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Taxonomic revision of the Neotropical genus Panzosus Roewer, 1949 stat. rev. (Opiliones: Laniatores: Stygnopsidae).

Taxonomic history of Neotropical Opiliones from southeastern Mexico and Central America has been influenced mainly by three authors: Carl Friedrich Roewer, Clarence James Goodnight & Marie Louise Goodnight (Roewer 1912, 1915, 1923, 1949; Goodnight & Goodnight 1944, 1947, 1953, 1977). These authors stood out for their classification systems, also known as Roewerian and Goodnights' systems (see discussions in Pinto-da-Rocha & Hara 2011; Cruz-Lopez & Francke 2015, 2017; Kury & Perez-Gonzalez 2015; Medrano & Kury 2017). These classification systems were characterized by the proliferation of a great quantity of monotypic genera at one extreme, and unjustified synonyms of several at the other.

One of these taxa with a problematic history is Paramitraceras Pickard-Cambridge, 1905. This genus was described originally with two species: P. granulatus Pickard-Cambridge, 1905 (type species) and P. hispidulus Pickard-Cambridge, 1905, both from Guatemala. Subsequently, Roewer (1949) described two monotypic genera from Guatemala: Solola Roewer, 1949 and Panzosus Roewer, 1949, designating Paramitraceras hispidulus and Solola robusta Roewer, 1949 as the type species, respectively. Some years later, Goodnight & Goodnight (1953) synonymized Panzosus and Solola with Paramitraceras, describing also Paramitraceras femoralis Goodnight & Goodnight, 1953 and Paramitraceras parvulus Goodnight & Goodnight, 1953. Curiously they considered the restored combination Paramitraceras hispidulus as a synonym of P. granulatus, although in the same work and later on, Goodnight & Goodnight considered the presence of both P. granulatus and P. hispidulus as valid species (Goodnight & Goodnight 1953, 1977).

Four species were described as part of Paramitraceras from Brazil: Paramitraceras nitens Soares & Soares, 1946, Paramitraceras fuscomaculatus Soares & Soares, 1947, Paramitraceras singularis Soares & Soares, 1949, and Paramitraceras ocaiensis H. Soares, 1972. Also new records for P. granulatus and P. hispidulus were reported from Mexico, Guatemala and Belize by Goodnight & Goodnight (1954, 1973, 1977) and Silhavy (1974).

The genus was delimited by Kury (2003) in the current family Stygnopsidae, with three valid species: P. femoralis, P. granulatus and P. hispidulus. The remaining species were transferred as follows: P. parvulus to Sbordonia Silhavy,1977 in Stygnopsidae; P. nitens to Belemarua Roewer, 1949 (Grassatores: insertae sedis), P. singularis to Spinopilar Mello-Leitao, 1940 (Laniatores: Cryptogebiidae), and both P. cocaiensis and P. fuscomaculatus to Tibangara Mello-Leitao, 1939, also in Cryptogebiidae (Silhavy 1977; Kury 2003, 2014).

Current works focusing on Paramitraceras have consisted of corrections of spellings of the names: P. femorale, P. granulatum and P. hispidulum (Kury & Alonso-Zarazaga 2011); and a redefinition of the genus with descriptions of three species (Cruz-Lopez & Francke 2012, 2013a): Paramitraceras veracruz Cruz-Lopez & Francke, 2012, Paramitraceras pickardcambridgei Cruz-Lopez & Francke, 2013 and Paramitraceras tzotzil Cruz-Lopez & Francke, 2013.

Cruz-Lopez & Francke (2013b) also detected and described a unique pattern in shape and setal arrangement on the penes of Paramitraceras, Philora and Troglostygnopsis, and called it the Paramitraceras-pattern. This pattern was recovered as derived from a common ancestor according to the morphology-based phylogeny of Cruz-Lopez & Francke (2015). In a broader phylogeny using morphology along with three molecular markers (COI, 16S and 28S) of Stygnopsidae, Cruz-Lopez & Francke (2017) found Paramitraceras is a polyphyletic group. In that work, the surprising relationship was of Paramitraceras aff. hispidulum (CNAN-Op0152) as sister group of the incertae sedis 'Hoplobunus' zullinii (CNAN-Op0170), and not closely related to the other Paramitraceras species. In the same work, Cruz-Lopez & Francke (2017) upon the examination of the Paramitraceras types and some additional material, determined that the characters used in the previous diagnosis of Paramitraceras are not sufficient: unarmed pedipalps, size and dentition of chelicera and variations of the Paramitraceras-pattern of male genitalia are more complex structures than was thought by Cruz-Lopez & Francke (2012, 2013a).

Based on the phylogenetic hypothesis of Cruz-Lopez & Francke (2017) and the examination of type material of all current species of Paramitraceras,herewepresentthe taxonomic revision of the revalidated genus Panzosus Roewer, 1949 stat. rev. Although in the phylogeny of Stygnopsidae, neither of the Panzosus species recognized here were included in the analysis, but morphological consistencies of armature of pedipalp, venter of males and male genitalia of specimens treated here, we consider Panzosus is clearly a different group to those on Paramitraceras. The type species P. hispidulus comb. rest. is redescribed, also the new combination Panzosus femoralis (Goodnight & Goodnight, 1953) comb. nov. is proposed, and five new species are described: Panzosus comayagua sp. nov., Panzosus cusuco sp. nov., Panzosus giribeti sp. nov., Panzosus marginalis sp. nov., and Panzosus roeweri sp. nov. Finally, we discuss the extreme convergence present in the external morphologies of Paramitraceras, Panzosus, Philora and Sbordonia.

METHODS

Material examined and morphological nomenclature.--Types of P. hispidulus comb. rest. and P. femoralis comb. nov. deposited at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), New York, USA, and the British Museum of Natural History (BMNH), London, UK, were examined. Types of the new species described here from many places in Central America were deposited in the Museum of Comparative Zoology (MCZ), Harvard, Massachusetts, USA, and at Coleccion Nacional de Aracnidos (CNAN), Mexico City, Mexico. Specimens were observed with a Nikon SMZ625 stereomicroscope, color photographs were taken using a Nikon Coolpix S10 camera attached to the microscope. When large series of specimens were available, a male was dissected for SEM photographs of the scutum, venter and penis. SEM samples were prepared according to Acosta et al. (2007). Scanning electronic photographs were taken in a Hitachi SU1510 SEM at Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), LaNaBio Network. Nomenclature of the dorsal scutum follows Kury & Medrano (2016) and Cruz-Lopez & Francke (2017). Penial macrosetae nomenclature follows Kury & Villarreal (2015). Figures were arranged into plates of the same morphological structures to facilitate comparisons among the taxa. Measurements are in mm.

Abbreviations.--To facilitate the diagnosis of the genus and the descriptions, the following abbreviations are used throughout the manuscript:

BDP = Bilobular dorsal projection, defined by Cruz-Lopez & Francke (2012, 2013a) as the dorsal projection on the apical follis forming two lateral lobes (Figs. 13a, 14a).

BT = Basal tooth on movable cheliceral finger (Fig. 9). CPI = constriction on par distalis 1, defined here as the constriction on the base of par distalis, giving the appearance of apical portion of penis swollen compared to the rest of truncus (Figs. 13d, 14a).

CPII = constriction on par distalis 2, defined here as the constriction at the base of apical margin of pars distalis, giving a wrinkled appearance on the macrosetae E (Figs. 13f, 14f). ELP = Extra row of lateral pegs, defined in Cruz-Lopez & Francke (2015, 2016a) as an extra row of lateral pegs at level of mesotergal area I and posterior corners of scutum (Fig. 2a, e). Fo = Follis, modification of the capsula externa forming a multifolded sac, synapomorphy for Stygnopsidae (Sharma et al. 2011; Cruz-Lopez & Francke 2017).

GVTI and GVTII = Glandular ventral tubercles type I, illustrated in Cruz-Lo pez & Francke (2017: figs. 39B, C, G, H) and defined here as those tubercles on stigmatic area in males, that have an apical depression covered by several glandular pores, and in the middle with apical modified setae (Figs. 6b, d). Glandular ventral tubercles type II (GVTII) are turret-shaped with a deep apical hole, present only in Philora (Cruz-Lopez & Francke 2017: figs. 39E, F).

LCA = Lateral clear areas, defined by Cruz-Lopez & Francke (2015, 2017) as clear cuticular areas on the lateral channels on scutum, at level of mesotergal areas I and II, covered by scattered glandular pores.

MB = Mid bulge, defined in Kury & Medrano (2016) as the lateral projection on the middle of scutum.

MS A - MS E = Macrosetal groups A to E, defined by Kury & Villarreal (2015).

RSC = Ratio between the length of scutum and the length of cheliceral hand, defined in Cruz-Lo pez & Francke (2013a, 2015). This ratio quantifies the size of the chelicera with respect to the body, indicating if the species has relatively large, medium or small sized chelicera.

RHW = Ratio between the length of cheliceral hand and its width in lateral view. This ratio indicates if the species has swollen or thin cheliceral hands.

TAXONOMY

Familiy Stygnopsidae Sorensen, 1932

Subfamily Stygnopsinae Sorensen, 1932

Genus Panzosus Roewer, 1949 stat. rev.

Panzosus Roewer 1949:12.

Paramitraceras: Goodnight & Goodnight 1953:23 (in part).

Type species.--Paramitraceras hispidulus Pickard-Cambridge, 1905, by original designation.

Included species.--Panzosus hispidulus (Pickard-Cambridge, 1905) comb. rest., Panzosus femoralis (Goodnight & Goodnight, 1953) comb. nov., Panzosus comayagua sp. nov., Panzosus cusuco sp. nov., Panzosus giribeti sp. nov., Panzosus marginalis sp. nov. and Panzosus roeweri sp. nov.

Diagnosis.--Among stygnopsine harvestmen, there are four genera with similar morphology: Paramitraceras, Panzosus, Philora and Sbordonia. They share the following similarities: opisthosoma dorsally convex, strong ocularium pointing forward, pedipalps unarmed or with reduced spiniform setiferous tubercles, males with GVT on stigmatic area and male genitalia with Paramitraceras-pattern, modified on some species. Philora is easily recognizable by the fusion of all mesotergal tergites and free sternites into scutum completum (Cruz-Lopez & Francke 2016b), and presence of GVTII (Cruz-Lopez & Francke 2017). Sbordonia currently contains two species: Sbordonia armigera Silhavy, 1977 and S. parvula. Sbordonia armigera has armed pedipalps with spiniform setiferous tubercles on tibia and tarsus (Silhavy 1977: fig. 21) and does not have any kind of GVT; whereas S. parvula has uncommon male genitalia, with a dorsal lobe and flimsy lamina with a longitudinal furrow (Cruz-Lopez & Francke 2017: figs. 41D-F). Paramitraceras sensu stricto is being revised in a parallel work, but Panzosus can be recognized from Paramitraceras by the following combinations of characters: smaller size (scutum length < 4.5), pedipalp femur with few spiniform tubercles in the basal half only, pedipalpal tibia without apical apophyses, males with small-sized chelicera (RSC between1.5 and3.4 and RHW between 2.0 and 3.2) with no sexual dimorphism (slight on P. cusuco sp. nov.), and stigmatic area triangular-shaped.

Description.--Scutum length < 4.5. Femur IV slightly curved and shorter than scutum length. Dorsum densely covered with rounded setiferous tubercles (Figs. 1-3). Meso-tergal area IV with or without a transversal sulcus dividing it into two plates (Fig. 4). Ocularium developed, apically acute and pointing forward (Fig. 2). Scutum type zeta (f), MB rounded and restricted to mesotergal area I, with a row of ELP, LCA not developed, not visible from dorsal view (Fig. 1). Stigmatic area triangular shaped, males with GVTI present and arranged in transversal rows (Figs. 5-7). Chelicera small-sized compared with the body, RSC between 1.5 and 3.4, without marked sexual dimorphism in the cheliceral size (Fig. 8). BT triangular and small-sized, fixed finger with a row of four or five small teeth (Fig. 9). Pedipalp femur dorsally curved, with long spiniform tubercle basally, and small spiniform tubercles ventrally; dorsally with a row of spiniform tubercles, pointing forward. Margins of pedipalpal tibia and tarsus without spiniform setiferous tubercles, instead they have few and small spiniform projections and short setae (Figs. 10-12). Legs without large armature (except P. femoralis comb. nov.), covered throughout by small spiniform tubercles, tarsal count: 3(2):4(2):5:5. Male genitalia variable: pars distalis usually with CPI and CPII; apical margin of pars distalis with two small lobes separated by a rounded concavity; two pairs of MS E (E2 absent on P. hispidulus comb. rest., E1 absent on P. comayagua sp. nov.), E1 small, E2 usually thin; with two, four, five or six pairs of MS C distributed on lateral margins of pars distalis; three, four, six, seven or eight pairs of long MS A+B (in some species a pair of MS B is recognizable) on the base of pars distalis; a pair of small MS D (two pairs on P. roeweri sp. nov.) laterally to base of Fo; Fo with BDP (Figs. 13-16).

Variation.--All species examined, especially those with large series of specimens do not show much variation in body size and legs length, so that the measurements on Table 1 are based on one male specimen for the redescribed species and the holotype for the new ones.
KEY TO THE SPECIES OF PANZOSUS BASED ON MALES

1. Mesotergal area IV divided by median longitudinal sulcus
   (Fig. 4a-c)                                                     2
   Mesotergal area IV complete (Figs. 4d, e)                       5
2. Femur IV with a meso-ventral large rounded tubercle (Fig. 2b),
   mesotergal area I larger than any other mesotergal areas
   (Fig. 1b)
   P. femoralis (Goodnight & Goodnight, 1953) comb. nov.
   Femur IV without a meso-ventral large rounded tubercle,
   mesotergal area I with similar size of remaining areas
   (Figs. 1a, c-g)                                                 3
3. Cheliceral hand swollen, RHW = 2.0 (Fig. 8d); pars distalis
   very modified, with the flimsy lamina covering laterally the
   Fo (Figs. 14d, e)
   P. cusuco sp. nov.
   Cheliceral hand not swollen, RHW between 3.0 and 3.2
   (Figs. 8a-c, e-g); flimsy lamina of pars distalis not
   covering laterally the Fo (Figs. 13a, 14a)                      4
4. Ventral plate of penis with CPII and without MS E1
   (Fig. 14a)
   P. comayagua sp. nov.
   Ventral plate of penis without CPII and without MS E2
   (Fig. 13c)
   P. hispidulus (Pickard-Cambridge, 1905) comb. rest.
5. Posterior margin of scutum wider than scutum at level
   of MB (Fig. 1f); basichelicerite with a ventral subapical
   rounded tubercle (Fig. 8f)
   P. marginalis sp. nov.
   Posterior margin narrower than scutum at level of MB
   (Figs. 1e, g); basichelicerite without a ventral subapical
   rounded tubercle (Figs. 8e, g)  6
6. One pair of macrosetae D on penis (Fig. 15a)
   P. giribeti sp. nov.
   Two pairs of macrosetae D on penis (Fig. 16a)
   P. roeweri sp. nov.


Panzosus hispidulus (Pickard-Cambridge, 1905) comb. rest. (Figs. 1a, 2a, 3a, 4a, 5a, 6a, b, 8a, 9a, 10a, 11a, 12a, 13a-c, 17)

Paramitraceras hispidulus Pickard-Cambridge 1905:576; Roewer 1912:155; Roewer 1923:117; Goodnight & Goodnight 1947:7; Silhavy 1974:189; Dumitrescu 1976:18; Silhavy 1977:229; Goodnight & Goodnight 1977:145; Kury & Cokendolpher 2000:155; Cruz-Lopez & Francke 2012:17.

Paramitraceras hispidulum: Kury & Alonso-Zarazaga 2011:61; Cruz-Lopez & Francke 2013a:1; Cruz-Lopez & Francke 2017:322.

Type material examined.--Syntypes: GUATEMALA: 3 males, 1 female and 4 immatures, 28 April 1905, J.D. Godman (BMNH 3730-35).

Other material examined.--GUATEMALA: Peten:2 [male],13 km NW Machaquila,16[degrees]26'44.482"N, 89[degrees]32'59.342"W, 27 May 2009, J.T. Longino (MCZ 89323 and CNAN-MEB-264).

Diagnosis.--Mesotergal area IV divided into two plates similar to P. femoralis comb. nov., P. comayagua sp. nov. and P. cusuco sp. nov. (Fig. 4a), but it can be recognized from those three species by the pars distalis of the penis lacking CPI and CPII and the absence of MS E2. Also, the pars distalis not as a calyx, the absence of a meso-apical tubercle on femur IV and cheliceral hand not swollen (Figs. 13a-c).

Redescription.--Based on male (MCZ 89323): Measurements: Scutum length = 3.8, scutum width at MB = 3.0, scutum width at posterior margin = 3.0, cheliceral hand height = 1.5, cheliceral hand width = 0.5.

Dorsum: Prosoma smooth, with few small tubercles on area posterior to the ocularium. Ocularium with scattered tubercles throughout. Mesotergum covered by rounded setiferous tubercles, tubercles of mesotergal area V and free tergites larger than those on the middle of scutum. Mesotergal area IV divided into two plates by a longitudinal sulcus. Scutum wider at level of mesotergal area I. Lateral margins of scutum at level of MB rounded and with six ELP. Posterior corners of scutum with many ELP (Figs. 1a, 2a, 3a, 4a).

Venter: Coxae I-III covered by many spiniform tubercles. Coxae IV slightly larger than coxae III. Stigmatic area equilateral triangle shaped, with three transversal rows of GVTI at the posterior portion of stigmatic area. First free sternite with a short row of six-seven of GVTI (Figs. 5a, 6a, b).

Chelicera: Basichelicerite short, with bulla well marked and rounded. Bulla dorsally covered by few spiniform tubercles, ventrally with few small tubercles. Cheliceral hand smooth, with few setae near bases of fingers. Movable finger with BT slightly separated from the base of finger, short and triangular, with a very small tooth contiguous to BT. Fixed finger with four small teeth in the middle of the finger, apex smooth (Figs. 8a, 9a).

Pedipalp: Trochanter globular, with a long spiniform setiferous tubercle ventrally. Femur dorsally convex and covered by many scattered spiniform tubercles pointing forward, ventrally with a row of six minor setiferous tubercles, the basalmost larger. Patella unarmed, covered by many tubercles. Dorsal face of tibia convex, ventral face slightly concave and smooth. Mesal margin of tibia with proximal notch and distal spiniform tubercle; ectal margin with a proximal and a subapical spiniform tubercle, between them the margin is irregular with two vestigial tubercles. Margins of tarsus forming keels ornate with short spiniform setae. Claw shorter than tarsus (Figs. 10a, 11a, 12a).

Legs: All segments slender and densely covered by tubercles. Femur IV slightly curved and shorter than scutum length. Tarsal count: 3(2):4(2):5:5. Measurements in Table 1.

Penis: Pars distalis without CPI and CPII, width similar to the truncus of penis. Apical margin elongated and rounded, apices barely and very close to each other at the distal-most portion of margin. Eight pairs of MS A+Binanirregular arrangement latero-basally on pars distalis, six pairs of MS C forming a row on lateral margins of pars distalis, MS C and A+B similar in size and shape, a pair of very small MS D laterally to Fo, near to margins of pars distalis, a pair of small MS E1 clearly separated from each other. BDP with pointed apices (Figs. 13a-c).

Female: Similar to the male, but without GVTI.

Taxonomic notes.--Pickard-Cambridge (1905) and Goodnight & Goodnight (1977) mentioned that the type locality of P. hispidulus comb. rest. is Peten, Guatemala, however the labels of the former syntypes do not mention the specific locality in Guatemala. Also, there is an additional tube in the syntypes jar with a female labeled from Tecpan, Guatemala, which corresponds to a different undescribed species which we preferred not to describe for lack of males. Comparing the syntypes with the material from Peten deposited at MCZ, those specimens are conspecific. There are two false records for P. hispidulus comb. rest. The first reported by Silhavy (1974) from Chiapas, Mexico corresponds to an undescribed species related to P. veracruz; and the second false record was provided by Goodnight & Goodnight (1977) from Blue Hole, Belize, which clearly has the mesotergal area IV complete (Goodnight & Goodnight 1977: fig. 5), character present only in P. giribeti sp. nov., P. marginalis sp. nov. and P. roeweri sp. nov.

Panzosus femoralis (Goodnight & Goodnight, 1953), comb. nov.

(Figs. 1b, 2b, 5b, 8b, 9b, 10b, 11b, 12b, 13d-f, 17)

Paramitraceras femoralis Goodnight & Goodnight 1953:25; Silhavy 1977:228; Kury & Cokendolpher 2000:155; Cruz-Lopez & Francke 2012:17.

Paramitraceras femorale Kury & Alonso-Zarazaga 2011:61; Cruz-Lopez & Francke 2013a:1.

Type material examined.--Holotype male. MEXICO: Chiapas: Pichucalco, 17 July 1947, C. Goodnight and M. Goodnight (AMNH).

Paratype: 1 [female], same data as holotype (AMNH)

Other material examined.--MEXICO: Chiapas:1 [male], Pichucalco (BMNH).

Diagnosis.--Panzosus femoralis comb. nov. is the most remarkable species of the genus, easily recognizable by the enlarged mesotergal area I and the presence of a strong rounded tubercle on the ventral subapical portion of femur IV in males (Figs. 1b, 2b). Also the pars distalis with both CPI and CPII, pars distalis swollen and differentiated in width from the rest of truncus (Figs. 13d-f).

Redescription.--Based on male (BMNH): Measurements: Scutum length = 4.5, scutum width at MB = 3.7, scutum width at posterior margin = 3.0, cheliceral hand height = 1.3, cheliceral hand width = 0.4.

Dorsum: Prosoma smooth, with few small tubercles on area posterior to ocularium. Ocularium with scattered spiniform tubercles, especially on dorsal portion. Ocularium wide and with blunt apex. Surface entirely covered by rounded setiferous tubercles, tubercles of mesotergal area I noticeably larger than remaining tubercles on dorsum. Mesotergal area I very enlarged giving the appearance of hump in lateral view. MB of scutum enlarged and rounded, with seven ELP. Mesotergal area IV divided in two plates by a longitudinal sulcus (Figs. 1b, 2b).

Venter: Coxae I-III covered by many spiniform tubercles, coxae I with a transversal row of long setiferous tubercles. Coxae IV larger than coxae III. Stigmatic area isosceles triangle shaped and with two transversal rows of GVTI in the middle of stigmatic area. Inner corner of coxae IV with a few GVTI (Fig. 5b).

Chelicera: Basichelicerite short with bulla well marked and rounded. With at least five spiniform tubercles on dorso-apical portion, one of those tubercles is prominent and noticeable from frontal view. Cheliceral hand smooth, with prominent spiniform tubercle on dorsal-most portion, near to the junction with basichelicerite. Movable finger with BT slightly separated from the base of finger, barely visible, contiguous with a small tooth in the middle of the finger. Fixed finger with four small rounded teeth in the middle of the finger (Figs. 8b, 9b).

Pedipalp: Femur dorsally covered by many scattered, large spiniform tubercles pointing forward, those near to the basal portion larger; ventrally with long basal setiferous tubercle. Patella unarmed, covered by many tubercles. Dorsal face of tibia slightly convex, ventral face slightly concave, smooth. Both basalmost apices of tibia with a proximal notch; mesal margin dentated and irregular; ectal margin with a row of continuous vestigial short spiniform tubercles, appearing serrated. Tarsus thin, with both margins of tarsus forming keels ornate with short spiniform setae. Claw shorter than tarsus (Figs. 10b, 11b, 12b).

Legs: All segments slender and densely covered by tubercles. Femur IV slightly curved and shorter than scutum length, with a strong rounded tubercle on ventral subapical portion (Fig. 2b). Tarsal count: 3(2):4(2):5:5. Measurements in Table 1.

Penis: Pars distalis with both CPI and CPII, pars distalis swollen and differentiated in width from the rest of truncus. CPII just on the same position of MS C and E. Apical margin of flimsy lamina very thin, whith the apices small and very close to each other, dorsally pointed. Four pairs of MS A+B on the base of pars distalis, a pair of MS B is distinguishable because it is displaced ventrally, with five pairs of MS C forming a continuous row on lateral margins of pars distalis, with a pair ofvery small MS D laterally to Fo, near to margins of pars distalis, two paramedian pairs of MS E, E1 very close to each other, E2 near E1 on external side, close with the first MS C. BDP not visible, covered with dirt (Figs. 13d-f).

Female (based on paratype AMNH): Noticeably different from the male in the absence of GVTI, rounded tubercle on femur IV and mesotergal area I not enlarged.

Taxonomic notes.--Goodnight & Goodnight (1953) designated a female paratype (AMNH) from Chiapas, Finca Cuauhtemoc (misspelled as Guatimoc), which represents to another undescribed species, which we prefer not to describe until males are discovered.

Panzosus comayagua sp. nov.

http://zoobank.org/NomenclaturalActs/3684DCF7-A9D9-4B42-A2D4-668C689EEE83

(Figs. 1c, 2c, 3b, 4b, 5c, 6c, d, 8c, 9c, 10c, 11c, 12c, 14a-c, 17)

Type material.--Holotype male. HONDURAS: Comayagua: 12 km ENE Comayagua, 14[degrees]28'53.004"N, 87[degrees]31'56.1"W, 15 May 2010, J.T. Longino (MCZ-IZ-99144).

Paratypes. HONDURAS: Comayagua:42 [male],62 [female], same data as holotype (MCZ-IZ-150772); 6 [male],5 [female], same data as holotype (CNAN-T01297 and CNAN-MEB-265).

Etymology.--Noun in apposition referring to the type locality.

Diagnosis.--Panzosus comayagua sp. nov. has the mesotergal area IV divided into two plates (Figs. 3b, 4b) as in P. hispidulus comb. rest., P. femoralis comb. nov. and P. cusuco sp. nov., but differs from those three species by the pars distalis being calyx-shaped with an apical depression with the F inserted on it, and by the absence of MS E1 (Figs. 14a-c). Also P. comayagua sp. nov. has only two pairs of MS C and chelicera not swollen (Figs. 8c, 14a, b).

Description.--Based on male holotype (MCZ-IZ-99144): Measurements: Scutum length = 2.7, scutum width at MB = 2.5, scutum width at posterior margin = 2.4, cheliceral hand height = 1.3, cheliceral hand width = 0.4.

Dorsum: Prosoma smooth, with few small tubercles on area posterior to the ocularium forming two longitudinal rows. Ocularium with scattered spiniform tubercles throughout, ocularium slender with sharp tip. Mesotergum sparsely covered by small spiniform setiferous tubercles, tubercles of mesotergal area V and free tergites larger than those on remaining tubercles. Scutum wider at level of mesotergal area I. Lateral margins of scutum at level of MB rounded and with eight ELP not forming a row. Coda of scutum rounded and well-marked. Mesotergal area IV divided into two plates by a longitudinal sulcus (Figs. 1c, 2c, 3b, 4b).

Venter: Coxae I-III densely covered by small spiniform tubercles irregularly distributed. Coxae IV bigger than coxae III. Stigmatic area equilateral triangle shaped, with two transversal rows of GVTI on posterior portion of stigmatic area. First free sternite with a row of five GVTI (Figs. 5c, 6c, d).

Chelicera: Basichelicerite short, with the bulla well marked and rounded. Bulla dorsally, especially on apical portion covered by few spiniform tubercles, with a spiniform tubercle ventro-apically near to the cheliceral hand. Cheliceral hand smooth, with few setae near bases of fingers. Movable finger with BT slightly separated from the base of finger, short and triangular shape pointing backward, with a very small tooth contiguous to BT; rest of surface of finger with small denticles. Fixed finger with five small teeth covering three fourths of its total length (Figs. 8c, 9c).

Pedipalp: Trochanter globular, with a long spiniform setiferous tubercle on ventral side and one small dorsally. Femur slightly convex dorsally, covered by scattered spiniform tubercles pointing forward, the distal-most prominent; ventrally with a row of four setiferous tubercles covering only the basal half of the segment, the basalmost tubercle largest. Patella unarmed, covered by many spiniform tubercles. Dorsal face of tibia convex, ventral face slightly concave, smooth. Mesal margin of tibia with proximal notch, slightly marked; also mesal margin with two contiguous distal spiniform tubercles. Ectal margin with a proximal shallow notch, with a subapical spiniform tubercle, between them the margin is irregular with three diffuse small tubercles. Margins of tarsus forming keels, mesal keel with small tubercles giving serrated appearance. Claw shorter than tarsus (Figs. 10c, 11c, 12c).

Legs: All segments slender and covered by many tubercles. Femur IV slightly curved and shorter than scutum length. Tarsal count: 3(2):4(2):5:5. Measurements in Table 1.

Penis: Pars distalis with well-marked CPI and CPII, calyx-shaped, and with lateral margins bent dorsally. Apical margin with deep concavity, apical lobes small and separated. Three or four pairs of MS A+B at the base of pars distalis forming a transversal row, two pairs of MS B ventrally. Two pairs of MS C latero-basally to Fo and close to each other, with a pair of very small MS D close to the base of Fo, with one pair of short MS E2, MS E1 absent; MS E2 on the CPII and separated from each other. BDP with pointed apices (Figs. 14a-c).

Female (based on paratype MCZ-IZ-150772): Similar to the male, but without GVTI.

Panzosus cusuco sp. nov.

http://zoobank.org/NomenclaturalActs/8F1445EC-D06C-4DEF-BCED-93C61E4F6784

(Figs. 1d, 2d, 3c, 4c, 5d, 6e, f, 8d, 9d, 10d, 11d, 12d, 14d-f, 17)

Paramitraceras aff. hispidulum:Cruz-Lopez & Francke 2017:322.

Type material.--Holotype male. HONDURAS: Cortes: Cusuco National Park, 30 November 2015, S. Longhorn, B. Damron, K. Sagastume (CNAN-T01298).

Paratypes. HONDURAS: Cortes:1 [male],1 [female], same data as holotype (CNAN-MEB-150 and CNAN-T01299).

Etymology.--Noun in apposition referring to the type locality.

Diagnosis.--Panzosus cusuco sp. nov. has the mesotergal area IV divided into two plates as in to P. hispidulus comb. rest., P. femoralis comb. nov. and P. comayagua sp. nov. (Figs. 3c, 4c), but differs from those three species by the cheliceral hand being slightly swollen (RHW = 2.0), BT well marked; by the pars distalis with deep CPI and CPII, and the flimsy lamina curved dorsally covering the F (Figs. 14d-f).

Description.--Based on male holotype (CNAN-T01298). Measurements: Scutum length = 3.7, scutum width at MB = 1 3.1, scutum width at posterior margin = 3.0, cheliceral hand height = 2.4, cheliceral hand width = 1.2.

Dorsum: Prosoma smooth, with many spiniform tubercles posteriorly to ocularium, not forming rows. Ocularium with the base wide, and covered by many spiniform tubercles throughout; apex sharp and clearly pointing forward. Mesotergum densely covered by spiniform setiferous tubercles, giving a hairy appearance. Scutum wider at level of mesotergal area I. MB rounded and with six or seven spiniform ELP. Posterior corners of scutum with six or more ELP; coda slightly marked. Mesotergal area IV divided in two plates by a longitudinal sulcus (Figs. 1d, 2d, 3c, 4c).

Venter: All coxae covered with many spiniform tubercles, on coxae I these tubercles are more prominent and form a transversal row. Coxae IV bigger than coxae III, occupying most of the ventral area. Stigmatic area with narrow isosceles triangle shape, with three transversal rows of GVTI posteriorly. First sternite with a short row of five of GVTI (Figs. 5d, 6e, f).

Chelicera: Chelicera swollen, RHW = 2.0. Basichelicerite short, with bulla well developed and rounded occupying more than a half of basichelicerite. Bulla apico-dorsally with some spiniform tubercles pointing forward, ventrally with few. Cheliceral hand smooth, with few setae near bases of fingers. Movable finger with five teeth from the proximal third to the base of tip, BT well marked and triangular. Fixed finger with five small teeth from the base to almost the tip of finger (Figs. 8d, 9d).

Pedipalp: All segments dorsally covered with many spiniform tubercles. Trochanter globular with a spiniform setiferous tubercle on dorsal and ventral areas. Femur slightly convex dorsally, with many spiniform tubercles pointing forward, the distalmost larger than the others. Ventrally with a row of six spiniform setiferous tubercles along almost the entire length, the basalmost larger than the others. Patella unarmed, covered by scattered spiniform tubercles. Tibia slender, with dorsal face convex and ventral face slightly concave and smooth. Mesal margin of tibia with spiniform tubercles giving a serrated appearance; ectal margin with seven spiniform tubercles distributed along the entire length, the second and fifth larger than the others. Tarsus slender, with both margins of tarsus forming keels ornate with short spiniform setae, mesal margin with few small spiniform tubercles. Claw shorter than tarsus (Figs. 10d, 11d, 12d).

Legs: All segments slender and covered by many spiniform tubercles. Femur IV slightly curved and shorter than scutum length. Tarsal count: 3(2):4(2):5:5. Measurements in Table 1.

Penis: Pars distalis with CPI and CPII well-marked and very deep, pars distalis noticeably swollen from the rest of truncus. Flimsy lamina differentiated from the rest of pars distalis due the deep CPII, lamina bent dorsally, apical margin with a marked concavity and apical lobes dorsally pointed. Six pairs of MS A+B at the base of pars distalis forming a transverse row, this row is curved apically, two pairs of MS B recognizable by their ventral position; four pairs of MS C latero-basally to F and on CPII, three pairs close to each other; a pair ofvery small MS D laterally to base of Fo; two pairs of paramedian MS E, E1 very tiny, E2 short and spiniform, both pairs on CPII and clearly separated. BDP with rounded lobes, totally covered by the flimsy lamina (Figs. 14d-f).

Female (based on paratype CNAN-T01299): Similar to the male, but without GVTI.

Panzosus giribeti sp. nov.

http://zoobank.org/NomenclaturalActs/B8AE268D-C703-4C4E-8CD5-971DCCDB049B

(Figs. 1e, 2e, 3d, 4d, 5e, 7a, b, 8e, 9e, 10e, 11e, 12e, 15a-c, 17)

Type material.--Holotype male. HONDURAS: Olancho:11 km N Catacamas, 14[degrees]57'0.108"N, 85[degrees]54'57.923"W, 8 May 2010, J.T. Longino (MCZ-IZ-98089).

Paratypes. HONDURAS: Olancho:1 [male] ,1 [female], same data as holotype (CNAN-MEB-266 and MCZ-IZ-150773).

Etymology.--Patronymic honoring Gonzalo Giribet (MCZ, Harvard University), friend and colleague who has contributed greatly to the knowledge of Opiliones.

Diagnosis.--Panzosus giribeti sp. nov. has the mesotergal area IV complete as P. marginalis sp. nov. and P. roeweri sp. nov. (Figs. 3d, 4d), but differs from those two species in having the scutum wider at level of mesotergal area I instead of at the posterior margin, and by the presence of only one pair of MS D (Figs. 1e, 15a).

Description.--Based on male holotype (MCZ-IZ-98089). Measurements: Scutum length = 3.6, scutum width at MB = 2.8, scutum width at posterior margin = 2.7, cheliceral hand height = 1.5, cheliceral hand width = 0.6.

Dorsum: Prosoma smooth, with two longitudinal rows of rounded tubercles posterior to ocularium. Base of the ocularium wide, apex acute and covered by many spiniform tubercles distributed throughout. Mesotergum densely covered with many setiferous tubercles, all them equally sized. Scutum wider at level of mesotergal area I, MB expanded and rounded, margins of MB with eight ELP not forming a row. Coda softly marked, without ELP. Mesotergal area IV complete (Figs. 1e, 2e, 3d, 4d).

Venter: Coxae I-III covered by scattered spiniform tubercles, those on coxae I slightly enlarged and not forming a transverse row. Coxae IV larger than coxae III, occupying most ofventral area. Stigmatic area equilateral triangle shaped with lateral margins slightly concave. Stigmatic area with two transversal rows of GVTI posteriorly. First and second free sternites each with a transversal row of nine and three of GVTI respectively (Figs. 5e, 7a, b).

Chelicera: Basichelicerite short, with bulla poorly marked and rounded. Bulla dorsally smooth, ventrally with a group of three rounded small tubercles. Cheliceral hand smooth and slender, with few apical setae near bases of fingers. Movable finger with minute BT slightly separated, BT contiguous with three very small denticles, forming a saw. Fixed finger with four barely visible and serrated teeth (Figs. 8e, 9e).

Pedipalp: Trochanter globular with a dorsal and a ventral spiniform setiferous tubercle. Femur dorsally convex and ornate with many large spiniform tubercles pointing forward, the distalmost slightly larger than the rest; ventrally with a row of nine minor setiferous tubercles, the basalmost slightly larger, remaining tubercles smaller and close to each other forming a serrula. Patella covered by scattered spiniform tubercles. Dorsal face of tibia convex, with small tubercles; ventral face slightly concave and smooth. Both margins of tibia with weak basal notch, mesal and ectal margins with eight or more spiniform tubercles forming irregular rows. Tarsus slightly swollen in the middle, both margins forming keels ornate with spiniform setae, with a rounded tubercle on middle of mesal margin. Claw shorter than tarsus (Figs. 10e, 11e, 12e).

Legs: All segments slender and covered by many tubercles. Femur IV slightly curved and shorter than scutum length. Tarsal count: 3(2):4(2):5:5. Measurements in Table 1.

Penis: Pars distalis with CPI and CPII well-marked, and swollen compared with the width of rest of truncus. Flimsy lamina very thin and differentiated from the rest of pars distalis, apical margin with a central concavity, apices long and pointing dorsally. Seven pairs of MS A+B in an irregular arrangement, three pairs of MS A laterobasally to Fo, three pairs of MS B latero-ventrally to pars distalis. Five pairs of MS C forming a row on lateral margins of pars distalis, the distalmost very close to MS E1. A pair of very small MS D laterally to base of Fo. Two pairs of paramedian MS E, E2 on CPII and separated from each other. BDP with pointed apices (Figs. 15a-c).

Female (based on paratype MCZ-IZ-150773): Similar to the male, but without GVTI.

Panzosus marginalis sp. nov.

http://zoobank.org/NomenclaturalActs/D304CA9A-8753-4F57-AD84-4B74F27257BA

(Figs. 1f, 2f, 5f, 8f, 9f, 10f, 11f, 12f, 15d-f, 17)

Type material.--Holotype male. GUATEMALA: Izabal:5 km NW Morales, 15[degrees]30'38.522"N, 88[degrees]51'39.367"W, 17 May 2009, J.T. Longino (MCZ-IZ-89531).

Paratypes. GUATEMALA: Izabal:1 [male] ,3 [female], same data as holotype (MCZ-IZ-150774).

Etymology.--From the Latin marginalis, referring to the posterior margin of scutum, which is rounded and wider than mesotergal area I.

Diagnosis.--Panzosus marginalis sp. nov. has the mesotergal area IV complete, as in P. giribeti sp. nov. and P. roeweri sp. nov., but it can be recognized from those two species in having the scutum wider at the posterior margin instead of at the mesotergal area I (Fig. 1f); by the dorsum covered by rounded instead of spiniform tubercles, and by the presence of a large, rounded tubercle ventrally on the basichelicerite (Fig. 8f).

Description.--Based on male holotype (MCZ-IZ-89531). Measurements: Scutum length = 3.6, scutum width at MB = 2.7, scutum width at posterior margin = 3.3, cheliceral hand height = 1.4, cheliceral hand width = 0.5.

Dorsum: Prosoma smooth, with some spiniform tubercles posterior to ocularium, not forming two longitudinal rows. Ocularium wide, apex ending in a sharp tip, ocularium covered with spiniform tubercles on frontal face. Dorsum covered densely by rounded large setiferous tubercles, giving a hairy appearance, all dorsal tubercles similar in size. MB and coda well developed and rounded, MB with a row of five triangular-shaped ELP; scutum wider at level of posterior margin. Mesotergal sulci marked, especially sulcus I that confers the appearance of a hump at mesotergal area I. Mesotergal area IV complete (Figs. 1f, 2f).

Venter: Coxae I-III covered by many spiniform tubercles, on coxae I those tubercles are slightly larger and irregularly distributed. Coxae IV slightly larger than coxae III. Stigmatic area equilateral triangle shaped, densely covered by many GVTI throughout, first free sternite with a short row of six GVTI (Fig. 5f).

Chelicera: Basichelicerite short, with bulla well marked and rounded dorsally. Bulla with few small tubercles dorsally, ventrally with a long-rounded tubercle in the middle.

Cheliceral hand thin and smooth, with few setae near bases of fingers. Movable finger with BT slightly separated from the base of finger, barely discernible, without any other teeth. Fixed finger with four small teeth from the base to almost the tip (Figs. 8f, 9f).

Pedipalp: Trochanter globular and with a ventral spini-form setiferous tubercle. Femur dorsally with six spiniform tubercles pointing forward, those tubercles evenly distributed throughout; ventrally with a basal long spiniform tubercle and with few minute tubercles. Patella unarmed, covered by few setae. Dorsal face of tibia convex, smooth; ventral face slightly concave, smooth. Mesal margin of tibia with five very small tubercles and ectal margin with four barely visible tubercles. Margins of tarsus forming keels ornate with short spiniform setae. Claw shorter than tarsus (Figs. 10f, 11f, 12f).

Legs: All segments slender and covered by tubercles. Femur IV slightly curved and shorter than scutum length. Tarsal count: 3(2):4(2):5:5. Measurements in Table 1.

Penis: Pars distalis with CPI and CPII marked, pars distalis swollen in lateral view compared with the width of rest of truncus. Flimsy lamina contiguous with the pars distalis, apical margin with a central concavity, apices long and pointing dorsally. With 10 pairs of MS A+B in forming two transversal rows at the base of pars distalis, three-four pairs of MS B recognizable latero-ventrally on pars distalis; four pairs of MS C forming a row on lateral margins of pars distalis, the distalmost very close to MS E1; a pair of very small MS D laterally to base of Fo; two pairs of paramedian MS E, E2 on CPII and separated from each other. BDP with pointed apices (Figs. 15d-f).

Female (based on paratype MCZ-IZ-150774): Similar to the male, but without GVTI.

Panzosus roeweri sp. nov.

http://zoobank.org/NomenclaturalActs/3EAA12A0-5650-4ACB-B47F-6DA24F43CA49

(Figs. 1g, 2g, 3e, 4e, 5g, 7c, d, 8g, 9g, 10g, 11g, 12g, 16, 17)

Type material.--Holotype male. HONDURAS: Olancho: National Park La Muralla, 15[degrees]05'56.976"N, 86[degrees]44'26.196"W, 2 May 2010, J.T. Longino (MCZ-IZ-99308).

Paratypes. HONDURAS: Olancho:2 [male],3 [female],1 inmature, same data as holotype (MCZ-IZ-150775); 1 [male], same data as holotype (CNAN-MEB-267).

Etymology.--Patronymic honoring to Carl-Friedrich Roewer, who contributed significantly to the knowledge of Opiliones.

Diagnosis.--Panzosus roeweri sp. nov. has the mesotergal area IV complete, as in P. giribeti sp. nov. and P. marginalis sp. nov. (Figs. 3e, 4e), but it can be recognized from those two species in having the scutum wider at the level of mesotergal area I than at the posterior margin, and by the presence of two pairs of MS D instead of one (Figs. 1g, 16a).

Description.--Based on male holotype (MCZ-IZ-99308). Measurements: Scutum length = 3.3, scutum width at MB = 2.6, scutum width at posterior margin = 2.6, cheliceral hand height = 1.3, cheliceral hand width 0.4.

Dorsum: Prosoma smooth, with six rounded tubercles in the posterior portion of ocularium, two protruding longitudinal rows of larger tubercles. Ocularium with scattered tubercles throughout. Dorsum densely covered by many setiferous tubercles, each mesotergal area fully covered giving a hairy appearance, the setae are longer in the posterior tubercles. Scutum wider at level of mesotergal area I in the MB, coda straight, not marked. MB with seven ELP irregularly distributed. Mesotergal area IV complete (Figs. 1g, 2g, 3e, 4e).

Venter: Coxae I-III covered by spiniform tubercles, on coxae I there are some larger tubercles forming a transverse row. Coxae IV slightly larger than coxae III, with an inner rounded apophysis. Stigmatic area equilateral triangle shape, with lateral margins slightly concave; with two transverse rows of few GVTI on posterior portion of stigmatic area. First free sternite with a row of nine GVTI (Figs. 5g, 7c, d).

Chelicera: Basichelicerite short, with bulla well marked and rounded and with the central notch well marked. Bulla dorsally and ventrally with small tubercles. Cheliceral hand smooth, and thin, with few setae near bases of fingers. Movable finger with BT slightly separated from the base of finger, barely discernible and a subapical small tooth. Fixed finger with four triangular teeth in the middle of the finger, the central tooth protruding, apex smooth (Figs. 8g, 9g).

Pedipalp: Trochanter globular, with a spiniform setiferous tubercle on dorsal and ventral sides. Femur dorsally covered by many scattered spiniform tubercles pointing forward, ventrally with a row of four minor setiferous tubercles decreasing in size distally. Patella unarmed, covered by tubercles and setae. Dorsal face of tibia slightly convex, and covered with spiniform tubercles; ventral face slightly concave and smooth. Mesal margin of tibia with proximal notch barely discernible, with seven small spiniform tubercles distributed throughout; ectal margin with a minute proximal notch, and with six small tubercles. Margins of tarsus forming keels ornate with short spiniform setae, mesal margin with some small tubercles. Claw shorter than tarsus (Figs. 10g, 11g, 12g).

Legs: All segments slender and covered by many tubercles. Femur IV slightly curved and shorter than scutum length. Tarsal count: 3(2):4(2):5:5. Measurements in Table 1.

Penis: Pars distalis with CPI and CPII well-marked, pars distalis slightly swollen compared with rest of the truncus. Flimsy lamina differentiated from the rest of pars distalis due to a deep CPII, apical margin with central concavity, lobes pointing dorsally. Six pairs of MS A+B in an irregular pattern, a pair of ventral MS B is recognizable; four pairs of MS C, three pairs forming a cluster, the basal-most pair separated from that group; two pairs of small MS D latero-basally to Fo, near lateral margins of pars distalis; two pairs of paramedian MS E below CPII, both pairs separated from each other. BDP with pointed apices (Figs. 16a-c).

Female (based on paratype MCZ-IZ-150775): Similar to the male, but without GVTI.

DISCUSSION

Justification of the revalidation of Panzosus.--Since the phylogenetic hypothesis of Stygnopsidae based on total evidence, Paramitraceras was recovered as a polyphyletic group (Cruz-Lopez & Francke 2017). Unfortunately, Cruz-Lopez & Francke (2017) only included P. cusuco sp. nov. (formerly Paramitraceras aff. hispidulum CNAN-Op0152) in their analysis, resulting as the sister group of the uncertain 'Hoplobunus' zullinii (CNAN-Op0170). Even though no other species was included in the analysis, the seven species of Panzosus share uniform morphologies (see Description and Diagnosis sections), especially on the armature of pedipalps and shape of stigmatic area. With the phylogenetic position of P. cusuco sp. nov. and morphology the genus, we consider these as two sufficient reasons to revalidate Panzosus. Redefinition of the true Paramitraceras is a parallel work in process. At the moment, four different morphologies are recognized among Paramitraceras sensu lato: truly Paramitraceras, Panzosus, 'P'. veracruz and related, and S. robusta and related. Further taxonomic works will treat these taxa in order to put a natural classification on this group.

Diversity of Stygnopsidae.--Our knowledge about the diversity of the family Stygnopsidae has increased in recent years. When the Catalogue of Laniatores of the New World was published, the family consisted of eight genera and 35 species, the great majority distributed in the Sierra Madre Oriental in Mexico (Kury 2003). Currently, the family is composed of 19 genera and 62 species, including those described here (Cruz-Lopez & Francke 2017, 2018; Cruz-Lopez 2018a, b). Most of these new taxa have been the result of expeditions to many localities in Mexico, searching especially in caves and in leaf litter from pine and tropical forests (Cruz-Lopez & Francke 2015, 2017). Regarding Central America, only two species of stygnopsids had been reported previously: P. granulatum from numerous localities in Guatemala and El Salvador, and P. hispidulus stat. rev. from Guatemala and Belize (Kury 2003). In this work, it has been corroborated that distribution records other than the type locality, at least for P. hispidulus stat. rev. and P. femoralis comb. nov., are false, giving us an idea of the high degree of endemism exhibited by the species of Panzosus. The diversity of leaf litter fauna of diverse groups of arthropods in Mesoamerica is poorly known, and the reason why the project LLAMA (Leaf Litter Arthropods of Meso-America) was created to investigate diverse groups, especially ants and weevils (Longino 2013; Luna-Cozar et al. 2014). As part of this project, we were able to examine numerous specimens from the LLAMA project deposited at the MCZ, resulting in this taxonomic revision, demonstrating that leaf litter stygnopsids are a neglected group in Central America.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This work was possible by the following grants given to JACL: Programa de Apoyo a los Estudios de Posgrado (PAEP), UNAM, Mexico and Ernst Mayr travel grant, Museum of Comparative Zoology (MCZ), Harvard University, USA. We are grateful to the following curator and assistants from the MCZ and the AMNH for their kindness and for access and facilities for the loan of specimens: G. Giribet, A. Baldinger, L. Leibensperger, L. Prendini and P. Colmenares. Scanning Electron Microscopy was possible with the help of B. Mendoza, from the Laboratorio Nacional de Biodiversidad (LaNaBio), Instituto de Biologia, UNAM. We thank to S. Longhorn (BMNH) who enabled the loan of the types of P. hispidulus, a topotype of P. femoralis and by the donation to CNAN of the specimens of P. cusuco. We also thank D. Ubick, S. Boyer and an anonymous reviewer for their comments and language revision. Remaining specimens examined in this work were provided by the Leaf Litter Arthropods of Meso-America (LLAMA) project granted to J. Longino (NSF award no. 0640015).

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Jesus A. Cruz-Lopez (1,2) and Oscar F. Francke (1): (1) Coleccion Nacional de Aracnidos, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado postal 70-153, 04510, Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico; (2) Posgrado en Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Av. Universidad 3000, Copilco, 04510, Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico. E-mail: thelyphonidito@gmail.com (Cruz-Lopez)

http://zoobank.org/?lsid=urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:045892E1-641F-43D0-947C-1A72BC256F3C
Table 1.--Legs measurements (in mm) of species of the genus Panzosus,
based on one male of redescriptions or on the holotype in the new
species.

                                Trochanter  Femur  Patella  Tibia

Panzosus hispidulus,  Pedipalp  0.33        0.93   0.53     0.73
comb. rest.           Leg I     0.33        1.50   0.60     1.00
                      Leg II    0.53        1.90   0.86     1.46
                      Leg III   0.46        1.60   0.66     1.30
                      Leg IV    0.70        2.10   0.83     1.60
Panzosus femoralis,   Pedipalp  0.34        1.20   0.60     0.80
comb. nov.            Leg I     0.34        1.50   0.60     1.40
                      Leg II    0.54        1.70   0.90     1.40
                      Leg III   0.47        1.60   0.40     1.20
                      Leg IV    0.71        2.00   0.80     1.70
Panzosus comayagua,   Pedipalp  0.20        0.86   0.46     0.63
sp. nov.              Leg I     0.26        1.13   0.46     0.83
                      Leg II    0.43        1.46   0.63     1.06
                      Leg III   0.33        1.33   0.50     1.33
                      Leg IV    0.40        1.66   0.70     1.33
Panzosus cusuco,      Pedipalp  0.53        1.50   0.80     1.20
sp. nov.              Leg I     0.40        1.60   0.63     1.20
                      Leg II    0.53        2.20   1.00     1.63
                      Leg III   0.63        1.90   0.63     1.50
                      Leg IV    0.66        2.53   1.00     2.00
Panzosus giribeti,    Pedipalp  0.30        1.20   0.63     0.86
sp. nov.              Leg I     0.40        1.53   0.56     1.10
                      Leg II    0.53        1.96   0.80     1.50
                      Leg III   0.43        1.70   0.66     1.40
                      Leg IV    0.70        2.40   0.96     1.86
Panzosus marginalis,  Pedipalp  0.43        1.26   0.66     0.83
sp. nov.              Leg I     0.33        1.50   0.63     1.06
                      Leg II    0.50        1.83   0.93     1.33
                      Leg III   0.50        1.60   0.70     1.30
                      Leg IV    0.66        2.06   0.90     1.53
Panzosus roeweri,     Pedipalp  0.36        1.00   0.50     0.76
sp. nov.              Leg I     0.36        1.43   0.56     0.93
                      Leg II    0.46        1.83   0.73     1.33
                      Leg III   0.46        1.53   0.63     1.16
                      Leg IV    0.56        2.06   0.76     1.63

                                Metatarsus  Tarsus

Panzosus hispidulus,  Pedipalp  -           0.73
comb. rest.           Leg I     1.20        0.76
                      Leg II    1.53        1.16
                      Leg III   1.60        0.90
                      Leg IV    2.10        0.96
Panzosus femoralis,   Pedipalp  -           0.80
comb. nov.            Leg I     1.10        0.70
                      Leg II    1.60        1.00
                      Leg III   1.60        0.80
                      Leg IV    2.20        0.80
Panzosus comayagua,   Pedipalp  -           0.63
sp. nov.              Leg I     0.86        0.83
                      Leg II    1.13        1.00
                      Leg III   1.20        0.66
                      Leg IV    1.63        0.80
Panzosus cusuco,      Pedipalp  -           1.10
sp. nov.              Leg I     1.33        0.90
                      Leg II    1.86        1.50
                      Leg III   1.80        0.96
                      Leg IV    2.50        1.00
Panzosus giribeti,    Pedipalp  -           1.00
sp. nov.              Leg I     1.23        0.83
                      Leg II    1.63        1.20
                      Leg III   1.66        0.86
                      Leg IV    2.26        1.06
Panzosus marginalis,  Pedipalp  -           0.96
sp. nov.              Leg I     1.16        0.73
                      Leg II    1.56        1.20
                      Leg III   1.53        0.90
                      Leg IV    1.83        0.83
Panzosus roeweri,     Pedipalp  -           0.80
sp. nov.              Leg I     1.10        0.83
                      Leg II    1.46        1.40
                      Leg III   1.40        0.80
                      Leg IV    1.96        0.70
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Author:Cruz-Lopez, Jesus A.; Francke, Oscar F.
Publication:The Journal of Arachnology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1MEX
Date:May 1, 2019
Words:9516
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