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Tactics to use when negotiating.

-Strategies are calculated game plans designed to achieve a set of goals, while the tactics you use are the actual methods to achieve those goals,' says Dr. Eugene Mendonsa, director of the International and Domestic Negotiating Institute in Red Bluff, California. Most people are reluctant to negotiate with others because of the emotional involvement,- he continued, -but if you have your game plan and your tactics all laid out ahead of time, you're less likely to get out of control emotionally, and you'll probably have the upper hand. "

What follows are five tactics that Dr. Mendonsa recommends for use in any type of negotiating situation, whether you're buying a new car or trying to reach an agreement on a multimillion dollar business deal in a foreign country: 1) Deadline-Most agree ments are reached as deadline approaches. Therefore, try to find out what the other person's deadline is without revealing your own. Also, never agree to anything without putting a deadline on it. For instance, you might tell an automobile dealer, I can offer you 5,000 for it, but I have to know by five o'clock this afternoon." 2) Caucus or break-if you need some time to think, especially if you're surprised by what has happened, always ask for a caucus (if you're in a group) to talk things over. If you're alone, tell the other party that you have to take a brea for some prearranged reason. Or set the beeper on your digital watch to go off, then explain that you have to make a telephone call. Don't ever respond to something you know little about even though it may sound intriguing. Give yourself time to think about the implications of what has been said 3) Authority-This is an excellent tactic to use-one that can make

e in any negotiation. For instance, how often have you heard a spouse say, "I really like it, but I have to talk it over with my husband/wife." Try to pinpoint the authority level of your opponent, but don't tell people about your own authority level. Whatever you do, don't send the boss or someone else with the ultimate authority to strike a deal. That person is much more likely to give up more than is necessary. If you need to, you can make up an imaginary committee or person that must give approval. 4) Escalation-This can be an unethical tactic, but it is still one that is often used after an informal or handshake" agreement. It is the introduction of a new demand or the reopening of a -settled" issue at the last moment. More often than not, the tactic works because people feel they have a lot of "sunk effort' at hand and they are reluctant to see it all go to waste. Buyers can counter this tactic by simply refusing to give in. Sellers can counter escalation by putting penalty clauses in contracts, asking for non-refundable deposits, etc. 5) The "bogey" and "krunch"Both of these tactics are usually used by the buyer. A common

bogey is, "I'd love to buy

this, but there are a few

problems that need to be

settled first." Seven little

words make up the

krunch: "You've got to do

better than that." A good

seller will have a variety

of optional arrangements

ready for a bogey. Counter

the krunch by giving good

reasons why the price of whatever is being discussed must stay the way it is. Stress the uniqueness of the product or service, show company policy on such matters or present any legitimate reason why things can't be changed.

Don't be afraid to be aggressive when you're negotiating, but always have your plans well-prepared," concluded Dr. Mendonsa. "And most of all, remember that emotional reactions are the enemy of a good negotiator. Keep your emotions under control and you'll get a better deal."
COPYRIGHT 1989 Canadian Institute of Management
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Copyright 1989 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Publication:Canadian Manager
Date:Mar 1, 1989
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