TRENDS OF INTER-SENTENTIAL SWITCHES: ARE THEY SAME BETWEEN MALE AND FEMALE TEACHERS.
This article has sought to contribute to discussions concerning the value of inter-sentential patterns of code-switching (henceforth ISPCS) particularity in the context of EEL classrooms. Through a detailed analysis of recorded data produced in that context distinctive features in the discourse were discerned which were associated with males' and females' inter-sentential switches. By looking at language choice against the background of this patterning one can understand the complexity of the occurrences of inter-sentential switches in the classroom. A few studies on ISPCS in EEL classrooms have been hard/y conducted to determine the gender-based inclination among EFL teachers. For this reason there is a lack of awareness on the part of English language teachers about the qualitative and quantitative use of ISPCS in the context of Pakistani EEL classrooms.
For the purpose of investigation the ethnography of interaction was selected as a research design to record and transcribe the sessions of eight resource persons of Allama Iqbal Open University. During the analysis the results of the study indicated that all the male and female teachers switched code in the boundary of ISS (henceforth ISS). Moreover in the light of the data analysis trends were determined among male and female teachers for the patterns of inter- sentential switches. In short this paper tried to develop an understanding about the phenomenon of inter-sentential switches to get a better insight of the teaching/learning situation in the EEL context.
Keywords: bilingualism EEL classrooms inter-sentential switches second language acquisition
Code-switching appears intertwined with a range of inter-linguistic phenomena in language contact from strict interference to several other kinds of language mixture. Code-switching has been studied primarily in everyday talk and in social interaction between members of a particular speech community which implies a synchronic approach. In this study the researchers' aim has been to approach the ISS as they emerge in the EFL classrooms which is a complex linguistic repertoire in terms of both linguistic resources and verbal genres. The arguments in this article are based both on theoretically-oriented works and on the data collected from research work conducted to investigate ISPCS in EFL classrooms.
The connecting thread in this work is the need to understand the differences in the usage of inter-sentential switches between the interactants of EFL classrooms. Classroom life is socially constructed and it also acknowledges the dominance of social interactions in all that occurs in classrooms. Interactants interact with each other as members of the class and construct different patterns of classroom communication which define interactional and interpersonal behaviours of those interactants in that particular situation. Learning in classrooms is not merely a process of learning a language but it is also a reflection of language through which teachers determine their code to cater for their students' need by applying different codes of interaction in the domain of EFL classrooms (Green Kantor and Rogers 1990 p. 333-364).
Therefore it is a fundamental requirement of the EFL classrooms to investigate the trends of male and female teachers about the use of the ISS. Despite the significance of the phenomenon of ISS insufficient attention is paid to the dimensions of ISPCS. Focusing on the same deficiency the researchers tried to develop more understanding of ISS in the context of EFL classroom.
2. Aims of the Study
The following points are summarized by the researchers as the objectives of the study:
i. To identify EFL male and female teachers' patterns of ISPCS in the EFL classrooms
ii. To explain how male and female teachers accomplish their interaction in the EFL classrooms by using ISPCS; and
iii. To define the ways in which EFL teachers achieve proper coordination of communication in the interaction of EFL classrooms.
3. Operational Definitions of Code-Switching
Several concepts have been proposed for this linguistic behaviour. Agheyisi (1977) for example calls it "language interlarding" while Scotton and Ury (1977) term it "code switching". Bokamba (1988) prefers to call it "code mixing" and Haugen (1953) calls it "integration". However code switching the most preferred term in the current sociolinguistic study (Wardhaugh 2010) Haugen (1953) is accredited for the original coinage of the term "code switching" his definition is no longer in use. It is evident that Haugen's definition of code switching was perhaps too simplistic as he chose to associate code switching with only `single words'. Such a micro-view of code switching cannot adequately guide any study. To sort out this issue the researcher used definitions of CS like intra-sentential and inter-sentential switches proposed by Myers-Scotton (1993b).
Myers-Scotton (1993b) suggests that there are two types of switches: inter-sentential or intra-sentential and these types of switches can be derived from utterances. In inter-sentential switching a speaker switches from one language to another between different sentences. This implies that when the speech of an individual is divided into sentences one sentence will be in one language while the other sentence will be in a totally different language. In intra-sentential type of switching speakers switch from one language to another within the same sentence.
Thus a sentence will be made up of two or more languages. When considering intra-sentential switching it is important that the analyst also establishes the matrix and embedded languages in the code switched material. The matrix language (hereafter ML) is the main language of code switched utterances unlike the embedded language or languages (EL) which is the less dominant language and plays a lesser role. The definitions of Myers-Scotton are considered as operational definitions for the present study.
3.1 Code-Switching in EFL Classrooms
Code switching may be considered in relation to language acquisition. A number of research works have been postulated as to how an individual attains language and these are discussed in the following lines. Chomsky (1975 and 1979) suggests that language acquisition takes place as the brain matures and exposure to the appropriate language is obtained. Chomsky also suggests that people are aided by innate universal language structures and as children learn they realize how to express the underlying universal structure according to their particular culture as described by Bootzin Bower Zajonc and Hall (1986). Behaviourists do not accept this biological theory and suggest that language acquisition is a verbal behaviour which is an example of operant conditioning as advocated by Skinner (1957).
Behaviourists argue that individuals are reinforced by their own speech which matches the reinforcement of providers of affection during childhood. A point to note here is that the theories rely on exposure to appropriate samples of the language. And the same is true while acquiring second language teachers switch code as a strategy to compensate the deficiency on the part of students. For the same reason communication in English can be a barrier for many second-language learners because English serves both as a content subject and also as the means of instruction in classrooms (Brice 2001 p. 8).
Martin-Jones (2003 p. 6) explains that:
"Bilingual teachers and learners routinely use code-switching as an additional meaning-making resource within the ongoing flow of classroom talk. Code-switching is used to demarcate different kinds of discourse: to signal the transition between preparing for a lesson and the start of a lesson; to distinguish classroom management talk from talk related to lesson content; to specify a particular addressee; to change footing or to make an aside or to distinguish the reading aloud of a text from talk about the text".
Martin-Jones (1995) explains that two studies by Milk (1984) and Guthrie (1984) shifted the focus to the accomplishment of interactive acts in EFL classroom discourse. She further claims that "more attention was now given to the ways in which teachers and learners get things done with two languages in classrooms and to the way in which language values are transmitted through communicative choices" (p. 93).
Milk's work used an adapted version of Sinclair and Coulthard (1975 cited in Martin-Jones 1995) to record a twelfth grade civics class activity where a Mexican-American teacher used a bilingual pattern to teach in that class. With the help of the recorded data he focused on the patterns of the code-switching. According to Martin-Jones (1995) Milk's study claimed that English was the dominant language and this dominance put the majority of Spanish students at a disadvantage. Cook (1989) provides another method of using code-switching as a second language teaching tool through reciprocal language teaching.
This method requires students to switch languages at predetermined points putting students in pairs who want to learn each other's language. Thus the students alternate between the two languages and exchange the roles of student and teacher. A similar system may also be used whereby the teacher uses code-switching by starting the lesson in the first language and then moving into the second and back. Cook (1991) describes that this practice makes the lesson as communicative as possible and is similar to the `New Concurrent Approach' (NCA) presented by Rudolph Jacobson. The approach helps teachers to balance the use of language switch at certain key points such as during important concepts when students are getting distracted during revisions or when students are praised and told off. On the basis of this view switching may be used as an effective teaching strategy for second language learning (Skiba 1997).
Skiba (1997 p. 10) delineates the function of code-switching and claims that it allows the students to become autonomous over a period of time whereby the teaching is reciprocated from the teacher to the student. Cook (1991) suggests that the use of code-switching in the classroom would provide for a bilingual norm whereby code-switching is seen to be an acceptable method of communication. Students then would feel comfortable switching languages within normal conversations providing for a bilingual society. It has also been outlined that code-switching may facilitate language development as a mechanism for providing language samples and may also be utilized as a teaching method for teaching second language. Jacobson's (1983) view is that languages are best mixed in the classroom by code-switching if languages are separated then teachers will have to teach each subject twice once in English and once in Spanish.
Moreover language separation is based on content and then it will be impossible to decide which subject should be taught in which language. According to Jacobson's (1983 p. 5) NCA teachers should be permitted to use inter-sentential code-switching. Jacobson fears that in intra-sentential switches a child is not exposed long enough to any one language and then it would be difficult for him to derive the grammatical semantic and lexical rules of both English and Spanish. Thus with the settlement of these issues both teachers and students can establish classroom discourse in accordance with the requirement of the EFL language learning paradigms.
McLaughlin Blanchard and Hammink (2000 p. 14) maintain that code- switching significantly enhances the expressive capacity of an individual; and Genesee Paradis and Crago (2004) also urge educators to recognise the communicative and metaphorical values of code-switching. Code- switching according to these researchers is a device of `great semantic power'. Hammink (2000) further clarifies that children who code-switch are expanding their code-switching strategies from the merely communicative to the rhetoric and a well-informed educator can assist in this development just as he/she assists the development of other communicative capacities of his/her students. The need for a better understanding of code-switching phenomenon among classroom teachers is also emphasized by Valdes-Fallis (1978) in these words: "An understanding of code-switching is especially important for those classroom teachers whose students include Spanish/English bilinguals" (p. 124).
Very little has been said about the characteristics of bilingual speakers who habitually alternate between two languages in their communities. According to Aguirre (1988) language alternations or code-switching in the classroom are obvious and unavoidable with culturally and linguistically diverse children and special educators should regard language alternations as a communicative strategy employed by the students learning a second language. Unfortunately a true understanding of language alternation behaviours is a phenomenon still not understood by professionals in education and it may be perceived as a controversial issue (Baker and Jones 1995). However it is the consensus of many in the field of bilingual education that it is a normal occurrence and its use as a language choice in instruction is perfectly legitimate (Brice 2000).
Hammink (2000 p.8 cited in Macswan 1999 pA7) clarifies its significance and claims that children's attitudes toward code-switching are greatly affected by the attitudes of their caregivers. Recognition on the part of the teachers of the expressive power of code-switched discourse and the sophisticated linguistic knowledge required to effectively employ the mode should serve to alter the prejudicial opinions they have about the practice.
It was observed by Haugen (1987) that code-switching was consistently ranked as least acceptable by teachers. Moreover bilingualism itself is very poorly understood by most educators and for that reason much of literature available to guide the classroom teaching misrepresents language mechanism (Gulzar 2012 and 2010). The researchers agree to these comments that bilingualism is misunderstood by educators and course developers and due to this teacher misrepresents language processes and cannot devise lesson plans based on the balanced use of languages (Hamers and Blanc 1989). So it is essential to make teachers and educators understand the utility and benefits of code-switching in the EFL classrooms. These are just some of the ways in which bilingual teachers and learners negotiate their way through classroom interactions as they attempt to make sense of each other's contribution.
Martin- Jones (2003 p.7) explains that "with the passage of time particular interactional routines get established class by class and bilingual teaching/learning events take a particular shape". It has been found that participant-related switching by learners in classroom interaction often consists of what Lipski (1978 p. 76) describes as "an attempt to override communicative stumbling blocks by falling back on Li". Participant- related switching is also used by teachers in a "hetero facilitative" capacity (Romaine 1989) anticipating that learners would not understand an upcoming utterance if it were in the target language they fall back on Li. Indeed participant -related code-switching has been found to predominate among both learners and teachers in classrooms as diverse as bilingual education programmes for linguistic minority children in the United States (Zentella 1981).
3.2 Research Questions
The following research questions are used to guide the work under study:
Q.1. How can ISPCS verify the choice of male and female teachers in the discourse of EFL classrooms
Q.2. Does inter-sentential switches differ among the male and female EFL teachers
3.3 Research Methodology
The main research design selected for this study was ethnography of communication and this design helped the researchers to explore ISS in the EFL classroom. These interactional patterns helped the researchers to discover and describe ISS of both male and female teachers.
Ethnography of research is selected for the study keeping in view HOW" and "WHY" nature of the research questions.
Also it was a prerequisite to explore the phenomena as non-participatory observers and this strategy was mainly adopted to observe the trends of the ISS between male and female teachers in the EFL classrooms.
Sessions for teachers were audio recorded after getting approval from each of the resource persons.
Keeping in view the parameters of heuristic research the sessions were observed and recorded without restricting the natural flow of the EFL classroom interactions.
The population of the study was selected from the EFL classrooms of Allama Iqbal Open University. Eight teachers were identified as additive bilingual whose two languages combine in a complementary and enriching fashion (Li Wei 2000 p. 6).
The study was delimited to explore and analyze the ISPCS related to EFL classroom discourse to explore the gender based trends of this kind of ISS.
3.4 Data Collection Strategies
Audio-recording of the sessions of the EFL classrooms was used as tools for data collection.
Eight sessions were observed recorded transcribed and almost twelve hours recording of the EFL classrooms was made in total.
Recorded materials proved very successful for the purpose of description and analysis of data as Burns (1999 p. 94) clarifies that
"Audio and video recordings are techniques for capturing in detail naturalistic interactions and verbatim utterances. Used in the classroom they are thus very valuable sources of accurate information on patterns of interaction behaviours which may not be obvious during the actual teaching process."
The researchers used the audio recording repetitively to replay the events to describe and analyze the data to determine trends of the ISS between determined participants.
3.5 Data Analysis
For the purpose of analysis all the objectives of the study were identified by the specified theme to infer the conclusion from the findings. Audio-recording was used as an important tool at the time of analysis of the data.
According to Eisner (1991) "note-taking and audio-taping are crucial tools in conducting any qualitative research because they provide the researcher with reminders quotations and details for both descriptions and interpretations".
The researchers used transcription conventions used by Van Lier (1988). The purpose of using these transcription conventions was to avoid any confusion and to communicate what actually had happened in the classrooms.
The researchers added some symbols from his side to define all the aspects of the sessions and these added symbols are shown with asterisks (see Appendix # 1).
After the transcription of the sessions the first step followed by the researchers in analysis was to formulate inferences from the collected data.
The foremost theme of the study is the investigation of inter-sentential patterns of code-switching in the EFL classrooms and this fundamental theme helped the researchers throughout at different stages of research.
3.6 Discussion on Results and Implications
In the process of analysis of ISPCM the following different patterns of switches were observed: code-switching from English to Urdu and code-switching from Urdu to English.
The researchers found some obstacles during the analysis of ISPCS. Some of the teachers' utterances overlapped with intra-sentential patterns of code mixing (here in after ISPCM) and had dual implications for more than one utterance.
And it was difficult to determine whether the teachers switched their code for ISPCM or ISPCS. It caused trouble to the researchers during the analysis of the data and to sort out this problem the researchers set the definition of romaine as a yardstick to differentiate between these two closely connected patterns of switches.
In the following sections the selected representative examples of the teachers' ISPCS are presented to determine the trends between male and female teachers.
3.7 Male Teachers' Intra-sentential Patterns of Code Switching
3.7.1 Inter-sentential pattern of code switching of male teacher No.1:The session of male teacher No.1 provided some examples of ISS and these switched utterances were most of the time at sentence level.
The following examples of code-switching are taken from transcriptionNo.1 to give the break-up of his switched utterances.
27 T: I think most of us have watched. I give credit to Amir Khan for producing such a good film Tarry Zameen per'. And I request every teacher to watch that particular movie Sitarey (film stars) I think we have already talked about - (AP ne dekhi hai) Have you watched
29 T: OK the parents actually due to certain reasons and (wo paynahi kerna chahtey) they don't want to pay. They don't want tohave the extra burden of that child because of this reason that. (wo doosray school mai ley aatey ham) they take him to another school found a child should be handed into grade H simple is that.
80 T: The third type in the characteristics of testis discrimination ()(specially schoolon main colle on main esa ho jata hai) usually it happens in schools and colleges all the students are very happy it was so easy (k marey bhi marks aa gaye) that even l got marks.().
Sometimes it is so difficult that it becomes difficult at least for a Student ( ) and sometimes its easy for everybody (k wo joparhney wala baccha hai or jo nahi perhnay wala baccha) a child who works hard and a child who never works hard they real get marks together //
86 T: OK we will give 40% for the irexit some thing 25 percent will get D grade and some material intentionally give some questions for discrimination among those. (theek hai na to hum kva kerte ham k ) Right so what we do is that those who really want to get through they go for 40%.
3.7.2 Inter-sentential pattern of code-switching of male teacher No.2:In this session male teacher No.2 provided many examples of ISS while delivering his session in the EFL classroom. He code-switched approximately fifty five times in his session and provided an extensivevariety of ISS. The following table provides calculations how he switched his utterances for ISS. The following table provides break-up of his switched utterances.
In the following excerpts representative examples are taken from transcription No.2 to highlight the examples of ISPCS:
27 T: We have to just cram it. (eik ratta lagana parta hai) We haveto cram I used to do it like that.106 T: Now what I am doing is (dono haath laga ker paseena nikalraha hai hera gharaq ho raha hai) Using both hands sweating spoiling one self and the box is not just moving an inch.
108 T: Now more than the name - what was his basic idea in linguistics (kya kiya tha us ne) What did he do
112 T: I would like any one of you three people. (koi baat ap btaiye)You tell me something Noam Chomsky
257 T: When I need to say something else I say it is my way but you understand a different thing. (ap kehtey ham aur mujhey jb apjawab detey ham to main kehta hon mai ne `yeh to nahi poochaap Se. No sir is ka matlab to yehi hai) you assert and when you answer me then I say that I did not ask you this one. No sir it means the same.
326 T: (wo jo eik side rakhi hui hai na who us ke saath hai) (The side that is placed over there it's beside that). Everyone has finished
342 T: You give me a page that is checked. (jo keh abhi ap lo on nekiya hai) Which you people have done right now. So many things are lacking that only you know. Student cannot say (ager who student keh pas jaye to keh jee ghalati kis cheez ki nikali hui hai) If that goes to the student he cannot say what kind of error has been identified
346 T: It has to be there in whatever proportion but it has to be in the heart of the teacher. (tabhi kaam chalta hai) Then the work goes on. Now the single pages. (theek hai yeh ap idher de deinmain udher deta hon) You give these I papers I here. I give over there.
348 T: You understand. This is more important what you have done unknowingly. (line mar di) Mark a line. Sometimes what happens is if I see your paper I cannot identify. (yeh line ooper wali keneechey lagi hui hai ya neechay wali ke) This line has been marked to clarify the above sentence or the sentence below
350 T: (yahan pe ghalat kya hai) what is wrong over here You donot encircle. (aur eik bar si cheez hoti hai) and there is a big thing appropriate to the point. It's not hitting the right issue in that.
356 T: Sometimes a student rather we have got the practice he comesup. (sir yeh kon si ghalati thi) Sir which mistake was this And we are thinking. (yeh mai ne kis cheez ko ghalat kiya tha baadmai) Which thing I had marked as wrong later on because being teacher I play with the words
364 T: I have been teaching in Beacon house (over years). (I know kehwo kya ker rahey hotey ham) I know that what are they doing and I quit that place.
396 T: When it comes to speaking and I want to say. (keh ye John sahab ki pakki adat hai keh wo cigaratte peetay hain) that it is Mr. John`s firm habit that he smokes cigarette.
423 T: (hamein yeh pata hi nahi hota hum parhana shuru ker deteyham) We don't know about it. We just start teaching.
471 T: So many things are let unanswered. When I was doing all that(mai ne abhi bohat sari cheezein- yeh kerna hai who kerna hai)When I was doing all that - I have to do this and that. I could not do because I knew (ke do ghantoon ke andar) that within two hours it would not be possible for me.
3.7.3 Inter-sentential pattern of code-switching of male teacher No. 3: Male teacher No.3 provided approximately eight examples of ISS. He did not provide an extensive variety of ISS. The following table provides the details about the number of ISS.
The following examples are taken from transcription No.1 to analyse the ISS related to EFL classroom discourse: (may be underlines/bold as above)
19 T: Which is a wonderland. (Eik ajeeb o ghareeb duniya) a strange mystery world.
26 T: I don't want you to sit in the dark. (ap yahan a jaein) you please come here.
65 T: (nahi) NoNo (h) There is something missing. Yeah Shehzad
187 T: Education is not just transmission of knowledge. (esanahi hai keh) it's not like this that -)
230 T: OK I I know many of you are sitting with this (yar yeh tomujhey bhi pata tha)Oh my friend this is what I also knew.
328 T: Because I want to acknowledge each one of you. Right Not that 0' (yeh to is mai aa gya) It has been covered in that Right
551 T: Stars on earth. Amir Khan - the way he enters the class Q style.(Hamary agar koi kary ga ( ) pagal ka putr andar a gaya ha.) If somebody will do it over here ( ) a mad's son has come in.
620 T: A one short event. (Waqia tha guzar gaya ho ga.) That was the incident and had gone No! It is a life - long continuous process -Fine
3.7.4 Inter-sentential pattern of code-switching of male teacher No.4
This session provided small variety of ISS. It is important to clarify here that in this session; the teacher's ISS were related to the informal discourse (An informal discourse is meant for other than classroom agenda items) of EFL classroom. The table given below presents the details about the number of uttered ISS.
The following examples of code-switching are taken from transcriptionNo.4 to highlight the 155 utterances.
29 T: Friday /1 that's the end of Solomon Brandy so in the to teach rhyming to children we can do (jee) yes sir So the biggest circle shows the stressed syllable.
(Mai ne turn se poochna hei aakhir mai saara jo mai parhaa raha hon.) I'll ask you all in the end what I'm teaching.( h )I'm teaching for you not for the rest of theclass. (Sir bijli chali gai) Sir is it electricity breakdown (.)
85 T: But I don't want to.... OK sir come on to next next sir (.)( pis ko eik aur dafa dabaein.) Press it once again. So (sir speakerkey oo per eik dafa)sir on the speaker once -
97 T: I have contacted him time and again `I've contacted him time and again'. So (sir is ko zara Speaker ko zara eik dafa kijeye ga)sir please this one play the speaker once please
112 T: (Dekh lein wo time ka thora sa)see we have time problem
118 T: (Agey ker dein agey ker dein. .. agey ker dein... aur agey.)Forward it forward it forward it a bit more. Introducingsentence stress right Any idea about sentence stress
146 T: So switch on to next sir please so this is an important pichia tha ya... yeh tha Yeh ho gya is se agey chaltey hem.) Was it the last one It's done; let's move on to the next.
164 T: Next ( . ) (agey sir pichla peechey is se. peechey peechey isse.) Sir next sir last one the last one. These are unstressed words. (Next sir agey ageey chalein zara. Is ko zara play ker dein.)Forward it a little bit more. Play it please.
212 T: Stopped working (Do dafa karein na.) Do it twice. (.) (Nahikaam ker raha) Not working (.) OK what do you say
224 T: Since the the speaker knew that it was in South America so hewanted to reassure it. (Next karein sir (.) Yeh bhi usi ka hei ageyker dein. Dekhein chalta hei) Sir next please. It's the part of the same forward it. See if it plays
252 T: You make list... (sir eik minute is mein)sir please just a minute.... Let me give you I would I would like that... (sir thorasa time hai thora sa . .han)Do we have a little time
3.8 Females' Inter-sentential patterns of code-switching
3.8.1 Inter-sentential pattern of code-switching of female teacher No.1In this session the female teacher provided many examples of code-switching related to classroom discourse.
In this session female teacherNo.1 provided many examples of ISPCS related to classroom discourse. In the case of this teacher the ISS can be interpreted as a personal style of the teacher.
Moreover it just occurred due to the fact that it was her personal style as a bilingual teacher. Code-switching occurrences dependon the social situation requirement or stylistic preferences.
A Bilingual speaker code-switch to his weaker language to add colour or blends the two linguistic systems according to his/her needs or preferences (Valdes-Fallis 1978). Switches of this session truly reflect the situation as mentioned by Valdes-Fallis.
The following examples are extracted from the transcription of female teacher No.1 to highlight the inter-sentential patterns of code-switching:
46 T: What I need to do is give you confidence ask me a question 1kmiss yah wali baat samajh mai nahi aai )Miss I could notunderstand your point ( ). (Ager ap mujh se yeh poochein geto mai yeh nahi kahoon gi k ager ap ko nahi pata to ap yahankya ker rahey hain)When you ask me anything I won't say what are you doing here if you don't know anything ( . ) that is something that the teacher must not do at all yes
56 T: Kindly accept me. I'm sorry how I spoke. OK you can always ()(kidher likha hai is ko) where have you written it
88 T: (Koi bhi nahi kery gci.) No one will do that. (Students nahi karein gey) the students won't do that. You know up to the school level reading is a passive activity.
90 T: (Book kolein parhein neechey sawal likhein ham un kokarein) Open the book read and answer the questions written below.
129 T: And you come out and say (Intni bun class hai dekhi nahizindagi mai such a bad class (h). Class kesay bun ho sakti haibun teacher hoti hai) How can a class be bad It's the teacher who is bad. It's always the teacher not the class a class is a reflection of the teacher.
135 T: I should blame myself right It's very easy to say (k aur bhi toham wahan teachers wo kyon nahi dekhtin Mujhey us main)there are many other teachers why don't they have a check. In that I.
141 T: It is satisfaction and enjoyment in teaching depends upon leading students to cooperate. (ager ap niklein or ap ne sir pakraho k coffee bhi chahiye jee ap ko coffee peeni hai ya chayepeeni hai sir dukh raha hai class parha k. Eik class )If you come out of the class and you need coffee or tea because you are havingheadache because of teaching just one class - (.)
161 T: The moment (ap ko kaha jata hai k jee 5 minute k liye yehparhein adhey tau bateein ker rahey hon ge. Ab yeh barron kibaat ker rahey ham hum.) When you are told to read some thing in five minutes half of you start talking. Here we are talking about adults.
167 T: (ap ne maon ko nahi suna "chup ker k betho ab eik lagaongi" aur baccah bheen bheen ker raha hai (h) aur laga bhi nahirahi aur kahey bhi ja rahi ham "chup ker k betho eik lagaongi") have you heard the mothers saying "be quite or I'll slap you" and the child is crying bitterly. She is not slapping him but just asking him to be quiet
219 T: You would move around fine see what the student is doing probably. Point out (k yeh point theek nahi hai )That this point is not correct. Not actually tell the students (what to write). (kuch tokaam ker rahey ham na) at least they are doing something.
229 T: Agreed agreed // (lekin dekhein baat to ho rahi thi) but we were talking about that teaching is a work of heart and nothingelse.
3.8.2 Inter-sentential pattern of code-switching of female teacher No.2:
This session provided numerous examples of ISS and in this session teacher used mother tongue for an extended span of time. The reason for the use of mother tongue may be that she had a limited experience of teaching at the university level.
As Auer (1984) defines that "one should not expect that every alternation case would have a particular function or have to do conversational work because some cases of language alternation may be the result of a lack of competence in one of the languages."
The same situation was observed in her session as mentioned by Auer. She was the first teacher who provided examples of ISS. She switched from Urdu to English to perform different functions due to her continuous delivery of session in Urdu.
Crystal (1987) while explaining the similar situation claims that there are a number of reasons for switching from one language to another and the first of these is the notion that a speaker may not be able to express him/herself in one language.
So he/she switches to the other code to compensate for the deficiency. In the case of this female teacher Crystal's first reason justifies the style of this teacher because she continually used the mother tongue.
The following examples are extracted from the transcription of female teacher No.2 to highlight the ISS:
3 T: What you get from the very word "Writing Skills" (Kya cheezaati hei zehan main) what comes in your mind
40 T: I cannot move ahead if the thing is just restricted to a point. (Ager koi cheez yahan ruk gai hai to agey jana fuzul hai.) it isuseless to move forward if something is not clear at this point Clear or any question What is writing skills
42 T: (Ap ko bohat clear hua hai sab se zyada ap ne inkaar kiyahai.) everything is clear to you that you have refused to say anything what is writing skills
72 T: Any novel regarding from your literature regarding from your school module (Kahein se bhi koi esi book mujhey paata kerdijiye jo k sab ne parhi ho) suggest any book to me that everyone has read in this class.
79 T: It's a Brazilian writer a very well-known writer he can turn theworld upside-down (us ko kaha gya hai k) he's considered to be he's the best seller in the world Kuch log aam logon k iiye likhteyham k merey khaylat itney aam hem k us ko har koi parhey
83 T: There must be a building up communication between the writer and reader. (Har eik ka talaag hota hai apas main)everyone has got a relationship with each other.
121 T: Right (K Ho sakta hai k in bacchon ka dii chahta ho k in kpass games hon computer games hon video games hon lekin)these kids may want to have different games computer games video games but /-
226 T: Hardly two or three students have mentioned two or three pictures why (ap se sirf yeh nahi kaha tha k eik tasweer le lein)you were not told to take only one picture that was a very ( )
252 T: (Yeh to ap ne slogan diya hai fair and lovely ka abhi ap ne story to btai nahi.) you have just given the slogan of fair and lovely you still have to tell the story
281 T: (Eik jo larki gaari ko ssaf ker k usey kitni bachat ho jaye giKitna) how much a girl can earn by cleaning the cars How much she can earn
339 T: (Urdu ko khatam nahi kerna chahi'ye Urdu hamara geemtiasaasa hai) we should protect Urdu because it is our heritage we should protect and safeguard our language and the other class....
369 T: You have to write on your own. (Wahan pe ap ki raaye nahi poochi jaye gi k is tasweer ko dekh k) your opinion will not be asked about the picture what you assess What you take on get from that very picture.
412 T: If you have to teach the writing skills to the little kids (ager apne kindergarten ko prahana hai to us k liya bacchon ko kesay apparhae yin ge) how would you teach the children at kindergarten So how can you teach
420 T: Start talking about the economic disparity and the present situation in Pakistan but (ap wahan pe gaboo nahi ker rahey) you are not controlling there.
428 T: I just thought to prepare handouts (ap tak pohanchey hi nahiham ager ap chahtey ham to) you didn't get them. Do you want these Should I distribute the handouts for you
3.8.3 Inter-sentential patterns of code-switching of female teacherNo. 3:
This teacher provided numerous examples of code-switching. She provided thirty six examples of ISS and these switches occurred at word level phrase level and sentence level. The following table provides details of ISS uttered in her session.
The following examples are extracted from the transcription of female teacher No.3 to highlight the ISS:
71 T: Ok ok all right. (Jee nahi ap ne bohat bta diya hai. The harjaein zara. Jee madam salma) Yes please no you have told a lot now please wait for some time. Yes madam Salma
75 T: Ok anybody else (Ap ooncha haath khara ker dein kuchnahi hota)please raise hand high nothing will happen
93 T: (Eik Yehi humaray haan ka problem hai na zada kah) this is the common problem we have that people will... Psychologically.
You have to keep in your mind the level of your students and level of your each student. (Yeh nahin keh aap is ka zahan mainrakhain us ka chorr dam theek hai na.)You can't keep the level ofone student in mind and ignore the other. Level of each student.
99 T: ( . )What is communication (Hum kehtain ham na jee communication honi chahay falana hoona chahiay yeh hoonachahiay.) We say that there must be communication this should be done that should be done
186 T: This score is valid or this test is valid. How can I say this score is valid (Koi bta sakta hai)can somebody tell
221 T: (Theek hai nain dil balliyon uchal raha hota hai teacher kadaikha na saray paraishan ho gay) The teacher feels happy at that time that she has made worried all the students that is the face validity.
223 T: You have prepared that test how is it possible. (us wagt mai nebarey josh mai banaya tha ab mujhey samajh hi nahi aa rahikesay kerna hai.)
At that time I made it enthusiastically but nowI don't know how to score it. When you don't know how you canexpect from student he can do this.
Sometimes you notice whenever you receive your paper (dhai dhai safay likhay hootayham. Theek hai). two and a half page is written ok What happens from the supervisor that two and a half pages have been written and you think oh what I have done!
337 T: And comparatively difficult words for writing. Keep this thingin your mind that sometimes we need comparatively easy words sowe can communicate. (Theek hai na k Jaisay aap kisi ko koimushkaal word day dam gay to woh to peraishan boo jai ga.Jaisay) right
As if you give a difficult to someone he'll surely be worried as one of the person at some university; I don't want to mention that university. Otherwise if you use very difficult words (theek hai nai moon teda kar keh baar baar English bolnay kikoshish karengay) right trying to speak native like English at that time you will not be.
353 T: The problem here is that when we study and when we understand reading is sometimes we find difficulty we keep on looking sentences (her 2 minute baad humain dictionary kholnihoti hai check karna hoota hai) after every two minutes we have to open the dictionary and check it
358 T: (haan ab huey ham na haath kharey) now you have raised hands.( h ) you youyou what kind of problems you people face Excuse me please here
380 T: Fluency is needed because firstly you have to speak. What is our problem we can't speak (Hum sub kay saath yeh masla hoota hai.) we all face the same problem.
382 T: (matlab baat main nain aap ko samjha di hai laikin ulta booldia hai.) I've made you clear but have spoken wrong.
So at that time `I respect you' (aap ka adab karta hoon ya karti hoon ya jobhi.) I respect you (theek hai) right
(Yeh nahin keh koi aapnain baat kuch aur kahi hai kaha un se kuch aur hai mang aapkuch aur rahi ham.) It should not be like this that you have asked them something else and expecting something else. No no ambiguity yes next (( )).
384 T: (Matlab yeh na hoo na keh dhai safay ka aap kaquestion ho) means the question should not be of two and a half page two and a half page ok two and a half page and you are doing it reading it and 35 minutes are gone.
3.8.4 Inter-sentential pattern of code-switching of female teacher No.4:
In this session female teacher No.4 provided a small variety of ISS in comparison with female teacher No 2 and 3. She switched code more than seventeen times at sentence level. The following table provides details of switched utterances of her session.
The following examples of code-switching are taken from transcription No.4 to give the highlights of code-switched utterances.
112 T: So I was saying (k dekhein ager dekha jeye to) If we observefirst year level (generally dekha jaye to)if we generally observe first year student ( ).
115 T: Actually this is the problem with the syllabus designers II they think the students should be (ager who nahi kerty to unheinkerna chahiye)if they don't do they must do
123 T: And that time it should be only students' time in the classroom it should not be the time of the exam. (Exams ko to koihither nahi kerta.) nobody bothers about exams.
127 T: So if the students they learn vowels then they can easily insert vowels (consonants sikhaye baghair vowels nahi sikhaney chahiyein) .
Don't teach vowels without teaching consonants. Let the students know how to read words. If they can read out words then you can teach them to read out sentences. (Ager un becharoon ko ala faz hi nahi abhi bnany aatey ya words hi ki jopeachan nahi kerny aatey to un ko sikhana)
If those poor souls don't know how to make words or they can't recognize words soto teach them. Sentence reading it is useless because the basic component of the sentence is word.
181 T: (Us ko kahan use kerna hai kis tareegey se use kernahai.) Where to use and how to use it. [ ] The language functions the syllabus should contain the language functions this means that the students will be able to use language in real-life.
191 T: This is very very important in a syllabus. (Topic to hai us kokerna kya hai) There is a topic but what to do with it Will they be able to write about father's advice These days the topic should be load shedding.
203 T: You people are four already Three either you can join them or one of you can you are already four (ap ko koi masala nahi yaap in ko join ker lein)
You have no problem you can join them. just join them for a short while. You people are four twoare here three One of you can come and join (ap agey a jaienap dono peechey chaly jaein )You come in front and both of you go at the back. Both of you can go at the back.
205 T: But there are two people at the back (ap dono phir peecheychaly jaein.) You both go at the back then.
They are four (ap maise koi ye peechey walon key saath mu ker four ka group banalein) Anyone of you join those sitting at the back and make a group of four. Three and two and that is five and that is six (apkindly yahan aa jaein ager ap ki narazgi nahi hai to) You kindly come here if you are not angry (.) Now each member of the group will get a copy of the syllabus I think everywhere there are four people (nahi nahi agey yeh in key saath bathiye ap please thora sa)No no at the front sit with them you please a little(( )).
The representative examples indicate that ISPCS were used by the teachers in the EFL classrooms to accomplish different functions.
However the analyses of the sessions indicate that all the eight teachers used ISS but some of the teachers' switches were not in a great number as compared to the switches of the other teachers. Furthermore on the basis of data analyzed female teacher No.2 provided a great number of ISS.
Her delivery code was other than target language and due to the same reason she provided extensive examples of ISS. It shows that she could not extend her talk in the target code throughout the session. It is significant to reflect that all the teachers provided examples whether more or less related to ISS. All the tables provided before the analysis of the session are collated in the following table.
Table No. 9 reflects that female teachers are more inclined towards ISPCS but senior female teachers' numbers of ISS are comparatively less as compared to young female teachers.
And the same results are found in the category of male teachers and on the basis of these results it canbe verified that trends of ISPCS are more prevalent in younger/less experienced male and female EFL teachers. The results of the study showed that all the teachers both male and female presented a variety of ISS.
This kind of code-switching is particularly prevalent in the teacher talk as Martin-Jones calls it discourse related code-alternation (Martin-Jones 2000 p. 6). Moreover Jacobson (1990) proposes that "teacher may code-switch at some key points such as when concepts are important when the students are getting distracted or when a student should be praised or reprimanded."
On the basis of the results it was found that it was an unavoidable and inevitable phenomenon because both male and female teachers' code-switching was mainly in the ISS.
In the EFL classrooms interactants must focus on the content and the language of the discourse. And for this purpose the teacher must know how he has to focus on language and contents without breaking links of the classroom discourse.
During the analysis of the sessions it was observed that male and female teachers followed the self determined course for the use of codes and due to this reason the number of switched utterances vary at a higher level.
In a Pakistani system of education English also serves a dual role: As a compulsory subject and as a medium of instruction.
In public sector schools English is used as a content subject and its use as a medium of instruction is not clear in the language policy and this uncertainly results in code- switching among the interactants of EFL classrooms.
Therefore after analyzing the situation in the EFL classrooms the researchers recommend more conscious and cognizant use of inter-sentential switches particularly at the level of proficient bilinguals.
Focusing on the indications of the results it can be recommended that a clear language policy should be devised for the promotion of effective interactional patterns in the EFL classroom.
The same can be substantiated from the above outlined literature review that code switching may facilitate language development as a mechanism for providing language samples and may also be utilized as a teaching method for teaching second languages.
Irrespective of the benefits of ISS these switches can cause interference in the acquisition of the target language code if they are not used carefully only as a teaching method/aid.
However this situation demands immediate attention of the policy planners to determine the prerequisites of ISS for the better development of interactional patterns in the EFL classrooms.
Accordingly the nature of ISS patterns of interaction should be further traced out to understand the interactions between teachers and students.
In this paper the researchers have laid a foundation for future research that may explore further dimensions of teachers' and students' talk in the EFL classrooms.
Finally a meaningful language use in the context and flexibility of the curriculum is underlined as a crux of the study. The most outstanding recommended actions are as follows:
Teachers must be well aware of students' proficiency level because the sensible combination of native and target languages can enhance the learning competence of the students.
Furthermore a language philosophy values any language variation for the purpose of human communication; hence the dual use of language is the only way to establish a point of deviation from TL in an EFL classroom if based on the urgent needs of the learners.
Instructional activities for linguistically diverse students must not only be interactive in nature but also be rich in the cultural context of comparative and contrastive analyses of native and target language connections.
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