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Taxonomic relationships in some Vicia species from Egypt, based on seed morphology and SDS-PAGE of seed proteins/As relacoes taxonomicas das especies Vicia oriundas do Egito, baseadas na morfologia da semente e na SDS-PAGE das proteinas da semente.

Introduction

The genus Vicia L. belongs to tribe Vicieae of the Fabaceae family. The number of species in the genus varies significantly, ranging from about 150 accepted species by Kupicha (1976) up to about 210 species by Hanelt and Mettin (1989). The genus is mainly distributed throughout the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere and extends into non-tropical South America. Vicia is represented by 14 species in Egypt (BOULOS, 1999).

The infrageneric classification of the genus Vicia is debatable. Kupicha (1976) divided the genus into two subgenera (subgenus Vicia and subgenus Vicilla) and 22 sections, instead of three or four sections as described by earlier authors (BALL, 1968; DAVIS; PLITMANN, 1970; FEDTSCHENKO, 1948; RADZHI, 1970).

Different criteria have been used to determine the interspecific relationships within the genus Vicia, namely, cytotaxonomy (MAXTED et al., 1991), morphological and molecular characteristics (VAN DE WOUW et al., 2001, 2003), phylogenetic analysis (CHOI et al., 2006; ENDO et al., 2008; JAASKA, 1997, 2005; LEHT, 2005, 2009; LEHT; JaASKA, 2002; MAXTED, 1993a and b, 1994; MAXTED; DOUGLAS, 1997; STEELE; WOJCIECHOWSKI, 2003), RAPD and restriction fragment characters (POTOKINA et al., 1999) and pollen morphology (ENDO; OHASHI, 1996). Although the seed coat characteristics have been studied by Lersten (1979), Lersten and Gunn (1982) and Marin et al. (1998) in some Vicia species, little is known about the ultra-structure of the seed surface in most species of the genus. Furthermore, seed protein electrophoresis has become a useful tool in evolutionary studies to determine species relationships. Potokina et al. (2003) found the phylogenetic outcome of such seed protein analyses consistent with the morphological and DNA data and suggested that that simple comparison of electrophoretic patterns of seed proteins was useful to clarify relationships among species of Vicia. Mirali et al. (2007) studied the seed protein of some species of Vicia by SDS-PAGE and showed that there were major differences between studied taxa. These authors did not prove any relationship between the studied storage proteins and the geographical distribution of the accessions. Seed protein electrophoresis techniques have also been employed for the phylogenetic study of a few species of Vicia in Egypt (EL-SHANSHOURY; SOILMAN, 1996; SAMMOUR, 1990).

Current investigation deals with the use of seed protein electrophoresis coupled to seed morphological characteristics to evaluate the inter- and intra-specific variability and relationships among the species of the genus Vicia in Egypt.

Material and methods

Seed morphology

Analyzed seeds were either collected from mature plants in Egypt or taken from herbarium specimens. A list of voucher specimens and localities is given in Table 1. Only mature seeds were used in current investigation. The dried seeds were first examined by dissecting microscope (Olympus type BH-2) and 10-15 seeds from each taxon were chosen to cover the variation range. Seeds were mounted on stubs with double adhesive tape. The stubs were sputter-coated with gold for 5 min. in a JEOL, JFC 1100 E ion-sputtering device. After coating, the specimens were examined with a JEOL J-SM-T 200 Scanning Electron Microscope, using accelerating voltages at 15-20 KV, at the Electron Microscopy Unit, Assiut University. The terminology employed follows Marin et al. (1998) and Abdel Khalik and Van Der Maesen (2002).

Seed protein electrophoresis

For the extraction of seed proteins, 0.5 g of mature healthy seeds were ground in liquid nitrogen and seed proteins were extracted using Tris-HCl (pH 8.8). SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed in 10% acrylamide slab gels following the system by Laemmli (1970). Gels were photographed, scanned and analyzed using gel Doc 2000 Bio-Rad system.

Data analysis

The total number of recorded attributes (49) obtained from seed protein and morphological analysis in each taxon was scored and coded to establish the data matrix of computation. The presence or absence of each of the 39 different electrophoresis bands was treated as a binary characteristic in a data matrix: i.e. coded 1 and 0 respectively. Three types of analysis were carried out by Hierarchical Cluster Analysis using group average measuring similarity percentage (ROMESBURG, 1984). The relationships among the studied taxa were demonstrated as a dendrogram provided by Statistical program PRIMER Ver. 5.0 (CLARKE; GORLEY, 2001).

Results

Morphological characteristics of the seeds

Table 2 shows the morphological characteristics of the seeds of the genus Vicia taxa revealed by light microscopy and SEM. They are also partially shown in Figures 1 and 2.

Seed shape

The seed shape varies from suborbicular in Vicia articulata, ellipsoid in V. narbonensis and V. hybrida, to spherical in the remaining investigated Vicia species.

Seed size

Seed sizes vary significantly among the examined taxa. Whereas the largest spherical seeds in V. sativa L. subsp. sativa are 4.5-6 mm in diameter, the smallest ones measure 1.5-2 mm in V. tetrasperma. The other species have slightly larger seeds, with a diameter measuring 2.5-4 mm.

Seed color

Seed colors vary from black in Vicia angustifolia, brown-black in V. sativa L. subsp. sativa and V. articulata, brown in V. lutea, V. narbonensis, V. peregrina, V. monantha and V. villosa, red-brown in V. tetrasperma and V. hybrida to yellowish in V. hirsuta.

Seed surface luster

The luster of seed surface varies from shiny in Vicia lutea, V. articulata, V. hirsuta, V. monantha and V. hybrida to matt (dull) in the remaining species.

Hilum shape

Seed hilum shape varies significantly among the examined taxa. It varies from ovate in Vicia peregrina, V. tetrasperma and V. hybrida, linear in V. articulata and V. hirsuta to oblong in the other species.

Anticlinal cell wall boundaries

The reliefs of epidermal cells boundaries are generally not well developed. There are three types of cell wall boundaries: (i) leveled to sunken, slightly undulate, stellate in Vicia narbonensis and V. peregrina (Figures 1F and 1G); (ii) irregular, sinuate, rod-like in V. hirsuta (Figure 1B) and (iii) irregular, slightly undulate, stellate in the remaining taxa.

Periclinal cell wall

Level of periclinal cell walls

The level (curvature) of the outer wall may be a good diagnostic characteristic. There are three different shapes for the level periclinal cell wall: (i) lop hate in Vicia hirsuta (Figure 1B); (ii) sharply papillose in V. peregrina and V. monantha (Figure 1E and G); and (iii) papillose in the rest of the taxa.

Secondary sculpture of periclinal cell wall

The surface of the outer cell wall shows great variations among the taxa under analysis: surface is striate in Vicia narbonensis and V. villosa (Figures 1F and 2K); ribbed to faveolariate in V. hirsute (Figure 1B); and irregular to ribbed in the remaining taxa (Figures 1 A, C, D, F, H, 2I, J and K).

SDS-PAGE of storage seed proteins

Electrophoresis analysis of proteins revealed 39 protein bands in the seeds of the 11 species under investigation. Results reveal that some bands are characteristically constant markers for each species and show the unequivocal identification of their electrophoregrams. Other bands are shared by more than one species. The number of bands varies from one species to another, with the largest number (17) in Vicia narbonensis and V. hybrida, and the lowest number (6) in V. sativa L. subsp. sativa (Figure 3). For comparison, the 39 protein bands were lumped together with molecular masses and the number of bands from each molecular mass was scored for each species (Table 3).

Data analysis

A similarity analysis based on the seed proteins and the combination of the SDS-PAGE characters of seed proteins and seed morphology was carried out numerically (Figures 4 and 5). Relationships between the studied taxa are presented in a dendrogram built on the basis of similarity indexes (Table 4). For comparison, the 39 bands were taken together and the 10 number of seed morphological characteristics from each was scored for every species. Three major clusters (A-C) with approximately 67% similarity were obtained (Figure 5). The first cluster (group A) includes V. sativa subsp. sativa and V. angustifolia; the second cluster (group B) includes V. narbonensis, and the remaining taxa under analysis comprised group C. Within group C, two subgroups (I and II) were distinguished with 73% similarity. Group I includes three species, with V. articulata as the most dissimilar taxon (74%). The other taxa of this group form a well-defined cluster: V. peregrina and V. lutea with 78% similarity. Moreover, Group II comprises two well defined clusters with 83% similarity: one includes V. hybrida, V. tetrasperma and V. villosa, and the other includes V. monantha and V. hirsuta.

Discussion

Several authors have tried to provide a natural system to divide the genus Vicia into subgenera, sections and subsections (HANELT; METTIN, 1989; KUPICHA, 1976; LEHT, 2009). These studies were largely based on morphological and cytological characters. In the present investigation a large number of seed proteins and seed morphological characteristics were used.

Current results obtained from the mixed analysis generally suggested groups and partially confirmed the subgenera and sectional classification of Vicia by Kupicha (1976), Hanelt and Mettin (1989) and Leht (2009).

Subgenus Vicia

Section Vicia

According to Ball (1968) and Boulos (1999), Vicia sativa and V. angustifolia belong to V. sativa s. l., whereby V.angustfolia (subsp. nigra (L.) Ehrh.) is treated as subspecies. However, Diklic (1972) and Soo (1996) treated V. sativa and V. angustifolia as a separate species. Our results indicated that V. sativa and V. angustifolia formed a group with about 67% similarity. Furthermore, seed morphology confirmed this division since the members of this group had spherical seeds, oblong hilum shape, irregular, slightly undulate, stellate anticlinal boundaries and papillose, irregular to ribbed periclinal cell wall. Above data agreed with the traditional results based on morphology (DIKLIC, 1972; SOO, 1996) and with recent results on phylogenetic analyses (POTOKINA et al., 1999; LEHT, 2009) which revealed that section Vicia is a well-separated section.

Section Narbonensis

Radzhi (1970), Kupicha (1976), Tzvelev (1980, 1987) and Hanelt and Mettin (1989) classified V. faba and V. narbonensis in section Faba based on morphological characteristics. However, Maxted (1993a) has shown that V. faba and V. narbonenis are sufficiently distinct to deserve treatment as two sections, Faba and Narbonensis. Potokina et al. (1999) investigated the molecular data of genomic DNA (RAPDs) and chloroplast DNA (PCR-RFLP) and indicated that Narbonensis should be considered a well-separated section which may be related to section Vicia. Moreover, Leht (2009) presented cladistic analysis of the morphological data and showed that V. faba clustered in the Narbonensis group with good support (bootstrap 87) and treated the group as section Narbonensis. Furthermore, Maxted et al. (1991) studied the chromosome morphology of the genus Vicia and counted 2n = 14 in V. narbonensis.

According to the clustering of the combination of seed proteins and seed morphology analyses, V. narbonensis (sect. Narbonensis) shows the separation from all other groups (Figure 5), distinct from the others by its elliptical seeds; leveled to sunken, slightly undulate, stellate anticlinal boundaries and papillose with striate periclinal cell wall. As a rule, these results are partially congruent with those of Maxted et al. (1991), Maxted (1993a), Potokina et al. (1999) and Leht (2009).

Sections Peregrinae and Hypechusa

Kupicha (1976) has suggested the existence of a close association between sections Peregrinae and Hypechusa, as shown by the phenetic investigation by Maxted (1994). In their taxonomic treatments, Tzvelev (1987) and Fedoronchuk (1996) retained V. peregrina in section Hypechusa, accrediting it to subsection Peregrinae. Moreover, Leht (2009) has shown the cladistic analysis of the morphological characters of the subgenus Vicia and confirmed this agreement. Maxted and Douglas (1997) investigated the phenetic analysis of section Hypechusa and split the taxa of Hypechusa into two series: Hyrcanicae and Hypechusa. In current analysis, V. peregrina (sect. Peregrinae) is linked with V. lutea (sect. Hypechusa) and V. articulata as sister species. Moreover, the seed morphology confirms this division, since the species of sections Peregrinae and Hypechusa have spherical to elliptic seeds, measuring 3-4 mm; oblong to ovate hilum shape; slightly undulate, stellate anticlinal boundaries and papillose to sharply papillose; irregular to ribbed periclinal cell wall. Furthermore, the two species of section Hypechusa (V. lutea and V. hybrida) occupy two positions (Figures 4 and 5). Therefore, the treatment of V. lutea and V. hybrida in one section is not supported. These data agree with those of Tzvelev (1987), Maxted (1994), Fedoronchuk (1996), Maxted and Douglas (1997) and Leht (2009).

Subgenus Cracca

Sections Ervoides and Ervum

The Ervoid species of sections Ervoides (V. articulata) and Ervum (V. tetrasperma) have been treated either in the separate subgenus Ervum (FEDORONCHUK, 1996; LEHT, 2009; RADZHI, 1970; TZVELEV, 1980, 1987) or in the subgenus Cracca (HANELT; METTIN, 1989; KUPICHA, 1976; MAXTED, 1993a). Phylogenetic analysis of isozyme variation in subgenus Cracca (JAASKA, 2005) did not support the treatment of Ervoid species in a separate subgenus Ervum, due to their polyphyly. Consequently, the Ervoid species were subdivided into two clades. However, Leht (2005, 2009) studied the phylogenetic analysis of the morphological characteristics of the subgenus Cracca and indicated that these sections form a separate clade comprising the subgenus Ervum; this clade is sister to the clades, consisting of species of subgenus Vicia and subgenus Cracca.

In the present study, the two species clustered into two different clusters. V. articulata form a unique cluster with species from subgenus Vicia, whereas V. tetrasperma clustered with species from subgenus Cracca and Vicia. Moreover, seed morphology confirmed this division because both V. articulata and V. tetrasperma have similar characteristics, such as irregular, slightly undulate, stellate anticlinal boundaries and papillose, irregular to ribbed periclinal cell walls. However, both species also have different characteristics, such as suborbicular seed shape, 2-4 mm size, shiny luster, and linear hilum shape in V. articulata, but spherical seed, 1.5-2 mm, matt luster and ovate hilum shape in V. tetrasperma. Therefore, treatment of V. articulata and V. tetrasperma in the subgenus Ervum is not supported. These data are congruent with those of Kupicha (1976), Hanelt and Mettin(1989) and Jaaska (2005), but disagree with those of Leht (2005, 2009).

Section Cracca

According to Kupicha (1976) and Lersten and Gunn (1982), species of Vicia villosa, V. monantha and V. hirsuta belong to section Cracca. However, Hanelt and Mettin (1989) placed V. villosa and V. monantha into section Cracca and V. hirsuta into section Lenticula. Moreover, Leht (2009) excluded V. hirsuta from subgenus Cracca, section Cracca and placed it in subgenus Ervum, section Lenticula. Further, Steele and Wojciechowski (2003) noted that V. hirsuta did not support its placement in section Cracca and formed a strongly supported group with V. articulata (section Ervoides). Additionally, Roti-Michelozzi and Serrato-Valenti (1986) studied the seed characteristics of Italian Vicia, section Ervum, and classified its species into two groups. One group was characterized by a papillose or sharply papillose cell wall pattern and the second one characterized by lophate, regulate or polygonal seed sculpturing, which included V. hirsuta, V. tetrasperma, V. pubescens and V. laxiflora. Marin et al. (1998) studied seed morphology of several species of Vicia and they concluded that almost Vicia species had a papillose cell wall pattern although V. hirsuta possessed a smooth outer cell wall. Current results showed a high degree of similarity among the taxa of section Cracca (similarity 75%) based on the analysis of seed proteins and seed characteristics. Additionally, seed morphology confirmed this division because all taxa of this section had spherical seeds, measured 3-4 mm, shiny to matt luster, irregular, slightly undulate, stellate anticlinal wall, and papillose, irregular to ribbed periclinal cell wall. Conversely, V. hirsuta had unique characteristics, such as smooth outer cell wall, lophate, ribbed to faveolariate periclinal wall. Consequently, the treatment of V. villosa, V. monantha and V. hirsuta in the section Cracca is supported. Above data are congruent with those of Kupicha (1976), Lersten and Gunn (1982), Hanelt and Mettin (1989), Marin et al. (1998) and Jaaska (2005), but disagree with those of Roti-Michelozzi and Serrato-Valenti (1986), and Leht (2005, 2009).

Conclusion

In general, Vicia species have a similar seed sculpturing pattern that may in some cases be species-specific. However, seed sculpturing pattern alone could not provide considerable information to distinguish sections of this genus. Seed morphological characteristics of species in the genus Vicia could not be used as taxonomic evidence separately but may be reliably combined with seed protein characteristics in this concern. Therefore, determining similarities between species, current results indicated some degree of similarity among the species of sections Vicia and Cracca. The section Narbonensis (V. narbonensis) was considered a separate group, while Hypechusa was the most heterogeneous section. Moreover, treatment of the Ervoid species of sections Ervoides (V. articulata) and Ervum (V. tetrasperma) in a separate subgenus Ervum was not recommended. A comprehensive study covering all Vicia species would be necessary to make a more thorough classification. The use of molecular data is strongly recommended in further studies.

Doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i4.19345

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the Director and Curator of the Wageningen Herbarium Netherlands (WAG) for providing loan of materials. We would like to thank Prof. Dr. L. J. G. Van Der Maesen, professor of Plant Taxonomy in the Biosystematics group, Plant Sciences, Wageningen University, The Netherlands; Prof. Dr. Momen Zareh, professor of Plant Taxonomy, Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Egypt; Prof. Dr. Klaus Mummenhoff, professor of Plant Taxonomy, Biology Department, Botany, Osnabruck University, Germany, for their valuable suggestions and comments on the manuscript.

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Received on December 3, 2012.

Accepted on April 4, 2013.

Kadry Nabeh Abdel Khalik (1,2) * and Iman Hussien Al-Gohary (1)

(1) Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Umm-Al-Qura University, Mecca, Saudi Arabia. (2) Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag 82524, Egypt, Africa. * Author for correspondence. E-mail: kadry3000@yahoo.com

Table 1. List of the studied species of Vicia, information on
vouchers and synopsis of the infra generic taxa, according to
Kupicha (1976), Hanelt and Mettin (1989) and Leht (2009).

N               Taxon                          Voucher

1       Vicianar bonensis L.         Israel, Negev, Omer N. of
                                        Beersheva, Angelis &
                                         Amdursky542 (WAG).

2            V. lutea L.            Turkey, Diyarbakir, between
                                     Elazig and Diyarbakir, E.
                                    Hennipman et al. 1495 (WAG).

3        V. sativa L. subsp.        Egypt, Allagi village, Abdel
               sativa                    Khalik s.n. (SHG).

4        V. angustifolia L.        Netherlands, Prov. Gelderland,
                                         Wageningen, A. de
                                         Boer-Kool 52 (WAG).

5          V. peregrina L.            Israel, Judean mountain,
                                    Jerusalem, Leinkram & Grizi
                                             661 (WAG).

6       V. articulata Hornem.          Egypt, Faiyum, in the
                                  garden of the University, Abdel
                                         Khaliks. n. (SHG).

7        V. tetrasperma (L.)       Netherlands, Prov. Gelderland,
              Schreber           on the ruins of Castle Batenburg,
                                       J. de Brujn 836 (WAG).

8       V. hirsuta (L.) Gray      Turkey, Antalya, Kiremithaneler,
                                      12 km SW of Antalya, E.
                                    Hennipman et al. 549. (WAG).

9         V. monantha Retz.        Egypt, Sohag, between fields,
                                      Abdel Khaliks. n. (SHG).

10     V. villosa Roth subsp.     France, Soler, Milas, de Wilde,
         varia (Host) Corb.             P. W. J. s. n. (WAG).

11          V. hybrida L.          Israel, Jerusalem, Mt. Scopus,
                                        N. Feinbrun, Grizi &
                                       Jacobovitch 346 (WAG).

N               Kupicha, 1976                Hanelt & Mettin, 1989

1             Subgenus Vicia L.                Subgenus Vicia L.
           Sect. Faba (Mill.) Ldb.          Sect. Faba (Mill.) Ldb.

2             Subgenus Vicia L.                Subgenus Vicia L.
        Sect. Hypechusa (Alef.) Asch.       Sect. Hypechusa (Alef.)
                  & Graebn                       Asch. & Graebn

3             Subgenus Vicia L.                Subgenus Vicia L.
               Sect. Vicia L.                    Sect. Vicia L.

4             Subgenus Vicia L.                Subgenus Vicia L.
               Sect. Vicia L.                    Sect. Vicia L.

5             Subgenus Vicia L.                Subgenus Vicia L.
          Sect. Peregrinae Kupicha          Sect. Peregrinae Kupicha

6          Subgenus Cracca Peterm.          Subgenus Cracca Peterm.
       Sect. Ervoides (Godr.) Kupicha        Sect. Ervoide s(Godr.)
                                                    Kupicha

7          Subgenus Cracca Peterm.           Subgenus CraccaPeterm.
            Sect. Ervum(L.) Taub.            Sect. Ervum(L.) Taub.

8          Subgenus CraccaPeterm.           Subgenus Cracca Peterm.
             Sect. CraccaDumort.         Sect. Lenticula (Endl.) Asch.
                                                    & Graebn

9          Subgenus Cracca Peterm.          Subgenus Cracca Peterm.
            Sect. Cracca Dumort.              Sect. Cracca Dumort.

10         Subgenus Cracca Peterm.          Subgenus Cracca Peterm.
            Sect. Cracca Dumort.              Sect. Cracca Dumort.

11            Subgenus Vicia L.                Subgenus Vicia L.
        Sect. Hypechusa (Alef.) Asch.       Sect. Hypechusa (Alef.)
                  & Graebn.                      Asch. & Graebn

N                Leht, 2009

1          Subgenus Vicia L. Sect.
         Narbonensis (Radzhi) Maxted

2             Subgenus Vicia L.
           Sect. Hypechusa (Alef.)
               Asch. & Graebn.

3             Subgenus Vicia L.
               Sect. Vicia L.

4             Subgenus Vicia L.
               Sect. Vicia L.

5             Subgenus Vicia L.
          Sect. Peregrinae Kupicha

6                     -

7              Subgenus Ervum
           Sect. Ervum (L.) Taub.

8              Subgenus Ervum
        Sect. Lenticula(Endl.) Asch.
                  & Graebn

9                     -

10         Subgenus Cracca Peterm.
            Sect. Cracca Dumort.

11            Subgenus Vicia L.
           Sect. Hypechusa (Alef.)
               Asch. & Graebn.

Table 2. Seed morphological characteristics of the analyzed
species of the genus Vicia.

N              Taxon           Seed shape    Seed size
                                                (mm)

1      Vicia narbonensis L.     Ellipsoid       4-6

2           V. lutea L.         Spherical       3-4

3       V. sativa L. subsp.     Spherical      4.5-6
              sativa

4       V. angustifolia L.      Spherical      2.5-4

5         V. peregrina L.       Spherical       3-4

6          V. articulata          Sub-          2-4
              Hornem.           orbicular

7       V. tetrasperma (L.)     Spherical      1.5-2
             Schreber

8         V. hirsuta (L.)       Spherical       3-4
               Gray

9        V. monantha Retz.      Spherical       3-4

10        V. villosa Roth       Spherical       3-4

11         V. hybrida L.        Ellipsoid      3-4.5

N      Seed color    Luster     Hilum
                                shape

1      Dark brown     Matt     Oblong

2         Brown       Shiny    Oblong

3       Black to      Matt     Oblong
          brown

4         Black       Matt     Oblong

5      Dark brown     Matt      Ovate

6       Black to      Shiny    Linear
          brown

7       Red-brown     Matt      Ovate

8       Yellowish     Shiny    Linear

9      Dark brown     Shiny    Oblong

10     Dark brown     Matt     Oblong

11      Red-brown     Shiny     Ovate

       Anticlinal walls of epidermal cells

N                                    Secondary
          Level       Undulation     sculpture

1       Level to       Slightly       Stellate
         sunken        undulate

2       Irregular      Slightly       Stellate
                       undulate
3       Irregular      Slightly       Stellate
                       undulate

4       Irregular      Slightly       Stellate
                       undulate

5      Leveled to      Slightly       Stellate
         sunken        undulate

6       Irregular      Slightly       Stellate
                       undulate

7       Irregular      Slightly       Stellate
                       undulate

8       Irregular       Sinuate       Rod-like

9       Irregular      Slightly       Stellate
                       undulate

10      Irregular      Slightly       Stellate
                       undulate

11      Irregular       Sinuate       Stellate

       Periclinal walls of
       epidermal cells

                       Secondary
N         Level        sculpture

1       Papillose       Striate

2       Papillose    Irregular to
                        ribbed
3       Papillose    Irregular to
                        ribbed

4       Papillose    Irregular to
                        ribbed

5        Sharply     Irregular to
        papillose       ribbed

6       Papillose    Irregular to
                        ribbed

7       Papillose    Irregular to
                        ribbed

8        Lophate       Ribbed to
                     faveolariate

9        Sharply     Irregular to
        Papillose       ribbed

10      Papillose    Irregular to
                        ribbed

11      Papillose    Irregular to
                        ribbed

Table 3. Comparative analysis of molecular weight (Mol.wt), relative
front (RF) of SDS-PAGE protein profile of the genus Vicia.

                               species

Band    Relative    Mol.wt.
No        front       Kda       1      2      3      4

1         0.145      529.85     1      0      0      0
2         0.151      500.74     0      0      0      0
3         0.188      398.47     0      0      0      1
4         0.208      311.60     0      0      0      0
5         0.225      283.50     1      0      0      0
6         0.231      268.52     0      0      0      0
7         0.245      257.10     0      0      0      1
8         0.253      236.28     0      0      0      0
9         0.281      228.53     0      0      0      1
10        0.300      202.66     0      0      0      1
11        0.302      167.35     1      0      0      0
12        0.310      154.78     1      0      0      0
13        0.313      141.33     0      0      0      0
14        0.364      110.18     1      0      0      1
15        0.275      100.50     0      1      0      0
16        0.283      95.51      1      0      1      0
17        0.323      87.45      0      1      0      1
18        0.346      82.80      1      0      0      0
19        0.342      75.02      0      0      0      0
20        0.408      67.31      1      0      1      0
21        0.414      65.24      0      0      0      0
22        0.424      63.76      0      1      1      1
23        0.465      58.43      1      0      0      0
24        0.493      55.16      0      0      1      1
25        0.508      51.12      0      1      0      1
26        0.556      44.69      1      0      0      1
27        0.596      38.66      0      0      0      0
28        0.633      33.14      1      0      1      1
29        0.720      28.63      1      1      0      1
30        0.756      25.52      0      0      0      0
31        0.785      23.73      1      1      0      0
32        0.841      19.28      0      0      0      0
33       .0.852      17.66      1      0      0      0
34        0.879      16.98      0      0      0      0
35        0.900      15.79      1      1      1      0
36        0.933      14.18      1      0      0      1
37        0.937      13.75      0      0      0      0
38        0.971      12.30      1      0      0      0
39        0.979      12.45      0      0      0      1

Total                           17     7      6      14

                               species

Band
No       5      6      7      8      9      10     11

1        0      0      0      0      0      0      0
2        0      1      0      0      0      0      0
3        0      0      0      0      0      0      0
4        0      1      0      0      0      0      0
5        0      0      0      0      0      0      0
6        1      0      0      0      0      0      0
7        0      0      0      0      0      0      0
8        0      1      0      0      0      0      0
9        0      0      0      0      0      0      0
10       0      0      0      0      0      0      0
11       0      0      0      0      0      0      0
12       0      0      0      0      0      0      0
13       0      1      0      0      0      0      0
14       0      0      0      0      0      0      0
15       0      0      1      1      0      1      1
16       0      0      0      0      0      0      0
17       1      1      0      0      1      0      0
18       0      0      1      1      0      1      1
19       0      0      1      0      0      1      1
20       0      0      0      0      1      1      1
21       1      1      1      0      0      0      1
22       0      0      0      1      0      0      1
23       1      0      1      1      1      1      1
24       0      1      0      0      1      1      1
25       1      0      0      0      0      0      1
26       0      1      1      1      1      1      1
27       0      0      1      0      1      0      1
28       1      0      0      1      1      1      0
29       1      1      1      1      1      1      1
30       0      0      1      0      0      1      1
31       1      1      1      1      1      1      1
32       0      0      1      1      1      1      1
33       1      1      0      0      0      0      0
34       0      0      1      0      0      0      1
35       1      1      1      1      1      1      0
36       0      0      0      0      0      1      1
37       0      1      1      1      1      0      0
38       1      1      0      0      0      0      0
39       0      0      0      0      0      0      0

Total    11     14     14     11     12     14     17

Table 4. Similarity matrix between all pairs of studied taxa based on
the combination of seed proteins and seed morphology by SEM.

Sp.       1         2         3         4         5         6

1        100
2        25        100
3       34.78     30.76      100
4       32.25     38.09      30        100
5        50       55.55     23.52      32        100
6       38.7      38.09      20       28.57      56        100
7       38.7      38.09      10       14.28      40       42.85
8        50       55.55     35.29      32       45.45      40
9       48.27     42.1      44.44     38.46     52.17     53.84
10      58.06     38.09      40       35.71      40       35.71
11      41.17     41.66     26.08     38.7      35.71     32.25

Sp.       7         8         9        10        11

1
2
3
4
5
6
7        100
8        72        100
9       61.53     69.56      100
10      71.42      72       69.23      100
11      77.41     57.14     55.17     77.41      100
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Author:Khalik, Kadry Nabeh Abdel; Gohary, Iman Hussien Al-
Publication:Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences (UEM)
Date:Oct 1, 2013
Words:5603
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