TRANSITIONAL VULNERABILITIES OFFERED TO THE INTERMEDIATE LEARNERS OF ESL/EFL IN PAKISTANI CONTEXT: A CASE STUDY.
This case study is based on a research that was carried out as part of a more extensive PhD research. This article presents the gaps in English taught in colleges as preparatory ground for entrance in universities of Pakistan. The main objective of teaching English as a compulsory subject at secondary and tertiary levels is to prepare students to successfully enter and sustain in the academic mainstream. One would believe that Pakistani students of Intermediate level are being equipped with Communicative Competence in English as Second Language (BSL) to be ready to use the target language and skill for communication in academic and social contexts at the target levels. However a common observation of English language teachers is that students face difficulty in performing the basic tasks required of all college students.
The factual as well as interpretive findings reveal the existence of wide gap between English taught at college level and the proficiency required at the university level which eventually makes students struggle and suffer. This is critical for the stakeholders and challenges them to understand the learning choices offered to English language students in Pakistani settings. This case study explores the language competencies developed at the Intermediate level of education and their suitability to meet the demands of higher education. The scope of the study also involves the inquiry about the teaching philosophies and pedagogical responsibilities of the subject teachers materialized in the classroom and learning speculations forming learners' learning attitude.
Keywords: preparatory English insufficient linguistic performance communicative competence transition from intermediate to post-intermediate level gaps between college and university education teachers `philosophies and learners' learning attitude
During the course of education the extent of college preparation has been a factor that determines how successful students will be in meeting the rigorous demands of higher education and/or professional demands. English as second as well as official language of Pakistan is a communicative phenomenon being practiced in all domains of life. It is commonly used in written and spoken discourse for academic communication purposes almost at all levels and has become a prestigious practice in Pakistani educational contexts. The Pakistani educators and researchers have been concerned and take an increasingly pro-active role in establishing standards to be followed at all levels of education (Education Policy 2010).
One of the major reasons of teaching an extensive course of English as second language for two years at the Intermediate level (IL) of education is to prepare Pakistani ESL students to meet the linguistic challenges offered at the higher levels of education. Teaching of Communicative Competence (CC) at the IL aims to equip learners with the knowledge of how and when to "use a variety of linguistic exponents to communicate appropriately for various functions and co-functions of inquires persuasions arguments comparisons and evaluations in a wide range of contexts "during individual peer and group interactions (Education Policy 1998 2010). However the efforts do not produce the desired results which prove to be the causes of the present unsatisfactory condition.
The reasons can be various and varied: boring text-books untrained teachers over-crowded classes lack of conducive learning conditions traditional teaching methodologies permitting no innovation and inappropriate evaluation system (Shah 2007 Conference proceedings). Teachers at Post-Intermediate level (PIL) usually assert that the possible reasons that beget these behavioral as well as linguistic problems may include lack of grammar competence syntactic knowledge and lack of context-appropriate- vocabulary.
Therefore measures like remedial work extra hours of coaching and extra short courses are taken to help these learners; however these efforts are observed unsuccessful to prepare them sufficiently.
Since the establishment of the university in 2002 undergrads' inductions have been alarming administration and faculty of Air University Pakistan about the crisis of educational quality in terms of insufficient English competence of the applicants. University teachers teaching the fresh candidates (at PIL) have been shuffling and shifting linguistic exponents and course objectives in the subject outlines and course- breakup-templates to help students overcome the communication deficiencies and to prepare them for their relevant professions but not too much satisfaction.
If CC (Education Policy 2010) is the central purpose of language teaching at IL and PIL of education in Pakistan then the immediate purpose of the stake holders should be to see effective and analytic happening through language and to determine the effective role of the curriculum in making this discourse happen. The focal issue of communicative discourse is to understand and for the stake holders the imperative is to know how the teaching and learning situations and opportunities are enabling this process and if not what possible resistance to effective learning and smooth transition is offered by this particular system.
2. Contemporary Educational Discourse of Second Language Learners at Intermediate Level: Communicative Competence Research Context and Problem Statement
Learning of a language is a powerful catalyzing agent in the process of "being informed and educated". Successful linguistic development enables learners' cognitive affective and psychological growth "so as to enable them to have full consciousness of their mission of their purpose in life and equip them to achieve that purpose (Aims and Objectives of Education Policy 2010). In Pakistan teaching of English has been introduced as a second language from grade one and is used as a medium of instruction across the curriculum for various subjects. The main objective of teaching English as a compulsory subject at secondary tertiary and Intermediate levels is to prepare students either to successfully enter and sustain in the academic mainstream or to enable them to enter into practical life and earn respectable living.
CC is one of the major purposes of English language teaching at the IL of education in Pakistan (Education Policy 2010: Standard I Benchmark I and II of Competency 3 Oral Communication for grades XI and XII). A Pakistani second language learner at IL has to have CC to communicate effortlessly and effectively with peers and other stake holders. Effective practice and performance of CC enable learners to interact successfully with individuals and group(s) in academic and non- academic settings for the purpose of exchange of "information ideas opinions and feelings" (Education Policy 2006). Cummins makes the distinction between two different kinds of language competences: Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) and Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP). The former are the "surface" skills of listening and speaking and latter is the ability that a learner needs to have to cope with the academic demands.
The objectives behind developing CCE at the target level in significant relation with BICS and CALP is to enable learns smoothly enter progressively sustain and successfully transit in the higher level (PIL) of education. Cummins states that while many children develop native speaker fluency (BICS) within two years of immersion in the target language it takes between 5-7 years for a child to be working on a level with native speakers as far as CALP is concerned (Cummins 2000). However a common observation of English Language teachers in Pakistan is that students face difficulty in performing the fundamental tasks required of learners' BICS and CALP at the Post-Intermediate level (PIL) as well as IL.
A likely complaint has been noticed by the university teachers who blame education at IL for not preparing students for the skills required at the PIL; students face difficulty not only in English as a subject but also with other subjects which are studied in English as a medium. So for language teachers and researchers the imperative is to know how and to what extent the pedagogical decisions and curriculum practiced at the IL of education facilitate learners' effortless transition and sufficient preparation to further their academic and professional growth.
Moreover an immediate concern of ESL community (teaching and learning) is to see and determine the effective role of curriculum and pedagogical philosophies and practices in developing learner' attitude to achieve the objectives narrated in the Educational Policy.
3. Review of Literature
Like any other developing country the system of education in Pakistan has been undergoing major changes. The number of institutions of higher learning has dramatically increased in the past decade to accommodate the increasing number of students (Siddiqui 2007). The enrolment figure for year 2004 -05 is 5 20 666 (Ministry of Finance 2005) i.e. 5055 students per university as compared to 2600 only five years back (Isani and Virk 2001). However at the same time where one would acknowledge the progress that has been made so far one notes that the progress has mostly focused on the quantitative development of education and in this context Alsulayti (2002) while collecting data regarding the education reforms took place in Japan stated that "Quality issues however continue to present challenges in these countries."
Despite the fact that since decades there has been a lot of effort put into the field teaching learning practices in Pakistan are not satisfactory for both teachers and taught. No longer is the contemporary world debating on the importance of CC (in English) as a pre-requisite for social and economic development and nobody now questions the relationship between high academic attainment and a progressive society (Thuwayba; 1997). It is pertinent to say that we live in discourse and the form of the contemporary educational discourse is competence in English language. Proficiency in CCE has become a prominent construct and phenomena offering its users ways of knowing their worlds. Learners' existence is formed changed and determined by English language and all their academic as well as non academic events and interactions are shaped by the target language. However unfortunately the majority of Pakistani students learn insufficient language competencies during IL education (Mansoor 2005).
Colleges face major challenges and responsibilities to assist talented students with poor CCE in order to assure their enrollment retention and success.
Deteriorating results of the second language learners have been a concern for subject experts for the past several years (Mansoor 2005; Rahman 2005; Shamim 2008). According to Shah (2007) the factors causing insufficient language competence and performance at the undergraduate level may include unmotivated faculty inactive learners context reduced curriculum heavy reliance on lecturing excessive note taking rote memorization stereotype examinations and a lack of supervision. Sirajuddin (2007) while commenting on the poor results shown by MA students stated that the overall standard of the subject of English was deteriorating right from the primary level. "This starts from school level and culminates in MA" she said and further elaborated that "Our students are not dull however they are not prepared well". A student of four-year graduate program in a course of English class (Communication Skill) voices this situation in the following words (Zulfiqar 2012):
Half of the time I have spent in the university I found myself struggling to adjust in the system and I still am; what teachers expect from us to know we have never been taught what we want them to teach us they consider below this level and blame us for not learning it during college but the fact is we have really never been taught about those things. I wish our college and university teachers could meet sometime.
Bailey (2002) reports a similar issue discussing that today the most daunting challenge faced to high secondary students is not gaining admission to college but "becoming prepared academically for college coursework". The research reports that once students enter college about half of them learn that they are not prepared for college level study; hence "Forty percent of students at four-year institutions and 63% at two-year colleges take remedial education". There is a strong evidence of this reported in a "Four-State Study on Improving College Readiness and Success" where the researchers state the need of a connectivity of expectations and preparation in between levels to be the real challenges the educational system face as they seek to improve transition between high school and college:
States need to make sure that what students are asked to know and do in high school is connected to postsecondary expectations-both in coursework and assessments. Currently students in most states graduate from high school under one set of standards and face a disconnected and different set of expectations in college. Many students enter college unable to perform college-level work (Venezia Callan. Finney Kirst and Usdan 2005).
The research study conducted by Smolentseva (2000) has also shown that such difficulties can be result of inconsistency between English taught and expected at college and university levels:
The successful functioning of the educational system as a social institution requires maintaining continuity and consistency between different levels especially secondary and higher education. This poses a challenge for educators and policymaker seeking to ensure sustainable development of a national system of education (Smolentseva 2000)
This would direct one's attention to a dominating phenomenon that clearly demonstrates a crisis of ESL educational quality in our nation's colleges and universities. As Gardiner (1998) claims "We seem to turn a blind eye to the quality of our educational processes and results. The busyness of daily routine and the seeming rightness of the familiar obscure the need to change". Our efforts being language teachers policy makers and curriculum designers require to address the need of change that suits contemporary learners' need and meets their demands.
4. Objectives of the Study and Research Questions
Our efforts being language teachers policy makers and curriculum designers more concern the quality and quantity of delivery of language- knowledge and may not sufficiently address the issue of its coherence and apt-connectivity between levels. In this context this can be hypothesized that the prime factor that may cause poor performance of language knowledge is maintained due to the absence of hierarchical connectivity and consistency of learning objectives which prepare a learner to construct required knowledge. The following are the objectives of the research study:
With reference to the development of CC the study aims:
a. To determine the presence of opportunities and options available at IL level in comparison with documented (Education Policy 2010) as well as materialized plans (pedagogical practices)
. To be informed about the teaching philosophies and pedagogical responsibilities of the subject teachers being materialized in the classroom
c. To understand the learners' learning speculations which form their learners' attitude and prepare them to achieve the objectives narrated by the Educational Policy
The following research questions direct the inquiry:
a. What language competencies are being developed at the Intermediate level of education and to what extent they prepare learners' for the Post-Intermediate study
. What teaching philosophies and pedagogical responsibilities of the subject teachers are being materialized in the classroom
c. What learning speculations form the learners' attitude and prepare them to achieve the objectives narrated by the Educational Policy
5. Research Design
Theoretical Framework and Methodology
The theoretical framework of this study is comprised of 3-dimensional scaffold.
5.1 Framework of Vision: Education Policy
The research establishes that the idea behind an education policy is to "identify the requirements for current and future developments" (Habib and Morrow 1998). This involves careful designing and division of curriculum and a specific framework of vision to address the transitional needs and demands of the target levels of education. The identification of requirements between the two levels of transition is equally significant for an overall sustenance of growth and development of any system of knowledge (Krashen 1982:20-22).
5.2 Pedagogical Decisions: Philosophies and Practices
These decisive actions may then follow open debates carried out in public forums such as colleges and universities and local assemblies. In terms of teaching and learning of language the involvement and understanding of the teaching community systematically designed result oriented teaching objectives and fundamental pedagogical concepts for step-by-step development keep significant positions (Krashen 1982: 10-12). This also raises our consciousness about what teachers at the college level understand their responsibility to be; whether to prepare their students for matriculation to universities or whether they see college education as having a different purpose.
5.3 Linguistic Repertoire
These efforts to ensure enhance and maintain quality of teaching and learning may then be analyzed in comparison with the holistic opportunities available teaching-learning environment (Bloom 1964; Maslow 1940; Gardner 1982) and learners' understanding of their purpose of college training.
My conceptual framework (Figure 5.1) is based on my understanding and reflection on my readings of SLA models my own experience and observation and the development of assumptions regarding my own practice as a teacher of English as second language. This conceptual framework has also helped me in designing my research methodology collecting empirical data and analyzing that as factual interpretative and conceptual findings. The Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) for Second Language Learning and National Curriculum of English Language I-XII 2006/pg.120-142 were used as framework of reference which are based on sets of competencies identified at various levels of language proficiency. These opportunities and options may include the second language teaching curriculum at the IL: national syllabus teaching methodologies and assessment procedures that are being used to equip the language learners with CCE.
The data was collected through the content analysis of Education Policy (2010) Common European Framework of Reference and survey method of descriptive research design. The content analyses of the selected texts evolved into different patterns of investigation: frequency of occurrence number of occurrences consistency of occurrence and presence or absence of the selected items/concept/theme. The process of coding and categorizing was the central feature of the analyses which was the technique used for receiving rich and meaningful findings (GAO 1996: 20).The focus was on looking at the occurrence and the consistency of the occurrence of selected terms/concepts in the texts.
However the existence of terms in the texts may be implicit as well as explicit.
Semi-structured interviews with teachers and structured questionnaire (See Appendix 1) administered on students were used as research tools to collect opinion of research participants. Using the Cluster sampling and then Random sampling the total sample size of the study was 250 participants which include 200 college (government) students: 100 boys and 100 girls and 50 college teachers of the subject (English). The use of two-stage cluster sampling for interviews was decided to ensure that each cluster has a relevant representation of the total population of subject teachers. The clusters were mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive and a random sampling technique was then used on the most relevant clusters to choose which clusters to include in the study.
6. Analysis and Findings
This part of the paper presents the findings of the Content and statistical data Analyses. The former part involves description of respondents' (teachers) profile while the later one deals with the discussion of Educational Policy (2010); English Course books of the Intermediate level review of examination Contents (2009) and findings of the in- classroom pedagogical practices at Intermediate level.
Among the 50 teachers that participated in this study 36 (72%) were females and 14 (28%) were males. With respect to respondents' years of working experience it ranged from a minimum of 1 year to a maximum of 45 years with a mean of 11 years. In terms of educational profile 16 % were undergraduates and possessed a diploma or a certificate; 28% were postgraduates; and 56% were postgraduates along with a diploma or a certificate in the field. With respect to the medium of instruction respondents use in the class 18% uses Urdu; 16% uses English; 28% uses Urdu and English and 38% uses Urdu English and students' mother tongue. Data collected from respondents show three types of results.
Among the 200 students-participants 100 (50%) were females and 100 (50%) were males. With respect to respondents' year of education 75 (37.5%) were enrolled in Intermediate 75 (37.5%) were enrolled in Post intermediate level of education and 50 (25%) were the ones who recently completed graduate level of education.
6.1 The Education Policy: Vision vs. Realization
The previous (2006) as well as current policies' (2010) vision is to "transform Pakistani nation into an integrated cohesive entity that can compete and stand up to the challenges of the 21st Century" (Education Policy 1998). For that the general objectives of English syllabus are formulated to realize the vision of educationally well-developed and linguistically informed nation that doesn't regard the lingua franca as barrier to the development and prosperity. To this effect The National Curriculum of Pakistan (2006) also saw the power and potential of English language and confirmed its attributes:
English is the language of international communication higher learning and better career options. It should therefore reach the masses so that there is no discrimination amongst the rich and poor in Pakistan in terms of opportunities for personal professional and economic development (National Curriculum for English Language Grades I-XII 2006).
In view of the fact that this research aims to deal with the oral language skills and performance that is the communicative ability of language hence language use the discussion will mainly focus on the language use that includes speaking and listening skills. Following are the general objectives of oral communication skills (listening and speaking) stated in the previous education policy (1998-20 10) to prepare the Intermediate learners for the educational levels ahead and the "world of work as well as pursuit of professional and specialized higher education".
1. To provide the students with opportunities of listening to good English with proper pronunciation stress accent and information;
2. To enable them to converse correctly and fluently to express themselves on a given subject for a limited duration;
3. To help them practice/ate in co-curricular activities related to self expression (discussions debates declamations essay writing competition quit seminars etc);
Despite the fact that the curriculum draft (2010) provides details of the contents and linguistic components which are to be studied; and suggests range of activities which are to be conducted in order to achieve the desired outcomes it may not bring a noticeable change in the situation unless the subject teachers who are the agents of this change will reconsider their philosophies of teaching. The previous curriculum of English dealt with all four skills of language speaking listening reading and writing. As far as listening skills are concerned although the specific objectives and the range of suggested activities demonstrate strategies to develop them the teaching contents and materials provided do not address the specific needs. Teachers are not provided with not asked directly or trained to design any kind of listening materials to suit the demands of articles 1 4 and 7of the draft (Table 6.1.1 see Annexure 1).
In terms of knowledge about English grammar and vocabulary a set of rules and linguistic components are mentioned in the draft to be covered in the syllabus. These components are mostly practiced in English classroom as a part of writing assignments through multiple choice questions; true-false statements and gap-filling activities given at the end-of-chapter-exercises. However to what extent demanding learners to describe language rules and linguistic components can help them to understand the features and apply them in required situations is not explained adequately.
Another thought provoking aspect of the English-language- curriculum is the presence of dialogue-writing as the only means to practice formal and informal conventions of spoken discourse. Moreover the understanding of the fact that the undergraduate education in Pakistan is examination oriented and the spoken skills are not assessed as formal examination content make the situation more complex and challenging for the English language teachers who already consider learners' motivation as a growing and dominating issue. Although the curriculum expects learners to have presentation skills; however neither the preparation nor demonstration of oral-presentation-skills is a formal feature of the provided contents/materials in the course text books. No end-of-the-chapter exercise in all 4 course text books clearly demands the demonstration of it.
Article 6 of the draft (Table 6.1.1 see Annexure 1) suggests the activity of picture descriptions and talk-sessions based on still visuals. The task can potentially extend ways of holding meaningful conversations; however the contents compiled in all four course books do not carry a single picture/visual that can be used for this purpose. However a comparison of curriculum of English in previous and current polices reveals the difference of vision between the goals of education. It is a pleasure to see the section that extends the details of the skills of `Oral Communication' (Competency 3) for grade XI and XII (National Curriculum 2006 pp. 132-134). The section clearly demonstrates a shift from grammar based teaching to communicative approach of teaching.
The section describes standards that aim to develop appropriate language conventions among students by teaching a range of expressions for various functions and co-functions that are required of the English language learners in formal and informal academic and social situations (at IL and PIL). First benchmark demonstrates a variety of linguistic exponents of communication in a wide range of context including functions of inquiry persuasion arguments comparisons and evaluations.
The second benchmark further elaborates the details of these exponents by providing various descriptors. Section 4 of the draft (National Curriculum 2006 pp. 143-149) describes the text types themes and sub-themes that are to be incorporated. The text types include/suggest a wide range of verbal/printed texts that is to enable material designers to build appropriate text content. However the section absolutely pays no attention to the existence of visual texts.
Despite the fact that the previous Education Policy (2006) manifested revolution in education and claimed change in language teaching philosophies and styles the practice of the same curriculum and pedagogical philosophies inside classroom have demonstrated that the reality clings to the same assumptions. Therefore though after the completion of the IL it has been believed (1998-2010) that the learners will be able to achieve the specific language objectives (Table 6.1.2 see Annexure 1) to meet the expectations of the PIL lack of appropriate teaching materials pedagogical practices presence of ambiguous instructions and gap between the skills developed at IL and required at PIL make it otherwise.
6.2 English Course Books of the Intermediate Level
According to the Scheme of Studies Syllabus and Model Question paper (2007 and 2008) developed by the Research Wing Federal Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education English as compulsory subject for level XI-XII carries 200 marks in the overall assessment scale designed for the grade. The analysis of the texts brings together two relatively acquainted types of findings: one comprises the understanding about the course contents and of course the pedagogical intentions of decision makers and material designers and the other explaining the reasons of the heavy reliance of teachers on these materials (text books).
However what links these two phenomena is the common interest: development of linguistic competence.
In Pakistan at the target level learners have to study four course books in 2-year time: Short Stories; Poems and Plays Essays and a novel. The activities based on language elements provided at the end of each lesson addressing specific skills in all the books can be categorized into three main groups. The first group of activities has features including multiple choice questions; question on true and false statements; short and detailed answers and column matching which are based on comprehension and/or inference. The second group offers activities like accurate usage of verb forms; punctuation; prepositions; speech and voices. The last group extends activities to vocabulary improvement. On the whole the contents address the skills of reading and writing; however at very few places there are options to hold discussions or dialogues. Unfortunately not even a single exercise could be found with the objective of improving learners' listening skill.
The skills are usually embedded in the tasks provided at the end-of-the-chapter exercises giving learners opportunity to practice their reading and writing skills.
According to the Education Policy of Pakistan (2010) the curriculum of English language at the target level should equip the learners with the second language proficiency to navigate their world by being effective performers of reading writing listening speaking critical thinking and comprehending skills to successfully communicate and construct meaning. However it does not match with the ESL teaching preferences translated in the course contents. Although apparently the syllabus incorporates the course contents suggested in the policy (2010) it focuses exclusively on reading and writing skills emphasizing more on the grammatical aspect of language than on communication. During semi-structured interviews with undergraduate language teachers about the challenges faced by them inside classroom one teacher-participant said:
Now English is not taught to them on based on these four skills at Intermediate level this is what you know and what I know. It is not all it is all about writing it is all about cramming it is all about knowing the rules of grammar and that's it. (Participant G)
Nevertheless after the completion of the IL the learners are expected to be able to connect the knowledge/learning with the real world they are dealing with (Table 6.2.1 see Annexure 2). However the findings reveal an altogether dichotomous state of affairs. As during interviews with the subject experts one interviewee conveyed that the learners are "terrible" when they come in the beginning (in universities) and have "no ... next to no English" (Participant F)". Another participant has already drawn attention to the paradox in the following words:
I would like to say one thing they have I don't know [if] twelve years of education and studyng English language [is the reason] but still they haven't overcome that fear like English is something a big giant for them to learn [and] they are not interested in it. I don't know whether it is [but] they are afraid of it and ultimately not interested.. .the way they have been taught English has done a lot in their mind[s] definitely... (Participant G)
Despite the fact that to address the linguistic demands specifically the CCE needs of the learners the document provides details of guidelines application of the traditional teaching methodologies has existed as one of the major reasons behind the issue. The document presents a list of related features/activities (10-12) stressing the fact that grammar should be presented in contextualized activities to make them meaningful interesting and motivating for the oral communication (Table 6.2.2 see Annexure 2). However these concepts have been challenged by the findings from the interviews with teachers demonstrating the contradictory pedagogical attitude towards teaching of English as second language at the Intermediate level:
Well I think it is taught like mathematics or science where you have a lesson which you have to understand you do the comprehension questions and that's it. Beyond comprehension question language teaching doesn't normally take place. (Participant E)
The issue has grown in importance in light of these comments. All the teacher-participants agreed on their being hard-pressed to run through the course text books and finish the syllabus of English as compulsory subject. Since the examinations are exclusively based on the course text books it becomes a priority for teachers to cover them religiously; no matter if this practice costs the learners to be limited in their exposure.
Hence insufficient attention is being paid to verify whether the communicative concerns are clearly understood and practiced by the learners or not. Given the fact that these are not explicitly dealt in the examination papers many students go through the system successfully without really knowing them.
6.3 Review of Examination Contents
The existing account discloses the considerable role of examination in Pakistani education system that exerts a lot of influence on teachers and the learners with an associated impact on what happens in English classrooms. Understating that the linguistic expectations which are embedded in the State's policy can probably best be achieved with the help of an integrated education system including the education policy syllabus teaching support materials assessment procedures and teaching and learning approaches perhaps the most immediate concern would involve the role of the examinations in the acquisition of the second language.
Examination contents (2009) demonstrate the learning objectives as well as the level of proficiency expected by the learners hence play a significant role in revealing the teaching and learning intentions emphasis and concerns. Research indicates that the ways in which English is taught whether as a subject or language depends greatly on the kind of assessment the learners' go through (Mansoor 2005; Rahman 2002) and Shamim (1993 2006). Pakistani examination system has been in place in its present form for more than three decades.
The Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education (BISE) conducts the examination of English as a compulsory subject at the level which has been the main criterion to assess the learners' proficiency of language and promotion to the next level.
The Education Policy of Pakistan (2010) that has been the leading document to guide the education practices in the country clearly mentions that after the completion of Intermediate level the learners of English as second language are expected to be proficient users of the language possessing effective listening speaking reading and writing skills. However the study of examination contents (2009) demonstrates a clear dichotomy of emphasis between the education policy and the examination contents for the target level. Figure 6.3.1 shows the analysis of the performance domains appearing in the assessment document (question paper) which mainly include writing and reading skills concentrating more on the grammatical aspects of the language.
The competence inferred from the exam contents (2009) does not match with the skills expected from the learners after the completion of their 2-year course work. Figure 6.3.1 shows that the question contents and responses elicited do not correspond with the objectives (Education Policy 2010). This gap between the knowledge and the skills identified in the policy and translated in the curriculum (examination and course contents) shows the lack of appropriacy pragmatic significance and productive utility of the syllabus. It reveals that the current situation may not potentially assist the learners in solving their language issues of immediate relevance. The situation may not only hamper the acquisition of the required competence but also negatively affect the learners' motivation attitude and desire of the second language learning.
Another relevant aspect that comes immediately after identifying the objectives and their manifestation is the pedagogical. It has been believed that a language class deals with a social phenomenon therefore it needs to involve methods and tools that share the relevance and are different from the other subjects as it came out in an interview:
Language teaching should be revolutionized and in that the teacher has to be very well equipped. And he/she should be able to bring in as many outside materials and realia as possible. So that students can see something new something different in a language class compared with the other subjects such as mathematics which is quite dry in which teacher cannot bring in the social and cultural background. So when you have an edge as a language teacher to bring in so many things from the real world this should be done from an earlier level so that students are able to engage in a language class the way they really should. (Participant E) The policy document (1998-20 10) has been arguing about the similar need of revolutionized teaching methodology which may follow the natural sequence of language acquisition that is to give listening practice before speaking followed by reading and writing.
It proposes a range of methodologies to improve learners' oral communicative competence in the following words:
The skills of listening and speaking can be practiced by providing maximum opportunities to the students to share and discuss the ideas either from the content of the prescribed texts or involve them in topics of their interest. Picture talk newspapers items/articles and related prompts can be extremely useful to stimulate conversation in the classroom. At this stage stress on pronunciations is essential and errors made in pronunciation must be corrected with reference to the symbols in dictionary (Education Policy 1998 p. 17).
In order to facilitate the learning process with appropriate methodologies the document (ibid: 15) also recommends a range of tools (Table 6.3.1 see Annexure 4) for aiding the teaching/learning process. In short the prime concern documented directs the subject teachers to "use a variety of tasks and activities to involve students in the class and make them active partners in the teaching process" (ibid: 17) for enhancing their communicative competence. It also implies making use of different and innovative teaching materials that would activate language production and performance and thus bring improvement in competence. However the concern does not correspond with the examination contents.
Nonetheless it is difficult to defend that the Pakistani undergraduate learners of English as second language are acquiring linguistic competence (Acquisition-Learning hypothesis Krashen 1987) as the efforts put into the process in terms of syllabus and pedagogical attitudes favor more the learning of the skill. The analytical discussion on the evaluation of course contents teaching objectives syllabus and examination content demonstrate the conscious internalization of the grammatical rules of the language resulting in learners' addictive learning (Cummins 2000). Despite the fact that the learners are exposed to some of the context-embedded texts they do not acquire sufficient skills of BICS and CALP (ibid). Consequently regardless of all the efforts lack of proficiency in communicative competence has been considered a constant phenomenon at the target level.
The students who are normally not very proficient in oral communication or they lack in some of the area[s] of language they need help in terms of overcoming the psychological barriers. For that teachers really need to come out of their comfort zone and you know they have to reach out the student and they have to see what is really stopping the student from being open in a language class. By paying some personal attention by making the students feel more comfortable using what we call as the affective filter: it is by bringing the students psychologically to the level where he/she feels at ease and feels comfortable only then can students [be] engaged in learning process. (Participant L.3).
6.4 Voices of the Participants: ESL Learners
To enrich the understanding regarding the issues concerning the limitations of teaching materials the following section from the questionnaire asked for learners' opinions on the types of language input they receive and want to be exposed to. The language-input index finds out the participants' preference in the variety of teaching materials including course books handouts lectures soft board displays audio tapes and still and moving visuals. In the first part of the questionnaire respondents were asked about the facilities/teaching aids Intermediate learners can access to use in classrooms; the section offers 5 items/teaching aids: tape recorder; language lab; multimedia; tele-vision and video/DVD plajier. 5.2% respondents reported that they do make use of these teaching aids on the other hand 94.8% stated that they don't.
In the second part of the questionnaire respondents were asked about the in-class room activities that institute/syllabus allows them to practice; the section gives eight potential options: arranging talk shows; drama debates speech and extempore competitions; holding seminars and tutorials and inviting guest speakers. 11% respondents reported that they arrange such activities however 89% recorded that they don't.
In the third and last part of the questionnaire the information was collected regarding the learning opportunities which are offered to students as part of teaching learning process in class rooms. The section presents items regarding teaching of speaking (3.1-3.10) and listening skills (3.11- 3.17). With respect to speaking skills where respondents were asked if they provide opportunities to students to speak as individuals to perform in role plays to take part in argumentative debates to narrate personal experiences feelings and emotions and to express desires anger wonder and ambitions; 21.4% stated that they always design and practice activities which provide such opportunities; 15.4% noted that they do it most of the time; 12.6% recorded that it's possible a few times only on the other hand 50.6% stated that it's not a part of their practice.
In terms of listening skills respondents were asked if they provide students with opportunities where they can listen to audio tapes their class fellows and native speakers and watch movies or a short clip and documentaries and visit to language lab; 7.14% states that it's always a practice; 7.71% records it happens most of the time 8% notes that it's possible a few times however 77.14% accepts that it's not possible for them. 94.8% states that they do not use any teaching aids 89% notes that they don't practice a number of interesting activities as they don't think that syllabus offers such possibilities 50.6% says that they don't practice activities to enhance speaking skills and 77.14% states that using interesting activities to improve listening skills is not a part of their practice.
Responses collected from students are not very encouraging. In English as second language teaching practices the dominance of traditional teaching methodologies with limited opportunities was a common finding. These are characterized by written grammatical drills and traditional classroom lectures stressing more on reading and writing skills. The findings reveal that despite the fact that teachers are aware of learners' needs of innovative methods and resources and the Education Policy provide necessary guidance to initiate these changes the reality of the learners is same as ever. A situation like this raises many questions about the role of teachers of English and their pedagogical philosophies as well as practices. In some rare cases lectures are well-organized supported with different audio-visual aids and followed by discussions.
In general the method of delivering the lecture is supported by practical work in courses which aims at developing only writing skills and techniques. However it is interesting to compare the frequency of the findings that reveal the participants' interest for the printed and visual teaching materials (Graph 4.1). The frequency ranges from minimum 1.0000 to maximum 2.4333 when the exposure to the verbal material is investigated; however it changes into minimum 3.8467 to maximum 4.8000 when they are asked about the visual texts as teaching materials in the learning of English as second language revealing their preference and interest in the medium. The finding indicates a considerable difference in learners' interest in both types of texts showing a trend of decrease towards printed and increase towards visual texts.
Although learning attitude is formed due to several social academic personal intellectual neurological and psychological factors this questionnaire deals only with the aspects of affective factors (Bloom 1964) mainly anxiety motivation satisfaction and opportunities (language input) in the development of English as second language (Krashen 1991). Krashen (1982) advocates that affective aspect of motivation anxiety learners' satisfaction and desire of learning play a dominant role in preparing them to accept the knowledge and letting it to process in the cognitive domain.
The items in the questionnaire make an explicit inquiry as to how the current scenario shapes learners' attitude towards the learning of English as second language. All 71 items (Anxiety index Motivation index Satisfaction index Opportunity/Exposure index and language- input index) of the questionnaire were subjected to a mean analysis (Tables 6.4.1 - 6.4.3 see Annexure 5). In the case of anxiety there is one specific side of the psychological behavior that is investigated. In this specific category the attitude is addressed in terms of the presences of self-consciousness uncertainty fear worry nervousness confusion distraction embarrassment and panic attacks. Table 6.4.4 presents the accumulative mean consistency of the index addressing the aforementioned aspects. The findings demonstrate the minimum presence of the attitude to be 3.3333 that ranges up to 4.8500 showing the high level of anxiety among the participants.
The presence of motivation has been understood by investigating if the participants enjoy like and take interest feel energy willing to attend the class and participate in activities; and share sense of comfort and confidence to be active partakers of the learning process. 3.4567 to be the maximum of motivation while 1.8867 to be the minimum of it (Table 6.4.4) reveals the learners' will and inspiration they hold to learn the skill which on the scale of 5 is below average. The satisfaction index explores the learners' attitude in association with their understanding of teaching objectives lesson planning; relevance of the course contents with the skills; relationship of the examination syllabus with the course contents teaching methods/tools; and as a result the improvement they can find in themselves in terms of self assessment.
The mean consistency of the index ranges from minimum 1.8533 to 2.2867 maximum showing a significantly low level of satisfaction on the scale of 5 that the participants enjoy for their learning.
Table 6.4.2 shows the findings of the opportunities available and being offered to the participants revealing the role the type and quantity of language exposure is playing in the language problems faced by the learners. The findings show the mean consistency of the opportunities being offered to the participants ranging from minimum 1.0000 to maximum 2.4333 that is considerably low on the scale of 5. The options of opportunities asked from the participants include learners' interaction with audios native speakers (through audio-visual aid) teachers class fellows; movie clips documentaries visuals; visiting language lab; oral activities of role play argumentative debates narrations extempore educational seminars and declamations. The findings indicate a limited exposure of the learners with the target phenomenon that can be one of the main reasons behind their insufficient skills of the target language.
Table 6.4.4 illustrates the accumulative findings of the questionnaire by showing six major categories emerging from the results. The findings indicate learners' low motivation and satisfaction level dearth of opportunities and options for the performance of the target language limited exposure of the phenomenon and high anxiety level cased by all these aspects. However the last category demonstrating higher ratios on the scale of 5 presents their favorable attitude towards the use of visual texts as language input.
6.5 Pedagogical Philosophies and Practices at the Target Levels
The interviews with the subject experts enabled me to identify the theories that are largely being applied by these teachers. The government of Punjab has recently declared all the primary and elementary sections of the secondary schools as English medium "rendering English as a medium of instruction" at these levels. The teachers at IL however expressed serious reservation against it primarily due to the insufficient expertise of the teachers to use the medium (Latif The News 18 Jan 2010). A teacher (GI-04) shares "though the few-days training of in-service teachers has been promised by the government I wonder how these teachers can impart instructions in English just after a few-days training when the trainers themselves are in adequately qualified".
The situation raises questions about the dominance of untrained teachers in both private and public institutions of almost all subjects in general and of English in particular at secondary and higher secondary levels. The reasons reported are many and varied. The categories of reasons emerged from these interviews involve the dearth of subject- trained teachers and the availability of large number of teachers who may not have the skills training and the aptitude; however possess a working knowledge of subject(s) and are willing to adjust with low salaries and trivial perks. One may conclude that theories of these untrained teachers may derive largely from the apprenticeship of experience: their time as students in classrooms and popular often mythical beliefs about their subject matter. And what that leads to in general is unconscious repetition for better or worse of their learning experience.
Participants shared that it "is true that Pakistani language learners are taught a lot about language; however in a 45-minutes class with 50-70 students their practice of meaningful interactions continues to be an unachievable objective of some overambitious planning (Participant L)".
One interviewee (Participant N) identified that in language classrooms "the acquisition of grammatical structures generally proceeds in an unpredictable order". In terms of teaching grammar instead of following some standard order of teaching our local needs should be preferred: "some grammatical structures should to be taught early others late regardless of the orders followed in countries where English is practiced as native language" she suggested. Participant G13-07 shared similar opinion by saying that "in colleges during secondary and high secondary levels the second language structures are taught excessively and in isolation: since they are not reinforced in immediate real situations are not assimilated and retained for real-life interactions".
Although these exercises may enable the learners to achieve better grades in examination and assessments they may not add into learners' communicative competence.
Teachers (B1-B6 E F G and L3-L12) shared that in communicative acts at higher secondary level the learners are usually made "conscious about their grammatical mistakes" and are instructed to correct them too. This push and pull between accuracy and fluency doesn't let `monitor- users' perform any of it adequately. As a result after several years of learning of language (that sometimes cross 10-12 years) at PIL these learners manage to perform as "working editors' they can write almost grammatically correct however still strive to be efficient speakers of the language. According to Cummins' model the different tasks teachers expect students to engage in can be categorized as context- embedded and context-reduced (Cummins 2000). According to him:
A context-embedded task is one in which the student has access to a range of additional visual and oral cues; for example s/he can look at visual clues of what is being talked about or ask questions to confirm understanding. Conversely a context-reduced task is one such as listening to a lecture or reading dense text where there are no other sources of help as the language itself (67).
The findings reveal that the learners at the target level are involved in cognitively demanding but context-reduced tasks and widely experience crises of the sudden shift from additive to subtractive bilingualism. ESL learners of IL in Pakistan experience the transition where "the first language continues to be developed and the first culture to be valued while the second language is added and it is added at the expense of the first language and culture which diminish as a consequence" (ibid.). When these learners move from the IL to PIL (from schools/colleges to universities) they experience a sudden shift of paradigm: a shift from additive bilingualism to subtractive bilingualism and regrettably this is the swing one can think of that makes these learners more vulnerable to distress lack of motivation and interest and subsequently cause distance between learners and the language.
The findings demonstrate that our teachers know and acknowledge the need and significance of change in current teaching practi ces at IL and PIL in Pakistan but they hardly voice them in practical situations due to different reasons. The reasons reported include resources constraints and sometimes lack of knowledge training anA will to change on the part of teachers as well as of administration. Under such circumstances the education given to students at IL lacks proficiency required at PIL as it does not involve their in-need aspects of learning and demands of higher levels of education.
The results of this study indicated that although the learners who are admitted in the courses of undergraduate level successfully go through the formal education of English from minimum 6 to maximum 12-year the dominating issue affecting their academic excellence at the target level in general and linguistic in specific is their insufficient performance of communicative competence. The study found that the communicative competence for the target level envisioned in the policy document and the objectives translated in the course and examination syllabus appear to be in conflict (see sections 6.1-6.4). The findings demonstrate dearth of target language exposure fewer opportunities of language performance use of traditional teaching methodologies and teaching materials that probably aren't only insufficient to improve the language deficiency of the learners but also inculcate attitudes that do not befit language learning objectives (see section 6.4 Table 6.4.2).
The major mismatch and hence gaps between purpose contents and contextuality of levels emerging from this investigation relate specifically to the discrepancy and disconnectivity between undergraduate levels of education. The analyses reveal two major aspects of the problem shaping the complex reality of the learners: linguistic and attitudinal. Linguistic aspects include limited language exposure and application of traditional pedagogical materials and methodologies and attitudinal involve learners' attitude of disinterest lack of motivation and lack of satisfaction with the learning process. Most of the linguistic challenges faced by the learners were of inter-lingual nature showing the interference of Li in the acquisition of L2.
The findings of the data collected through semi-structured interviews revealed learners' common linguistic problems to be wrong sentence word order lack of vocabulary or contextually inappropriate lexical item use of transitional devices from Li ( fillers) the improper use of auxiliary verbs lack of contextual understanding and demand of GTM as medium of instruction.
The attitudinal issues involved learners' lack of interest motivation confidence willingness to learn willingness to participate in class activities and interest in the subject. The findings reveal the presence of emotions (of fear tension stress nervousness boredom and procrastination) which do not support a positive attitude towards learning language (Krashen 1964; Blooms 1954). It is surprising to note that all 71 items of the close-ended questionnaire demonstrated the learners' attitude to be a mismatch with the second language teaching objectives.
A Conflict between Expectation and Requirement of Education levels: Disparity of Purpose Content and Contextuality According to the findings the language competencies by the college students identified them on levels Bi and B2 (CEFR). However some of the competencies were also targeted at level A2. One would expect that they should be at levels B2 and C1; however that would be in an ideal situation. The major gap therefore felt was at these levels for the reason that students are expected to perform at level Cl in the university; however they might have neither been trained nor assessed on these.
With these competencies when students enter into the next level (PIL) they find almost everything a clear mismatch. Apart from the skills they find it quite difficult to adjust themselves with the syllabus and methodologies. There is curricular mismatch between the college English curriculum and the university English curriculum too that includes the differences of purpose content and contextuality.
The goal of university English courses seems to provide learners with "the language skills necessary to function in the society and to attain and retain a job (Young Fitzgerald and Morgan 1994)." In contrast the goal of college English courses is "to prepare adults of limited English proficiency with the grammar vocabulary reading and writing skills necessary to succeed in remedial or developmental courses" and mainstream academic coursework (Wrigley 1994); therefore unfortunately the writing skills which they have exclusively been focusing upon don't help them much in such a situation. In university English the focus is on oral/aural communication and on reading comprehension and writing.
"The vocabulary and content center around personal expression and on survival needs in the home workplace and community (Crandall and Peyton 1993)." Conversely in the college English the focus is somewhat less personal. Students usually learn language through an examination of grammar less frequently used vocabulary and longer readings. The content is "frequently a precursor to upcoming subject study (Chamot and O'Malley 1987)." The sudden change in focus assessment procedures and above all in the visions of both systems leave students perplexed unconfident and full of doubts.
Much of the content and practice in university English centers around issues within "the context of adult life such as making a doctor's appointment or looking for a job (Crandall and Peyton 1993)" however in college English language study is either "context-reduced (where there are few clues to help derive meaning) or context-embedded (where clues to meaning are available from the surrounding text material) (Snow 1987; Genesee 1994; Met 1998)." The finding shows that in teachers' opinion "the quality of incoming students is diminishing from year to year across the country". Although learners' possess a considerable "amount" of knowledge "considering the number and volumes of course books they study"; however the functional aspect of the language skills seems entirely missing. Hence the students' proficiency of performing the target language is inadequate and a mismatch to the requirement of the PIL level of education.
Consequently they are unable to work independently and lack initiative and what it leads to is their understandable demand of additional courses and tutoring not just to pass the PIL entrance examinations but also to prepare them for their ongoing university studies.
Filling the gap between secondary and higher education and finding a balance between educational levels are significant issues of immediate concern in the country. The system needs to prescribe new regulations and strict correspondence between courses taught in colleges and university requirements to raise academic standards. The progressive connectivity of English teaching learning objectives demonstrated in the Policy embedded in teaching materials and course books and practiced inside classrooms should synchronize to inspire learners achieve their second language learning objectives. However the findings indicate a considerable dearth of harmony between the phenomena.
9. The Gaps to Bridge
Suggestions and Recommendations
The complexities and circumstances under which the second language is learned or failed to be learned at the target level in Pakistan reveal an immediate expectation: the conditions opportunities and options must not only be equally complex and real but must also be appropriate and consistent to develop learners' CC and sustain their motivation for the learning. Educational change has been isolated within either the colleges (higher secondary to Intermediate) or the higher education (universities) sector. The lack of coordination between the Intermediate and university levels impede successful transitions between the systems and diminish educational opportunity for many students (Michael Kirst and Andrea Venezia 2001).
The lack of connection between college and higher education is rooted deeply in the history of education policy. The country's two separate systems of mass education colleges on one hand and universities on the other rarely collaborate to establish consistent standards. Transitioning learners from simple to advance levels requires a broad range of approaches and skills. Administrators teachers and learners need to work together to create programs and opportunities that prepare learners to achieve all they deserve and can academically.
The dilemma is deciding how to address these issues: should we lift college English up to the level of higher education or should we lower the standards of university English down to current standards at the post-secondary level
Bailey T. (2002).Community colleges in the 21st century: Challenges and opportunities In P. A. Gram and N. Stacej (Eds.) The Knowledge economy and post secondary education: A report of a workshop. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
Chamot A.U. and O'Malley J.M. (1987).A cognitive academic language learning approach: A bridge to the mainstream. TESOL Quarterly 21 227-49.
Crandall J. and Peyton J.K. (1993).Approaches to adult ESL literary instruction. Washington DC and McHenry IL: Center for Applied Linguistics and Delta Systems.
Genesee (1994).Integrating language and content: Lessons from immersion. Santa Cruz CA: National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning.
Gilbert W. S. (2000). Bridging the Gap between High School and College. Journal of American Indian Education. 39(3).
Habib A. and Morrow 5. (2006). Research research productivity and the state in South Africa. In: Transformation 62.
Kirst and Venezia. (2001). Bridging the great divide between secondary schools and post secondary education. Reprinted from Phi Delta Kappan Vol. 83 No. 1 September 2001 pp. 92-97
Krashen 5. (1982) .Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon.
Met Myriam (1998). Curriculum decision-making in content-based second language teaching. In Cenoz and Genesee (Eds.) Beyond Bilingualism: Multilingualism and Multilingual Education. Clevedon Eng.: Multilingual Matters.
Shah M. S. D. (2007) .English language teaching at intermediate level in Pakistan: vision and reality. Shaikh Ayz International Conference Language and Literature University of Sindh Pakistan.
Sirajuddin 5. 5. (2007). Poor English results expose declining standard of education (press release). Retrieved from http://www.interface.edu.pk/ students/Dec-07/PU-Poor-MA-English-results.asp
Snow (1987). Immersion Teacher Handbook. Los Angeles CA: Center for Language Education and Research University of California.
Venezia A M. Callan E. Finney W. Kirst and D. Usdan. 2005. "The Governance Divide: A Report on a Four-State Study on Improving College Readiness and Success". The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education
Wrigley H. S. (1994). Meeting the challenges of transition: Perspectives on the RBEP/AALS transition project. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Education. (ED 373 596)
Young M.B. Fitzgerald N.B. and Morgan M.A. (1994).National evaluation of adult education programs. Executive summary. Arlington VA: Development Associates.
Zulfiqar I. (2012). The effects of the interaction between monomodal and multimodal text on language performance in Pakistani ESL context: a longitudinal case study Unpublished PhD dissertation National University of Modern Languages Islamabad.
The following table (6. 1. 1) shows the range of the suggested activities in the draft (1998-20 10) to develop Oral Communication of the learners.
Table 6.1: Suggested Activities in Curriculum Draft (1998-2010)
1. Students listen to apart of sto~y and then are asked to complete it oral(y.
2. Students are given activities in which they demonstrate the inference skills b~y
###ident~j5iing cause and ejject relationship e.g. variety of broken conditional sentences
###which theji have to match I~y checking with their classmates.
3. Students role-plqy situations and characters understanding formal and informal
4. Students listen to stories/texts and re~rpond verbal/y their reaction e.g. likes/dislikes
###preferences characters story and so on.
5. Students listen to oral presentation on familiar topics and check their comprehension
###making true/false statements.
6. Picture talk.
7. Students listen to cassettes depicting c4/fArent moods attitudes reactions and guess the
###mental attitude through tone intonation and so on.
Table 6.2: Specific Objectives Curriculum Draft (1998-2010)
1. Speak clear/y and distinct!y with correct pronunciation proper stress and intonation;
2. Foster and develop the desire to express oral!y his thoughts andfeelings;
3. Ask and respond to questions with increased confidence in a range of situations;
4. Be able to apprise himseif in situational moods (happiness anger wonder etc);
5. Listen attentiveiy to stories and poems and converse about them
6. Particz~ate as a speaker and listener in group activities;
7. Undertake role pe~formance in co-curricular activities;
8. Describe an event real or imagina~y to the teacher or a peer;
9. Contribute and respond in a constructive manner in discussion or debate advocating
###andjust~fying aparticularpoint of view;
10. Contribute in tutorial groups (peer counseling / guidance).
Table 6.3: Speaking and Listening Skill Development Objectives
Curriculum Draft (1998-2O1O)
According to the Education Policy (1998) the learners are expected:
###1. To speak clearly and distinctly with correct pronunciation proper
###stress and intonation;
###2. To foster and develop the desire to express orally his thoughts and
###3. To ask and respond to questions with increased confidence in a range
###4. To be able to apprise himself in situational moods (happiness anger
###5. To listen attentively to stories and poems and converse about them;
###6. To participate as a speaker and listener in group activities;
###7. To undertake role performance in co-curricular activities;
###8. To describe an event real or imaginary to the teacher or a peer;
###9. To contribute and respond in a constructive manner in discussion or
###debate advocating and justifying a particular point of view;
###10. To contribute in tutorial groups (peer counseling / guidance).
Table 6.4: Activity Guidelines Curriculum Draft (1998-2010')
###1. Students listen to a part of story and then are asked to complete it
###2. Students role-play situations and characters understanding formal an
###informal language use.
###3. Students listen to stories/texts and respond verbally their reaction e.g.
###likes/dislikes preferences characters and story.
###4. Students listen to oral presentation on familiar topics and check their
###comprehension making true/false statements.
###5. Students read printed images to practice "Picture talk"
###6. Students listen to cassettes depicting different moods attitudes
###reactions and guess the mental attitude through tone and intonation.
Table 6.5: Range of Teaching Tools Curriculum Draft (1998-2010)
###1.###Flash Cards###8. Pronunciation Cards
###2.###Pictures###9. Video Cassettes
###3.###Audio Cassettes###10. Tape-Recorders
###4.###Realia###11. Language Laboratory if possible
###5.###Puppets###12. Slide projector
Table 6.6: Mean consistency of Anxiety Motivation and Satisfaction Indexes
###Statistic Statistic###Statistic Statistic###Std.
1.###I feel very self conscious about###300###1.00###5.00###4.5033###.05676
speaking English in front###of###other
2.###I feel self conscious about the###300###3.00###5.00###4.6433###.02888
conseQuences of failing my English class.
3.###I feel unsure of myself when I am###300###3.00###5.00###4.5967###.02876
speaking in my English class
4.###I am afraid that my English teacher###300###3.00###5.00###4.6200###.02885
is ready to correct every mistake I make.
5.###I fear that other students are better###300###3.00###5.00###4.5500###.02954
6.###Language class moves so quickly###300###3.00###5.00###4.5933###.02918
that I worry about getting left behind.
7.###I feel overwhelmed by the number###300###3.00###5.00###4.7633###.02503
of rules i have to learn to speak English
8.###I am afraid that the other students###300###3.00###5.00###4.8500###.02118
will laugh at me when I speak English.
9.###It frightens me when###I don't###300###3.00###5.00###4.7033###.02845
understand what the teacher is saying in
10. I can feel my heart pounding when I###300###3.00###5.00###4.3767###.02995
am going to be called on in English
11. I get nervous when###I don't###300###3.00###5.00###4.3267###.02833
understand every word###the###English
12. I get confused when I am speaking###300###3.00###5.00###4.2533###.02728
in my English class.
13. During English class I find myself###300###3.00###5.00###4.3633###.02860
14. It embarrasses me###to###volunteer###300###4.00###5.00###4.6033###.02829
answers in my English class.
15. I start to panic when I have to speak###300###3.00###5.00###4.6867###.02724
without preparation in English class.
16. I tremble when i know that i am###300###3.00###5.00###4.7000###.02692
oing to be called in English class.
17. In English class I can get so nervous###300###3.00###5.00###4.6367###.02975
that I forget things I know.
18. I get upset when i don't understand###300###3.00###5.00###4.2900###.03466
what the teacher is correcting.
19. I get nervous when the English###300###2.00###5.00###3.9200###.02545
teacher asks questions I haven't prepared
20. The more I study for an English###300###1.00###5.00###3.3333###.07197
class the more confused I get.
21. I enjoy learning English.###300###1.00###5.00###3.2333###.07641
22. I like more listening to my class###300###1.00###5.00###3.2800###.08503
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Publication:||Kashmir Journal of Language Research|
|Date:||Dec 31, 2013|
|Previous Article:||FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT: LEARNERS PREFERRED ASSESSMENT TASKS LEARNING STRATEGIES AND LEARNING MATERIALS.|
|Next Article:||TRENDS OF INTER-SENTENTIAL SWITCHES: ARE THEY SAME BETWEEN MALE AND FEMALE TEACHERS.|