseling and they mostly worked on the every aspect of guidance and counseling. In all developed countries they have proper guidance and counseling cells and professional guide worker and counselors.

In Pakistan, a many people worked on the guidance and counseling but a very less number of researchers worked on the "guidance and counseling practices", therefore, the researcher aimed to work on this topic to provide some fruitful results and recommendations to the DCTE (Directorate of Curriculum and Teacher Education), PITE (Provincial Institute for Teacher Education), RITE (Regional Institute for Teacher Education), IERs (Institute of Education and Research) and upcoming research scholars. Through proper guidance and counseling services many of the students' problems will be solved successfully.

Research Objectives

* To know about the perceptions of teachers of the public and private sector universities regarding guidance and counseling practices in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

* To evaluate guidance and counseling practices at public and private sector universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

* To know the importance of guidance and counseling practices at university level.

Research Questions

* What are the perceptions of teachers at public and private sector universities about guidance and counseling practices in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa?

* Are there any guidance and counseling practices available at public and private sector universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa?

* Are guidance and counseling practices important at university level?

Hypotheses of the Study

H1 Guidance and counseling practices are missing at public and private sector universities.

H0 Guidance and counseling practices are not missing at public and private sector universities.

Literature Review

Collins says that guidance and counseling are two important tools use in education. It provides help externally and internally to the students' learning abilities and skills. Guidance and counseling help the students in the field of education, career, and many other problems. The main function of the guidance and counseling to provide solution of the problems which hander their studies and social life. Every individual needs guidance and counseling so that they become used to the current diversities in the educational fields.1

Berki, and Mukhopadhyay Described that there are many academic/educational problems of students; the students must learn some skills which improve his/her life style and attitudes.2 By guidance and counseling students can become the good citizens of a society. The counselor plays a very vital role in the personality's making of students. The counselor diverts students' attentions towards studies and future plans which are the most important work of students.3

Sampson, Watts, Palmer and Hughes pointed out the significance of a joint attempt between states in taking into consideration the function of guidance and counseling to different educational context. The world is soon becoming a global village and many of the world individuals will face the problems of joblessness, vocation hesitancy, occupation change, and career education etc'.4

Educational guidance captures a solid role in education. Every student needs educational guidance and it is easy for a good teacher to provide guidance with education. By educational guidance we cannot produce students of rote learning but produce creative and concept based students.5

By proper career counseling the students get ideas from the very beginning. The counselor tells them to select degrees according to the future situations. Now the students are aware through career counseling and before going to complete their degrees they know about their jobs which are the best work of guidance and counseling.6

According to Egbo, guidance and counseling is just like the proverb that prevention is better than cure. Here it means that guidance and counseling is a plan to solve a problem. Guidance and counseling enable the students to overcome their deficiencies and weaknesses. She also pointed out that all students' problems are associated with the learning process so it is very important to provide them good favorable environment.7

Robert states the need of guidance and counseling program at every educational institution. He says that there should be professional counselors who give students to academic and vocational counseling etc. By this initiative the students' progress will be better and every individual will be able to know his/her profession in future. It will improve the efficacy of the schools and the efficiency of the students.8

The career counselors discovered the interests and needs of the students. Thus the counselor, parents and school administrators can easily help the students and provide them same decisions as they want.9 Only such school where guidance and counseling program exist can educate the students successfully.

Described that counseling is the most important and tough work for a counselor. Only the effected people need counseling, so counselor must be well trained and expert so that he/she gives brilliant decisions and choices to the clients.10

Services of guidance and counseling

According to Egbo, guidance and counseling is just like the proverb that prevention is better than cure. Here it means that guidance and counseling is a plan to solve a problem. Guidance and counseling enable the students to overcome their weaknesses.11

The following are the major Services of guidance and counseling;

Orientation Service

Orientation services means to provide a kind of introduction to the new comers. Here the guidance and counseling workers introduce the new changes and rules regulations to the upcoming students.

Orientation service shows the picture of the institution with a very friendly manner and the students adapt it very quickly.

Information Service

As the name indicates, information services provide information to the students about the surroundings opportunities and enable the students to take benefits of such information. The new rules regulations about program, discipline and fee structure etc. are also the functions of information services.

Appraisal Service

Appraisal means rewards and punishment. The guidance and counseling cell provides some prizes and appreciation letters to the students to encourage them towards studies. Sometimes it gives punishment in the form of illegal or unfair means. The appraisal services keep the students in a specific circle.

Placement Service

The placement services means to provide jobs to the students who deserve. Many times you can see that when any students show extraordinary performance so the companies hire him/her a good job. Guidance and counseling cell keeps check on the activities of the students and select right man for the right job.

Evaluation Service

Assessment and evaluation are the most important services of guidance and counseling cell. The counselor evaluates the performance and behavior of the students. The counselor provides them fruitful information about teachers, students and environment and thus they adapt these suggestions and recommendations at once.

Referral Service

Counselor is the most expert and experience person and provides excellent assistant to students but sometimes a counselor fails to obtain some information. When the counselor realizes that he/she can't help the client then the counselor refer the client to the particular person who can give better help than the counselor, such kind of services are called referral services.12

Teachers Forum

The teacher forum means the counselor called upon teachers of different institutions and discusses with them the students' problems and other related issues. In this forum experienced teachers give creative ideas and various solutions of the problems. Teacher forum gives good environment to the new teachers as well; the new teachers learn many good things from the counselors and experienced teachers.

Research Design and Methods

The Research Design of the study is Descriptive and Survey type while the Quantitative Method is used to collect the Primary Data through Questionnaire.

Population

All the public and private sector universities of teacher education in KPK were the population of the study. There are total 18 public and private sector universities in which 12 were public and 06 were private sector universities. In these 18 universities all the faculty of education department was the population of the study.

Sampling

According to Raosoft sample size calculator all the 18 universities were selected for the primary data collection. Through systematic random sampling technique 03 teachers of each university were selected. Thus N= 54 teachers. The teachers were professors, Associate Professors, Assistant Professor and Lecturer.

Data Collection and Analysis

Table No.1: Sample Size of the Study

S.###Name of Universities

No

1.###Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan

2.###Bacha Khan University, Charsadda

3.###Gomal University, D.I. Khan

4###Hazara University, Dodhial, Mansehra

5###Khushal Khan Khattak University, Karak

6###Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat

7###Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Sheringal, Dir

8###University of Malakand, Chakdara, Dir, Malakand

9###University of Peshawar, Peshawar

10###University of Science and Technology, Bannu

11###University of Swat, Swat

12###University of Haripur, Haripur

13###Abasyn University, Peshawar

14###City University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar

15###Northern University, Nowshera

16###Preston University, Kohat

17###Qurtaba University of Science and Information Technology, D.I. Khan

18###Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar

Table No.2: Teachers' Perceptions Regarding Importance of Guidance and Counseling

S.###Statements###SA###A###N###D###SDA###TOTAL###x2###P

No.###Val

###ue

1.###Guidance and counseling###40###5###7###1###1###54###29.10

###program is very important for###<0.

###university students.###05

2.###Guidance and counseling###15###28###5###2###2###54###47.16

###program is the need of every###<0.

###educational institution###05

3.###Lack of guidance and###10###19###11###8###6###54###19.67

###counseling services cause###<0.

###many academic and other###05

###problems.

4.###Guidance and counseling###30###10###5###5###4###54###71.21

###encourages the students###<0.

###towards competitive###05

###examinations.

5.###Knowledge of guidance and###30###20###1###1###2###54###99.49

###counseling is very important###<0.

###for every teacher of education###05

###department.

Significant

df = 4

I2 = 9.48

Table No.2 indicates that the I2 values are found highly significant which shows that guidance and counseling program is very important for university students. The university teachers should know about the knowledge and skills of guidance and counseling.

Table No.3: Teachers' Perceptions Regarding Evaluation of Guidance and Counseling Practices

S.###Statements###SA###A###N###D###SD###TOT###x2###P

No.###A###AL###Value

6.###Guidance and counseling###2###8###4###35###5###54###115.9

###practices are available in###<0.05

###your teacher education

###department.

7.###Guide workers and###1###3###12###28###20###54###49.37

###professional counselors are###<0.05

###available at your education

###department.

8.###The teachers provide###30###20###2###2###0###54###78.03

###guidance services to the###<0.05

###students/scholars during

###class/research work.

9.###The teachers provide###15###25###8###4###2###54###32.44

###counseling services when###<0.05

###the scholars need during

###research work.

10.###The teachers in your###40###5###7###1###1###54###29.10

###department provide career###<0.05

###choices/career counseling

###when the students ask.

Significant

df = 4

I2 = 9.48

Table No.3 indicates that the I2 values are found highly significant which shows that guidance and counseling practices are not available formally at public and private sector universities. The teachers are providing guidance and counseling services but informally. There should be a guidance and counseling cell at every university.

Recommendations

The following recommendations were made:

* Guidance and counseling cell may be developed officially at school, college and university levels.

* There should be professional guide workers and counselors at school, college especially at university level.

* The professional counselors may be recruited in BPS-18 at university level, BPS-17 at College level and BPS-16 at school level.

* The government should take initiatives for the guidance and counseling practices and available all the required resources.

* The guidance and counseling subjects may be included in school and college curriculum as well.

* There should be effective career counseling program where the students get vocational guidance and career counseling for their best professions in their future.

* There must be students' awareness program where students know about the modern trends and issues of the world's educational institutions.

* There should be teacher training program in the field of guidance and counseling so that every teacher should know the basics of guidance and counseling services.

Conclusion

The study concluded that all the teachers of the public and private sector universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa pointed out that guidance and counseling practices are very important for students. The teachers highlighted the intense need of guidance and counseling cell for students at university level. The study also indicated the role of guidance and counseling practices in the problem solving of students. Teacher of every randomly selected university wished that the government should take initiatives for the development of guidance and counseling services in all public and private sector universities. The study also explored that guidance and counseling practices may be adapted at school and college level.

The researcher concluded that guidance and counseling practices are not available in public and private sector universities formally, it is also concluded that guide workers and professional counselors are not available at public and private sector universities but it is fact that the teachers of education department are providing good guidance and counseling services to the students. We may say that guidance and counseling practices are not available officially or formally but teachers provide guidance and counseling services to the students informally. The students' perceptions clearly pointed out that they are getting good guidance and assistance from their respected teachers. Whenever the students need any suggestions or advice, the teachers guide them effectively.

The teachers help the students in academic and career matters also guide them towards problem solving methods. Thus guidance and counseling play a pivotal role in the personality building of the students and there should be a guidance and counseling cell where the professional guide workers and counselors provide effective guidance and counseling to the students.

Notes and References

1 Collins Grak Roaf, Christian counseling (3rd edition.) Dallas: Thomas Nelson Publishers. (2007)

2 Berki Barbar Groove and Mukhopadhyay Brown. A manual for guidance and counseling services published at New Delhi, India. (2008).

3 Ibid.

4 Sampson Jr, James P., A. G. Watts, Martin Palmer, and Deirdre Hughes. "International collaboration in translating career theory to practice." Journal of Employment Counseling37, no. 2 (2000): 98-106.

5 Loc. Cit., Berki Barbar Groove and Mukhopadhyay Brown.

6 Chaube Same Brook. The guidance and counseling services for vocational or career counseling published New Delhi, India. (2005).

7 Egbo Garderner, The Role of Guidance and Counseling in Schools in Makueni District. Unpublished M.Ed Thesis. University of Nairobi. (2008).

8 Robert John Wingfield, Counselors as Leaders in Schools, University of North Carolina at Greensboro Cirecie A. West-Olatunji University of Florida Fall 2010 Volume 4, Issue 1. (2010).

9 Adelman Hang and Taylor Leman, School counselors and school reform: New directions. Professional School Counseling, 5, 235-248.(2002). See also for adetailed account; Griffin Derrif and Farris Alexandar, School counselors and school-family-community collaboration: Finding resources through community asset mapping. Professional School Counseling, 13, 248-256. (2010).

10 Cooley Leon, The power of groups: Solution-focused group counseling in schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. (2010). See also, Coy David Reo. Developmental guidance and counseling in today's schools. Alexandria, VA: National Association of Secondary Schools. (2004).

11 Op.Cit, Egbo Garderner, The Role of Guidance and Counseling in Schools in Makueni District.

12 Salawu, F.A. Perception of Peer Counseling on Students' Academic Performance in Schools within Kakamega South District. Unpublished M.Ed Thesis. Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology. (2000).
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