Tadeusz estreicher and the jagiellonian globe.
Edward A. Petherick was the Australian Commonwealth Parliamentary Archivist and a historian, collector of Australiana and bibliographer, whose name is commemorated in the Petherick Reading Room of the National
Library of Australia. His papers are held in the Manuscripts Collection of the National Library of Australia (2), and among them there is an English translation specially prepared for Petherick in 1900 of what is still considered to be the basic study of the earliest surviving globe on which the name America appears: the globe dating from around 1510 held by the Museum (former Library) of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland. (3)
The Jagiellonian Globe measures 73.5 mm in diameter and forms the central part of an armillary sphere and clock of which it contains the mechanism (For further detail see Appendix A). The globe at the centre of the clock, containing the mechanism, consists of two gilded copperplate calottes, inscribed with the Earth's principal features as understood at that time, including a continent inscribed AMERICA*NOVITER*REPERTA (Fig. 2.). It was described in 1900 by Tadeusz Estreicher (1871-1952), a professor of chemistry at the University (Fig. 1.). Estreicher dated the globe to between 1509 and 1511. (4)
Estreicher's work attracted world-wide interest, and was referred to in 1911 by Petherick, who drew attention to the globe's relevance to consideration of the Dieppe maps and the European discovery of Australia. (5) The Dieppe Maps are a set of maps of the world prepared in Dieppe and other Norman towns in the mid-sixteenth century, which from time to time have been seen by some to indicate a French or Portuguese discovery of Australia at that early date. In an interview published in The Sydney Morning Herald, Petherick said:
Professor Estreicher published, as the result of his examination [of the globe], a long paper arguing the discovery of Australia. Upon hearing of this, I placed myself in communication with him, and we agreed that the evidence we had found tended towards the solution of, if it does not fully solve, an enigma of four centuries--perhaps the greatest enigma of modem geographical discovery. (6)
In the course of this communication, Estreicher sent Petherick an English translation of his paper. Although the Polish and German versions of Estreicher's study of the Jagiellonian Globe, published in 1900, are accessible, the English version has never been published. It is desirable that it should be readily available for English speakers and therefore the decision has been taken to publish it here (see following article).
Estreicher had some years earlier assisted the French physicist, Charles Edward Guillaume, to prepare a paper on the Jagiellonian Clock by sending him material on it. (7) Estreicher's father was the University Librarian, and therefore keeper of the clock. The Krakow Academy, which subsequently became the Jagiellonian University, was founded by Papal decree in 1364, making it one of the oldest seats of learning in Europe. Nicholaus Copernicus attended the Academy between 1491 and 1495. The renowned astronomer and mathematician, Jan Brozek (1585-1652), worked there from 1604. He was a committed propagator of the Copernican heliocentric theory, and collected many of the important astronomical artefacts now on view in the Museum, including the Jagiellonian Clock (8) (Fig. 3.).
Estreicher's brother, Stanislaw, was a historian of law and his sister, Maria, was one of the first women in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, of which Krakow and southwestern Poland were then part, to earn a doctorate (in English Philology). Tadeusz studied in Berlin, Leipzig, and at the Chemical Institute in London under Sir William Ramsay, who won the Nobel Prize for work on inert gases. As a student at the Jagiellonian University, Estreicher worked as an assistant to Karol Olszewski, the first chemist to liquefy oxygen. After having been appointed assistant in 1899, Estreicher successfully liquefied hydrogen in 1901 before he was promoted to Privatdozent (assistant professor) in 1904.
From 1906 until 1919 he worked in Switzerland as professor of mineral and general chemistry at the University of Fribourg, where he ran a cryogenics laboratory. In 1919 he took the position of professor of chemistry at the Jagiellonian University. On 6 November 1939, along with his brother Stanislaw and other staff of the University, he was caught in the Sonderaktion Krakau, part of the Nazi effort to eliminate Polish intellectuals. Both brothers were transported to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp, where Stanislaw died. Tadeusz survived the camp and was released in February 1940, following protests from colleagues in Germany, Italy and other European countries to the German government, but not before he had been brought back a prisoner to Krakow in an unsuccessful attempt by the Germans to force him to show them where the Jagiellonian clock/globe had been hidden. He subsequently worked with the Polish resistance movement. He remained at the Jagiellonian University until his retirement. His later work examined the history and language of science. (9)
ESTREICHER AND THE JAGIELLONIAN GLOBE
The 1911 article in The Sydney Morning Herald had Petherick saying that Estreicher had stated that the globe proved that Amerigo Vespucci had discovered Australia, but what Estreicher actually wrote was:
This land can only be America and we must assume that the island represents South America but certainly in the wrong place. This assumption becomes certainty when we find on the Jagellon globe that the island bears the inscription "America Noviter Reperta".
Estreicher drew attention to a globe of similar date held by the New York Public Library, known as the Lenox Globe. This globe is 41/2 inches, or 127mm in diameter and made of copperplate, manufactured probably in France, to form the central feature of an astronomical or armillary sphere clock like the Jagiellonian Clock. South America is shown on both globes, bearing the names MUNDUS NOVUS, TERRA SANCTAE CRUCIS and TERRA DE BRAZIL. The eminent historian of geography, Sophus Ruge, had discussed the Lenox Globe in 1892 in an essay on the cartography of the discovery of America. On the basis of the features depicted on it he assigned it to the period 1510-1512. (10) The Lenox Globe had also been discussed in an article by Benjamin Franklin De Costa in the Magazine of American History. He noted a large, unnamed land mass depicted in the southern part of the globe's eastern hemisphere and suggested, "with extreme diffidence", that this land represented Australia, misplaced to this location. If so, he said, "it would be necessary to conclude that, although misplaced upon the Lenox Globe, Australia was known to the geographers of that early period". (11) This feature is similar to the land mass appearing on the Jagiellonian Globe, lying more or less between 110[degrees] and 160[degrees] East, and 25[degrees] and 60[degrees] South, bearing the inscription AMERICA*NOVITER*REPERTA. (Fig. 4.) Estreicher pointed out that the western coasts of both this continent and the MUNDUS NOVUS in the western hemisphere were schematic and without detail, in contrast to the eastern coasts which show bays, rivers and promontories, indicating that they were the result of actual discovery by voyagers. He concluded that the maker of the globe had put America in twice, in opposite hemispheres.
The name America was invented by Martin Waldseemuller. He gave it to the land newly discovered by Amerigo Vespucci on his voyage of 1501-1502, as he explained in the Cosmographiae Introductio published in 1507 with his world map. He said:
Hitherto [the whole earth] has been divided into three parts, Europe, Africa, and Asia ... Now, these parts of the earth have been more extensively explored and a fourth part has been discovered by Amerigo Vespucci ... Thus the earth is now known to be divided into four parts. The first three parts are continents, while the fourth is an island, inasmuch as it is found to be surrounded on all sides by the seas. (12)
The name America was inscribed on Waldseemuller's world map, Universalis Cosmographia. (13) The inscription on the top left corner of the map proclaims that the discovery of America by Columbus and Vespucci tulfilled a prophecy the Roman poet, Virgil, made in the Aeneid, (14) of a land to be found in the southern hemisphere, to the south of the Tropic of Capricorn:
Many have thought to be an invention what the famous Poet said, that "a land lies beyond the stars, beyond the paths of the year and the sun, where Atlas the heaven-bearer turns on his shoulder the axis of the world set with blazing stars"; but now, at last, it proves clearly to have been true. It is, in fact, the land discovered by the King of Castile's captain, Columbus, and by Americo Vesputius, men of great and excellent talent, of which the greater part lies under the path of the year and sun, and between the tropics but extending nonetheless to about nineteen degrees beyond Capricorn toward the Antarctic pole beyond the paths of the year and the sun. Wherein, indeed, a greater amount of gold is to be found than of any other metal.
The "paths" referred to are the Equator, the Tropics, and the Ecliptic marking the Sun's yearly movement along the signs of the Zodiac, to go beyond which meant crossing the southernmost extent of the Ecliptic, the Tropic of Capricorn. Nineteen degrees beyond Capricorn is latitude forty-two degrees south, the southernmost extent of America shown on Waldseemuller's map. (15)
Besides the Universalis Cosmographia, Waldseemuller published a set of gores for constructing globes. The gores, also containing the inscription America, are believed to have been printed in the same year as the wall map, since Waldseemuller mentions them in the introduction to the Cosmographice Introductio. (16) His America referred to what later became known as South America, as the continental extent of the lands known as Parias then and later known as North America was not understood in 1507. South and North America were first differentiated from each other by Gerard Mercator in his world map of 1538.
Estreicher proposed Louis Boulengier of Albi as having been the cartographer responsible for the Jagiellonian Globe, on the basis of similarity between it and what are called the Tross Gores, of which Boulengier is known to have been the author. The Tross Gores also bear the inscription AMERICA NOVITER REPERTA, but in this case placed over South America (Waldseemuller's America), and there is no continental land mass in the southern part of the Eastern Hemisphere. (17) In fact, Waldseemuller was probably the originator of the phrase america noviter reperta, as he was apparently the author of the earliest work in which the phrase was used, the Globus Mundi of 1509, which said:
this land ... by some of the learned is compared to the human body ... the western feet is the newly discovered America, the fourth part of the Earth (america noviter reperta, quarta orbispars). (18)
Sophus Ruge had referred to the Boulengier gores in his 1892 essay on the cartography of the discovery of America. He noted that the gores bore Waldseemuller's phrase, america noviter reperta, and therefore dated them to the period 1514-1518. (19)
In a letter to Petherick of 15 September 1902, Estreicher commented on Petherick's suggestion that the western coast of Australia had been discovered in 1499 by Amerigo Vespucci and Diego de Lepe, and that this was what was drawn on the Jagiellonian Globe:
There is only one point which seems doubtful to me: this is the fact, that AMERICA*NOVITER*REPERTA is a continent, which has been discovered from the East, as I try to shew in my paper, pp.101/102. Its South-east coast is very carefully delineated, with long mountain ranges, numerous bays and capes, ten rivers &c., whereas the north and west coasts are quite bare and seem to be taken completely from the fancy of the globemaker. If it were really Australia, as discovered and described by the expedition of De Lepe and companions, the west coast as well as the north coast would be drawn accurately, as these coasts would have been known to the cartographer. (20)
This comment seems to have given pause to Petherick, as it contradicted his preconception of the significance of the Jagiellonian Globe, and he never completed the great work on the cartographic history of European voyages of discovery and exploration he was then engaged upon. Estreicher's study of the Jagiellonian Globe shows how it could cast light on the unfamiliar cosmographical concepts of the early sixteenth century and the cartography derived from them. His study by no means exhausted the information to be drawn from the globe and further study of it aided by data and techniques unavailable to him can be expected to continue to contribute to our understanding of the history of cartography.
APPENDIX A: THE JAGIELLONIAN CLOCK
For the sake of completeness, it may not be out of place to describe briefly the Jagiellonian Clock, of which the Globe forms the central part. The clock movement represents the Sun rotating around the Earth at the same time it moves along the Ecliptic, indicating hours, days, months and the position of the Sun in the heavens. It is, in effect, a mechanical astrolabe, and used to tell time in the way an astrolabe does. The usual way of telling the time at that period was essentially unchanged from classical times as described by Virgil and Ovid, that is, by reference to phenomena of the heavenly bodies--the position of the Sun in the Zodiac, its altitude at this or that part of the day; and the date by reference to both the month and the sign of the Zodiac. (1) The outer part of the initial meridian, that of the place to which the clock has been set, is mounted on a stand and the inner is free for adjustment to the inclination of the Earth. Fixed to it is a light cage giving the hours I to XII twice over on hourly meridians. Within is another frame of meridians with the Ecliptic which, actuated by clockwork within the globe, makes one turn in twenty-four hours. A figure of the Sun travels with the Ecliptic and denotes the time. The Sun is carried by a curved wire emanating from a wheel near the South Pole and, as it passes a fixed pin in the axis of the globe, it is, by the intervention of a pinion, put back each day on the ecliptic one 365th part of the circle. So that not only is mean solar time shown (days consisting of equal 24-hours days throughout the year), but the sidereal day, the day consisting of the period of a complete rotation of the Earth, equal to 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4.09 seconds. Also indicated is the height of the Sun at all times and in all places and, as the months and signs of the Zodiac are named around the Ecliptic, it also functions as a calendar2 (Figs. 5. & 6.).
APPENDIX B: WALDSEEMULLER'S LONGITUDES AND THE LOCATION OF AMERICA
Tadeusz Estreicher prepared his study of the Jagiellonian Globe before the only surviving copy of Waldseemuller's 1507 world map, which had rested in oblivion in the library at Wolfegg Castle in Baden-Wurttemberg, was discovered in 1901 by Joseph Fischer, SJ. (23) The publication by Fischer and Franz von Wieser in 1903 of Die Weltkarten Waldseemullers (Ilacomilus): 1507 & 1516, began the study of Waldseemuller's map that has continued ever since, and has also enabled better understanding of the Jagiellonian Globe. As an instance, the cartographic historian, Edward Stevenson, discussing Estreicher's work in 1921, commented that he seemed not to have noticed that the inscription AMERICA NOVITER REPERTA possibly indicated not only an acquaintance on the part of the Jagiellonian cartographer with Waldseemuller's suggestion as to the name America, but a belief that America was actually located in this particular region. In his chapter on climates in Cosmographiae Introductio, Waldseemuller says:
In the sixth climate toward the Antarctic there are situated the farthest part of Africa, recently discovered, the islands Zanzibar, the lesser Java, and Seula [Ceylon], and the fourth part of the Earth, which, because Amerigo discovered it, we may call Amerige, the land of Amerigo, so to speak, or America. (24)
To understand the location, or mis-location, or bi-location of America on the Jagiellonian Globe, it is important to consider a feature of the Waldseemuller map that became apparent after its publication in 1903, that is, the two distinct scales of longitude used in drawing the eastern and western hemispheres of the world. This feature is shared by the Jagiellonian Globe.
In preparing his world map, of which the full title is Universal Cosmography according to the Tradition of Ptolemy and the Voyages of Americo Vespucci and others, Waldseemuller had to consider how to incorporate the New World discoveries of Columbus and Vespucci into the Ptolemaic cosmography. Claudius Ptolemy had assigned one hundred and eighty degrees, half the circumference of the Earth, to the Eurasian land mass extending eastward from the Fortunate (Canary) Islands to the fabled city of Cattigara on the eastern shore of the Great Gulf, Magnus Sinus (the Gulf of Thailand). Of the other one hundred and eighty degrees, a portion had been filled in by Marco Polo with his reports of Java and Japan, the rest remained unknown, particularly the distance westward from Europe to Asia. The 1486 world map of Henricus Martellus and the 1492 globe of Martin Behaim represented the latest conception of the world prior to the discoveries of Columbus, combining Ptolemy with Marco Polo and placing extreme eastern Asia at 240 degrees eastern longitude counting from the Canaries and locating eastern Cipango (Japan) at 270 degrees east longitude.
With regard to his first voyage of 1492, Columbus had come to the conclusion, as a result of his voyages on the coast of Africa, that he had verified Ptolemy's length of a terrestrial degree and found it equal to 56% Italian nautical miles. He based his conclusion on the ninth century Baghdadi commentator on Ptolemy, Alfraganus (Al-Farghani), who had corrected Ptolemy's length of a terrestrial degree; Alfraganus was cited in the Ymago Mundi of Pierre D'Ailly (printed in Louvain in 1483), which was consulted by Columbus. He applied this value to the circumference of the earth, thereby coming up with an estimated equatorial circumference equivalent to 30,191 kilometres (as opposed to the actual 40,076 kilometres). (25) As a result he believed that the peninsula of Cattigara on Ptolemy's 180th meridian really lay on the 225th meridian: the extreme east of Asia was therefore about 1100 leagues west of the Canaries, and Zipango (Japan) about 700 leagues west of those islands. This placed Marco Polo's Zipango nearly 45 degrees closer to Europe than it had been placed by Behaim and Martellus. Informed by a verse of the Fourth Book of Esdras (VI.42) as cited in chapter viii of D'Ailly's Ymago Mundi ("Esdras in his fourth book says that six parts of the earth are inhabited and the seventh is covered by the waters"), (26) Columbus not only believed that the world was much smaller than was commonly thought, but that seven parts of it was land and only one part water. He wrote to the Spanish Monarchs from Jamaica on 7 July 1503: "the world is small, six parts of it dry land, the seventh only covered in water". (27)
On his first voyage, Columbus failed to find Zipango at the estimated distance but when he found Cuba some 1100 leagues from the Canaries he tentatively accepted it as the mainland of Asia and sought Zipango to the East; in this way he identified Hispaniola as Zipango. (28) This concept was expressed in the 1507 world map of Johannes Ruysch, who accepted that Sipango and Hispaniola were one and the same, as he explained in the legend he inscribed on his map:
M. Polo says that 1500 miles to the east of the port of ZAITON [Quanzhou] there is a very large island called SIPANGO [Japan]... But as the islands discovered by Spanish ships occupy this place, we do not dare to put this island here, believing what the Spaniards call SPAGNOLA [Hispaniola/Haiti] to be SIPANGO. (29)
Columbus' subsequent three voyages developed the coastline of North and South America as part of the Asian world. At first America was regarded as El Nuevo Mundo and identical with Marco Polo's greatest island of the world lying southeast of Mangi and Ciamba; Cuba was Mangi (South China) and Veragua (Central America) was Ciamba (Champa). During his fourth voyage of 1502-1504, Columbus claimed to have reached the kingdom of Champa, described by Marco Polo. The Pacific Ocean, of which he heard on this voyage, was considered to be the Sinus Magnus. This theory required a passage-way between North and South America in the region of Panama. When his fourth voyage failed to reveal such a passage-way, apparently Columbus modified his ideas and made America itself the great peninsula of Asia represented by Behaim and Martellus, that is, the peninsula of Cattigara, as lying east of the Sinus Magnus. Champa, which he identified with Veragua, was on the eastern side of this peninsula and a land he had been told of, called Ciguare, he identified with Cattigara on its western side. As he explained in his letter to the Spanish Monarchs from Jamaica of 7 July 1503, Ciguare "had the same bearings with respect to Veragua, as Tortosa [on the Mediterranean coast] has to Fontarabia [on the Bay of Biscay], or Pisa to Venice", that is, they were on opposite sides of a peninsula. (30) The explorations of succeeding Spanish navigators seemed to confirm this theory, and it found expression in the three maps made by Bartholomew Columbus (Christopher's brother) and Alessandro Zorzi in 1504. A note on one of the Columbus-Zorzi maps shows that Christopher Columbus grossly overestimated the distance eastward between Portugal and Cattigara as 225[degrees] instead of Ptolemy's estimate of 180[degrees], permitting him to believe the distance westward was only 135[degrees] and therefore that the land he found was the East Indies. This note or legend reads:
According to Marinus of Tyre and Columbus, from Cape St. Vincent to Cattigara is 225 degrees, which is 15 hours; according to Ptolemy as far as Cattigara 180 degrees, which is 12 hours. (31)
On their three maps, Bartholomew Columbus and Zorzi represented Africa and eastward from the first meridian according to the Ptolemy longitudes up to the 180th meridian. The rest of the circumference of the world from the Canaries westward they marked off into thirteen spaces but did not number longitudes. Their map legend, to the effect that Ptolemy counted 180 degrees 12 hours to Cattigara, while Columbus and Marinus of Tyre counted 225 degrees or 15 hours, meant that the differences shown on the various maps by different cartographers depended on the estimated size of the earth, which at that time that was an unresolved, and insoluble, question. (32) Acceptance of the Columbus claims to have reached the Indies (eastern Asia) involved a rejection of Ptolemy's degree value and longitudes, which many cartographers were not prepared to do. As a result there was a conflict between the Columban and the Ptolemaic schools of geography. It was impossible satisfactorily to indicate that Columbus had reached eastern Asia if the cartographer retained the Ptolemaic longitudes and attempted to represent the entire 360 degrees of the earth's circumference. (33) This dilemma is seen on Ruych's map, where the right side of it is occupied by the 180 degrees of the Ptolemaic world, while the left extends over another 180 degrees and includes the discoveries of Marco Polo and Columbus, not yet brought into relation with each other. (34)
In the absence of any method of certainly determining the longitudes of eastern Asia and America, Martin Waldseemuller devised a scheme of representing the known world so that both the Ptolemaic and the Columban ideas could be represented. His map was a reconciliation of the Columban longitudes with the Marco Polo-Ptolemy longitudes as shown on the Behaim globe. He did not care to favour one more than the other. Therefore when he drew his map he devised a scheme whereby he indicated on the right hand side the Ptolemy/Marco Polo/Martellus/ Behaim conception included within 270 degrees of longitude. The peninsula of Cattigara is located where Ptolemy placed it, on the eastern shore of the Great Gulf at 180 degrees East. From the meridian of the Canary Islands to the east, Waldseemuller represented within 270 degrees of longitude the Ptolemy/Marco Polo/Behaim world including the island of Zipango. The Waldseemuller map thus represents on its right hand side the Behaim conception of the earth as far as longitude 270[degrees] East and terminates in the east with an open sea. (35) The ocean east of Asia is named the Occeanus Orientalis Indicus (the Eastern Indian Ocean).
On the left hand side of Waldseemuller's map are the remaining 90 degrees necessary to make up the 360. Here he indicated the Columban conception, duplicating the same eastern Asia, once as the west coast of the Occeanus Occidentalis (the Western Ocean), and again as the west coast of the Occeanus Orientalis Indicus (Eastern Indian Ocean). Beyond the Occeanus Occidentalis the Spanish discoveries are shown as two long narrow islands, FARIAS and AMERICA, corresponding to North and South America but separated by a strait in the region of the present Panama (on the miniature map inset into the upper-mid section of Waldseemuller's map the isthmus joining the two is unbroken, again demonstrating his willingness to represent alternative solutions to a question yet unanswered). The west side of both large islands is marked with the legends terra ultra incognita ("land beyond unknown") in the south and in the north terra ulterius incognita ("land further beyond unknown"). There is a conjectural sea to the west of the islands.
On the gores of Waldseemuller's globe of 1507, the sea to the west of the notional American west coast is named the Occeanus Occidentalis, that is, the Western or Atlantic Ocean, and where it merges with the Occeanus Orientalis (the Eastern, or Indian Ocean) is concealed by a latitude staff. The island of Zipangri (Japan) and the island of Hispaniola, which Columbus considered identical, differ by only 45 degrees on their west coasts: this is substantially the difference between the Columban and the Behaim longitudes. (36) On the left hand side in the remaining 90 degrees he thus represented the Columban concept. The land on both the right and the left sides of his map represented the Indies (eastern Asia). (37) The two alternative conceptions were shown on the same map.
The Waldseemuller world map and its derivatives duplicate both eastern Asia and Cipangu, as America and Hispaniola. Waldseemuller in effect devised a map scheme where he could let his reader take his choice between the Columban and the Ptolemy-Behaim concept: the choice was left open. As the cartographic historian George Nunn said in 1927, "This was a very plausible way of presenting a problem at the time insoluble" (38)
Likewise, on the Jagiellonian Globe, the different scales of longitude running eastward and westward result in a very obvious bilocation of America in the eastern and western hemispheres: in the western hemisphere it lies according to the Columban longitudes, on an Earth equivalent to 30,191 kilometres in circumference, to the west of Africa, where it is called MUNDUS NOVUS, TERRA SANCTAE CRUCIS and TERRA DEBRAZIL; and in the eastern hemisphere it lies according to the Ptolemy-Behaim longitudes, on an Earth of equivalent to 33,296 kilometres in circumference, to the east of Africa as AMERICA NOVITER REPERTA. As on the Waldseemuller map, ZIPANGRI and SPAN[iola] are separated by forty-five degrees of longitude. The island of Zipangri (Japan) and the island of Hispaniola, were considered by Columbus to have been identical, so by representing them by a difference of forty-five degrees, substantially the difference between the Columban and the Behaim longitudes, Waldseemuller and the Jagiellonian Globe were showing their acceptance of the Columban claim that they were one and the same--a bilocation, just as in the case of America.
(1) A previous paper, "The Jagiellonian Globe, a Key to the Puzzle of Jave la Grande ", was presented at Te Taki o Autaki--Under the Southern Cross, Wellington, 10-13 Feb. 2008, and published in The Globe, 2009, 62:1-50. As with that paper, so with this one I acknowledge with gratitude the assistance of Professor Stanislaw Waltos (Director) and Karolina Zawada, of the Muzeum Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego Collegium Maius, Krakow, in providing the accompanying photographic images of the Jagiellonian Globe. 1 also thank the National Library of Australia for the use of the facilities of the Petherick Reading Room in preparing this article, and particularly Dr Martin Woods and his colleagues at the Map Room of the NLA.
(2) National Library of Australia, MS 760.
(3) Muzeum Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego Collegium Maius, Krakow.
(4) Tadeusz Estreicher, Globus Biblioteki Jagiellohskiej z poczqtku wieku XVI, w Krakowie, Nakladem Akademii Umiejetnosci, 1900; also in RozprawyAkademii Umiejetnosci: WydzialFilologiczny, 1901, 32:1-18; a resume, "Ein Erdglobus aus dem Anfange des XVI. Jahrhunderts in der Jagellonischen Bibliothek", was published in the Bulletin international de l 'Academie des Sciences de Cracovie/Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Krakau, February 1900, 2:96-105. Estreicher prepared a manuscript English translation in March 1900: A globe of the beginning of the 16th century in the Jagellon Library, Extract from the Official Report of the Cracow Academy of Sciences, Globus Biblioteki Jagiellonskiej zpoczqtku w. XVI, No. 12, January 1900, National Library of Australia MS 760/12/199.
(5) The Dieppe Maps are discussed in Mapping our World: Terra Incognita
to Australia, Canberra, National Library of Australia, 2013.
(6) "Australia's Discoverer. Was it Amerigo Vespucci?", Sydney Morning Herald, 19 Jan. 1911, p.8.
(7) Charles Edward Guillaume, "Vieilles Horloges", La Nature: Revue des sciences et de leurs applications aux arts et a l'industrie (Paris), 1892, 2(996) :75-76.
(8) Alison Abbott, "Hidden treasures: The Jagiellonian Museum, Krakow", Nature, Dec. 2008, 456(4):577.
(9) Julian Kamecki, Prof, dr Tadeusz Estreicher (1871-1952): Uczony i czlowiek", Roczniki chemii: Annales Societatis Chimicae Polonorum, 1952, 26(4):505-519.
(10) Sophus Ruge, Die Entwicklung der Kartographie von Amerika bis 1570, Gotha, Justus Perthes, 1892, pp.39, 42.
(11) B.F. De Costa, "The Lenox Globe", Magazine of American History, 1879, 3(9):529-40.
(12) Martin Waldseemuller, Cosmographiae Introductio, 1507, Chapter IX, "Of Certain Elements of Cosmography". Frederick J. Pohl, Amerigo Vespucci: Pilot Major, New York, Columbia U.P., 1944, p. 148; Toby Lester, The Fourth Part of the World, New York, Free Press, 2009, pp.3, 303 & 318.
(13) Five examples of the gores for Waldseemuller's globe survive: Dalya Alberge, "First map to show glimpse of a country to the West", The Times, 14 April 2005. The copy held by the James Ford Bell Library at the University of Minnesota is on-line at www.lib.umn.edu/bell The copy held at the Ludwigs-Maximilians-Universitat Munchen is on-line at epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de The only surviving copy of Waldseemuller's 1507 map is now held by the Library of Congress, Washington DC, and a high-resolution image of it can be found at www.loc.gov/rr/geogmap/exh.html
(14) iacet extra sidera tellus, extra anni solisque vias, ubi caelifer Atlas axem humero torquet stellis ardentibus aptum (A land lies beyond the stars, beyond the paths of the year and the sun where Atlas the heaven-bearer turns on his shoulder the axis of the world set with blazing stars), Aeneid VI:795-97.
(15) Valerie I. J. Flint, The Imaginative Landscape of Christopher Columbus, Princeton, 1992, 84 n. 8; Lester, The Fourth Part of the World, p.369.
(16) Rodney W. Shirley, The Mapping of the World, London, New Holland, 1993, p.29.
(17) The Gores were reproduced in A.E. Nordenskiold, Atlas till kartografiens aldsta historia, Stockholm, 1889, Plate XXXVIIa.
(18) terra ... quem a quibusdam doctoribus comparatur corpori humano, quoniam in ea omnia reperiuntur, que sunt in corpore nostro ... Pedes occidens et ipsa america noviter reperta, quarta orbispars. GlobusMundi: Declaratio sive descriptio mundi et totius orbis terrarum, Strassburg, J. Gruninger, 1509. Globus Mundi has been digitalized at: http ://digital. staatsbibliothek-berlin.de/dms/werkansicht/?PPN=PPN635338440&PHYS1D=PHYS_0017
(19) Ruge, Die Entwicklung der Kartographie von Amerika bis 1570, pp.39 & 42.
(20) National Library of Australia MS 760/12.
(21) Review of Andrew Edmund Brae, The Treatise on the Astrolabe by Geoffrey Chaucer, in The Saturday Review, London, 30 July 1870, p.142; The various ways of telling time in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries are described in Linne R. Mooney, "The Cock and the Clock", Studies in the Age of Chaucer, 1993, 15:91-109.
(22) Guillaume, "Vieilles Horloges"; and F.J. Britten, Old Clocks and Watches and Their Makers, London, 1911, p.443.
(23) Joseph Fischer & Franz Ritter von Wieser, Die Weltkarten Waldseemullers (Ilacomilus): 1507 & 1516 / The Oldest Map with the name America of the year 1507 and the Carta Marina of the year 1516, Innsbruck, Verlag der Wagner'schen Universitats-Buchhandlung, 1903.
(24) Edward Stevenson, Terrestrial and Celestial Globes, New Haven, Yale UP, 1921, pp.74-5.
(25) Henry Vignaud, Toscanelli and Columbus, London, 1902, pp.80-107; George E. Nunn, The World Map of Francesco Roselli, Philadelphia, Beans, 1928, pp.8-9.
(26) Accedit ad hoc auctoritas Esdrae libro suo quarto, dicentis quod sex partes terrae sunt habitatae et septima est cooperta aquis (Added to this authority Esdras in his fourth book says that six parts of the earth are inhabited and the seventh is covered by the waters), Pierre D'Ailly, YmagoMundi, Louvain, 1483, cap.viii, f.13. The Fourth Book of Esdras, VI.42 (Vulgate), says: et tertio die imperasti aquis congregari in septima parte terrae, sex vero partes siccasti et conservasti, ut ex his sint coram te ministrantia seminata adeo et culta (Upon the third day thou didst command that the waters should be gathered in the seventh part of the earth: six parts hast thou dried up, and kept them, to the intent that of these some being planted of God and tilled might serve thee). Columbus also referred to Esdras as cited by D'Ailly in a letter to the Spanish Monarchs from Hispaniola in 1498, quoted in Cesare de Lollis fed., Autografi di Cristoforo Colombo, in Reale Commissione colombiana, Raccolta di Documenti e Stud i pubblicati dalla R. Commissione colombiana pel quarto centenario dalla scoperta dell' America, Roma, Ministero della pubblica istruzione, 1892-1894, Pt.I, v.III, p.70, no.23.
(27) "el mundo es poco; el injuto d'ello es seis partes, la septima solamente cubierta de agua"; Lettera Rarissima, Jamaica, 7 July 1503, Cesare de Lollis (ed.), Scritti di Cristoforo Colombo, in Reale Commissione Colombiana pel Quarto Centenario dalla Scoperta del l'America, Raccolta di Documenti e Studi, Parte I, Volume II, Roma, Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione, 1893, pp.175-205 at 184.
(28) Fernando Colombo: Historie, Venetia 1678, Cap. XX, pp. 95-96.
(29) Dicit M. Paulus quod e portu Zaiton ad orientem 1500 miliaribus est insula magna valde dicta Sipangus, cuius habitatores sunt idolatre habentque proprium regem, nulli sunt tributarii: hic maxima copia est auri et omnium gemmarum generum; at quia insulae a nautis hispanorum invente hunc locum occupant, hanc insulam hic statuere non audemus, opinantes quam hispani Spagnolam vocant Sipangum esse. Johannes Ruysch, Vniversalior Cogniti Orbis ex recentibus confecta observationibus, Rome, 1507, British Library, Maps C.1.d.6. See also Henry Vignaud, Toscanelli and Columbus, London, 1902, p.210, n.206.
(30) Lettera Rarissima, Jamaica, 7 July 1503, Cesare de Lollis (ed.), Scritti di Cristoforo Colombo, in Reale Commissione Colombiana pel Quarto Centenario dalla Scoperta del l'America, Raccolta di Documenti e Studi, Roma, Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione, 1893, Pt.I, v.II, pp.175-205 at 183.
(31) Secodo Marino e Col da C. Sa Vicetio a Cattigara g.225 so hore 15. Secodo Ptol in fino a Cattigara g.180 che sia hore 12; Franz Ritter von Wieser, "Die Karte des Bartolomeo Colombo", Mitteilungen des lnsituts. fur Osterreichische Geschichtsforschung, lnnsbruck, 1893.
(32) George E. Nunn, The Origin of the Strait of Anian Concept, Philadelphia, 1929, pp.53-4.
(33) Ibid, pp.4-6.
(34) F.C. Wieder, "The Globe of Johannes Schoner, 1523-1524", Proceedings of the twenty-first International Congress of Americanists, First Part, The Hague, 1924, pp.407-417 at 416.
(35) Nunn, 1928, op. cit., pp.8-9.
(37) Nunn, 1929, op. cit., pp.4-6.
(38) George E. Nunn, "The Lost Globe Gores of Johann Schoner, 1523-1524" 1927, 17(3): 476-480 at 479-80.
Robert J. King 
 Robert J. King is an independent scholar in Canberra. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
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|Author:||King, Robert J.|
|Date:||Aug 1, 2014|
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