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The growing demand for software products has caused organizational changes in the industry, mainly those related to manage aspects that improve software quality, reduce production costs and product delivery time to the customer / user. It is observed that these aspects depend on the practices adopted to promote interaction, exchange of knowledge, alignment of activities and complement the expertise of the people involved. In the production process, it is necessary to implement agile and lean development strategies that improve the performance of human resources, since it is one of the limited resources of software development. One of the main industry initiatives is to opt for the distribution of the development process, featuring the Distributed Software Development (DSD) (Damian 2002; Agerfalk et al. 2005).

The DSD is characterized by the creation of groups in which people working together, but in different places (Carmel, 1999; Herbsleb and Moitra, 2001). This dispersion may occur at various levels such as within a region (cities), country, or even in different countries. People in multiple countries are a DSD instance, called Global Software Development (GSD) (Karolak, 1999).

According to Carmel (1999), Geographical Distance, Temporal Distance and Cultural Differences, are the factors that differentiate the GSD of traditional software development. The Geographical Distance is related to the physical distance and the Temporal Distance is characterized by the difference in time zones.

Cultural differences are defined by socio-cultural aspects presented among team members (Carmel, 1999), such as Language, Religion, Moral/Ethics etc. In GSD context, the lack of social and cultural management characteristics of the teams can create communication problems, collaboration, performance management, among others, which often cause failure (delays, errors) of a project (Prikladnicki et al., 2006) (Casey, 2011).

Olson and Olson (2004) quote that the culture defines the way that people think, their motivations and how to categorize things. Babar et al. (2014), Bellur (2006), Agerfalk et al. (2005) and Prikladnicki et al. (2005) also describe different results on the social aspects and/or cultural impact directly on the GSD performance, highlighting the influence of different languages, distances, sex, and trust, among others.

So, it is observed that to improve the results of a software project developed adopting GSD strategy is necessary to plan, analyze and evaluate the social and cultural aspects present or that characterize the culture and social relationships between the teams (Casey, 2011). Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to propose a systematization of social and cultural aspects from three perspectives (collaborative, people and external) from performance management to direct and improve the efficiency, effectiveness and productivity of GSD teams, thereby reducing the delivery time and rework the software project.

This way it was defined the following research questions: RQ1: What sociocultural aspects impact the performance of GSD teams? R Q2: How can sociocultural aspects be classified?

The proposal links and features sociocultural aspects--identified in the literature through a systematic mapping defined as critical to the performance of the GSD teams such as: Language, Power Distance, Individualism versus Collectivism, Long Term versus Short Term Orientation, Uncertainty Avoidance , Masculinity versus Femininity, Communication Style, Legislation/bureaucracy, Religion, Different Work Practices, Moral/Ethics etc. Sociocultural aspects fundamental to improving collaboration between teams, motivate and integrate people and answer external requirements to industry.

In the next section, the methodological procedures used in the research are presented. Then are highlighted the cultural aspects identified by the systematic review. Later details the perspectives proposals to address and analyze the socio-cultural aspects. In the last section, the contributions are discussed and future researches are highlighted.


First, the research is characterized regarding to its nature, the approach to the problem, the aimed objectives, and procedures adopted. In relation to nature, the research is classified as basic because it is aimed at acquiring new knowledge, specifically the problem related to socio-cultural aspects involved in global software development. Regarding to approach of the problem, the research is qualitative; there is the interpretation of phenomena and attribution of meanings, not predicting the quantification of data. With respect the goals of this research is classified as descriptive and exploratory. It is exploratory because it seeks greater familiarity with the problem, in order to make it explicit and enable the formulation of hypotheses. It is descriptive because it aims to characterize the problem, in order to identify the probable relationships between variables. About the procedures, the research is based initially on bibliographic research and systematic mapping.

The research is structured in two steps: the systematic mapping and the proposed classification of socio-cultural aspects. The procedure of this systematic mapping was based on Da Silva et al. (2010) e Kitchenham (2004). The systematic mapping enables synthesize available research; identify gaps in current research and direct new research activities (KITCHENHAM; CHARTERS, 2007). In this paper, it is proposed to identify the sociocultural aspects considered critical to the software production process and performance of GSD teams. The activities conducted in this step are described in the next section.

The classification proposal aimed to systematize the sociocultural aspects listed from systematic mapping. This systematization represents a way of viewing aspects and, it allows separating different concepts, although they are interrelated and complementary. Therefore, it allows clarifying the concepts for analysis and systematic approach.

Review Steps

To accomplish the literature review the following steps were performed:

Review Planning: proposed to identification of the need for a revision; research question(s) specification(s); and protocol development.

Carry out the Revision: defined to identification of primary studies; selection of primary studies; and extraction and data synthesis.

Research question(s) specification(s)

The search string definition occurred in three steps:

Selection of sets of keywords related to the research question Q1: DSD/GSD, Sociocultural aspects and research/challenges.

Selection of synonyms: selection of a collection of words with similar meanings, resulting in the following words:

a) DSD/GSD: "Distributed Development"; "Distributed Software Development"; "Distributed Teams"; "Geographically Distributed Software Development"; "Global Software Development"; "Global Software Engineering"; "Global Software Teams"; "Globally Distributed Development"; "Globally Distributed Work"; "Offshore Outsourcing"; "Offshore Software Development"; Offshore; Offshoring; "Multi-Site Software Development";

b) Sociocultural aspects: Social; Culture; Cultural; Sociocultural; Socio-Cultural;

c) Research/challenge: Challenges; Challenge; Approaches; Approach; Risk.

Search String Generation: the final Search String consisted of three sets, connected with the connective AND, and the elements of each set are connected by an OR.


The search for studies was performed in the following search engines: (1) IEEExplore Digital Library; (2) ACM Digital Library; (3) ScienceDirect. In addition, searches were conducted at conferences bases related to the topic, focusing on GSD, such as: (1) ICGSE--International Conference on Global Software Engineering; (2) WDDS--Distributed Software Development Workshop.

Studies Selection Criteria

The following inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to select the papers:

Inclusion criteria: a) contains an answer or part of the answer to the research question Q1; b) It is accessible through the university.

Exclusion criteria: a) duplicated documents; b) research work in progress or that would be carried out with incomplete results.

Studies Selection Process

The selection of papers that compose the final collection consisted of two steps:

Assessment of papers, found by search engines, by reading their titles, in order to eliminate those that are clearly not relevant to the subject of research.

The abstracts and conclusion of the papers that have gone through step 1, were read in order to get the final set in order to get the final set.

Data extraction and synthesis

After the selection, proceeded the extraction of data from papers. The extracted data were used to build a list of sociocultural aspects cited in the papers. It is possible to observe from most to less cited social aspect and evidence of the importance that each one of them has for the GSD researches.


The search period considered was from 2001 to mid-2014. The initial survey conducted in search engines and events resulted in 1794 documents. After studies selection process resulted in 43 publications, listed in Appendix.

Figure 1 shows the number of papers published per year. It is observed that in the period 2001 to 2006 the number of primary research that addressed the social and cultural aspects of GSD is reduced. However, one year after the organization of the I International Conference on Global Software Engineering, in 2006, held in Florianopolis--Brazil has identified a growing number of publications in 2007 and subsequently in 2010 and 2011. When designing a moving average for five years also identifies that, there is a steady growth during the study period.

In 2014, even in the middle of the year, 5 relevant papers to the subject of research were identified, indicating an increased interest in this research area.

The primary studies were published in different journal and conference or workshop. The Table 1 show that the relevant papers (35%) found were all published in IEEE which coincides with a conference in theme: International Conference on Global Software Engineering (ICGSE), consolidating the event as one of the main dissemination channels in GSD area.

Sociocultural aspects

One of the largest challenges met when Global Software Development is adopted are the problems arising from cultural differences (MacGregor et al., 2005; Da Silva et al. 2010; Casey, 2011). Sociocultural aspects dealing with issues related to social and cultural differences between distributed team (Bellur, 2006). Da Silva et al., (2010) emphasize that the effect of socio-cultural aspects should not be underestimated because they amplify the difficulties involved in DSD. In this direction, to get the benefits of distributed development is necessary to know the socio-cultural aspects and understand how they can influence software development activities.

The systematic search identified 45 socio-cultural aspects, as listed on Table 2. Table 2 highlights the identified aspects, the frequency and the works that address the socio-cultural aspect.

Figure 2 shows the accumulated frequency of the number of publications by socio-cultural aspect and it was observed that 14 aspects have been identified in more than 70.5% of publications showing the importance in the research area and software industry. They are characterized in Table 3: language, power distance, individualism versus collectivism, Long Term versus Short Term, Orientation, Uncertainty Avoidance, Masculinity versus Femininity, Communication Style, Legislation/bureaucracy, Religion, Different Work Practices, Moral/Ethics, Trust and Beliefs.

Table 3 shows the characterization of the socio-cultural aspects identified as relevant to the GSD context.

Towards classifying sociocultural aspects

Leal et al. (2012) present a classification of sociotechnical aspects into categories, stratified into groups. However, we realized the need for detail of this classification, specifically focusing on social aspects, in order to get a better understanding of the impacts that these aspects can cause in distributed teams.

Thus, based on the systematic mapping conducted and experience of the researchers involved, it is proposed a classification for the socio-cultural aspects, grouped in three levels:

Perspective: macro views of analysis under which the cultural aspects may be observed / analyzed by a set of drivers.

Driver: criteria that direct the analysis vision or approach to be taken in the perspectives.

Aspects: elements that characterize the sociocultural attributes addressed in the literature and may be associated with drivers.

This classification was proposed in order to facilitate the understanding of the socio-cultural aspects that can influence the development management with distributed teams and with that offers support for decision making by project managers.

Table 4 illustrates the grouping performed according to the suggested levels. For the first level of classification, the following perspectives have been defined: Collaboration, Personal and External. On the second level are the Drivers: Communication, Coordination, Cooperation, and Individual aspects, Value, Law, Economics and Education.

Collaboration perspective refers to the elements involved in the relationship among individuals. According to Ellis et al. (1991), collaboration is an important point to be addressed when teamwork is considered. Thus, the collaboration involves communication, coordination and cooperation (Prikladnicki and Carmel, 2014). Based on studies from the literature, communication, coordination and cooperation were defined as Drivers. According to Fuks et al. (2004) and Oliveira et al. (2007) the communication is related to the exchange of information between people, involving the interaction between individuals, a dialogue event, a context and a protocol. The coordination is related to the management of people, their activities and resources; And Cooperation is a joint effort in a shared space to achieve some goal. Thus, in relation to driver communication, it tried to associate aspects that interfere with communication between members. So, language, communication styles, social capital and knowledge sharing were selected. The driver coordination includes the relevant aspects in the coordination of distributed teams. Thus, the following: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, availability and different working practices were considered as important. The last driver of this perspective is cooperation, which consists of aspects of cooperation between members of a team of GSD. They are individualism x collectivism, trust, work planning, perception of time, sharing of knowledge and social capital.

The Personal Perspective was defined because when GSD is considered, there may be several people involved and that they, in turn, can be from different locations. This can lead to situations where there is a need to deal with people with different characteristics and / or values. The following describes the main features that were associated with this perspective. The individual aspects are: determination, indulgence, proactivity x reactivity, controllability, stress, emotional x neutral culture, leadership, motivation and creativity. In addition, the values, which according Hofstede et al (2010), are general tendencies to prefer certain states of affairs to others, include belief or religion, tradition, morals and ethics.

Depending on the individual culture, people can have different behaviors and thoughts and can lead to conflicts and problems with other members of a team of GSD. Thus, the manager of a distributed team must know these differences to better deal with situations in which they occur and avoid conflicts or misunderstanding among stakeholders.

For a project to reach the expected success, in addition to collaboration, personal characteristics involved, there are other factors that can influence the work teams. This refers to elements that often are beyond the will of those involved but that must be observed and respected to avoid future legal problems, and also understand the possible limitations arising from the education and training of people. Thus, External Perspective was defined to consider legislation, economics and education as drivers. At the legislation driver are included the external aspects of the laws governing each region: pay differences, bureaucracy, intellectual capital and intellectual property. The second driver of this set is related to the economy of a region. The last driver of this classification is related to education. It contains aspects related to education and the kind of education that is offered.


For the success of Global Software Development, it is necessary to solve several problems arising from geographical, temporal and cultural dispersion (Ebert et al., 2016). Part of these problems is derived from socio-cultural differences that may exist between the members of the distributed team.

Although several authors (MacGregor et al., 2005; Casey, 2011; Huzita et al., 2012) mention sociocultural aspects that can influence the GSD without performing a classification. Thus, this study aimed to point out the sociocultural aspects that influence the GSD team's performance and provide a possible classification regarding these aspects. The main contributions refer to the systematization of social and cultural aspects in the literature, the identification of aspects and relationship with the GSD. The classification was proposed to facilitate the understanding of the impacts that the sociocultural aspects can cause in distributed teams.

In this classification, it was suggested different levels (Perspective, driver, aspects), each one separated into subsets. The Perspective separate the aspects using as a rule the aspects most related to the cooperation between individuals, they were related to the individual (more staff) and external factors. Through this separation, it is possible to see which aspects can influence different fronts (Perspective), in the performance of a DGS team and can support the allocation of human resources, the management of a distributed team and decision-making.

The major threats to the validity of this study refer to: i) set of listed aspects. Aspects used were obtained from a systematic mapping. Thus, in the case of a systematic mapping, this is subject to limitations with respect to such as availability of information, search engines and String used in the search, which, if changed, can result in change of results. ii) Classification criteria. The classification presented here is a classification suggested by the authors.

The classification showed is one of the possible being used, and there may be others, depending on the individual interpretation and / or groups of criteria used. Based on the limitations and conclusions obtained it was identified as future work the validation of the classification presented, along with distributed development managers.

DOI: 10.4301/S1807-1775201815007


The authors thank to Elisa Hatsue Moriya Huzita (, for her help to the development of this article.


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S37. Santos, A. A., Andrade, M. F. M., Santos, V. da S., Oliveira, E. A. D. A. Q. (2007). Analysis of Organizational Culture: from the point of view of the board of a third sector organization. XII Encontro Latino Americano de Iniciacao Cientifica e VIII Encontro Latino Americano de Pos-Graduacao, 4-7. (Portuguese)

S38. Sarker, S., Kirkeby, S., Chakraborty, S. (2007). Description in the references.

S39. Soares, P. H. (2011). A strategy to address socio-cultural aspects in the distributed software development. Master Thesis. State University of Maringa (Portuguese)

S40. Vale, L., Beserra, P., Bessa, A. (2010). Relevant skills requirements analysts according to the literature and the perspectives of Project Managers". In: VI Workshop "Um Olhar Sociotecnico sobre a Engenharia de Software" (WOSES2010), (Portuguese).

S41. Vatrapu, R. K., Suthers, D. D. (2010). Cultural influences in collaborative information sharing and organization. ICIC '10 Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Intercultural Collaboration, 161-170. DOI: 10.1145/1841853.1841877.

S42. Verner, J. M., Brereton, O. P., Kitchenham, B. A., Turner, M. and Niazi, M. (2014). Risks and risk mitigation in global software development: A tertiary study. Information and Software Technology, 56(1), 54-78. DOI: 10.1016/j.infsof.2013.06.005.

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Yoji Massago (1) (iD)

Gislaine Camila Lapasini Leal (2) (iD)

Renato Balancieri (1) (iD)

Edwin Vladimir Cardoza Galdamez (2) (iD)

(1) Department of Computer Science, State University of Maringa, Maringa, PR, Brazil

(2) Department of Production Engineering, State University of Maringa, Maringa, PR, Brazil

Manuscript first received: 2016/06/30. Manuscript accepted: 2018/05/26

Address for correspondence:

Yoji Massago, Department of Computer Science, State University of Maringa, Parana, Brazil. E-mail:

Gislaine Camila Lapasini Leal, Department of Production Engineering, State University of Maringa, Parana, Brazil. Email:

Renato Balancieri, Department of Computer Science, State University of Maringa, Parana, Brasil. E-mail:

Edwin Vladimir Cardoza Galdamez, Department of Production Engineering, State University of Maringa, Parana, Brazil. E-mail:
Table 1. Result of search.

               IEEEXplore   ACM    ScienceDirect   Manual Search

Total Result      294       1181        289             24
Selected           15        6          10              12
%                 35%       14%         23%             28%


Total Result   1788
Selected        43
%              100%

Table 2. Sociocultural aspects in GSD context.

Sociocultural aspects  Frequency   Papers

Language                  22       S1, S5, S6, S7, S9, S12, S13, S15,
                                   S18, S20, S21, S22, S23, S24, S25,
                                   S26, S30, S31, S32, S36, S39, S42

Power distance            18       S1, S3, S7, S19, S23, S24, S28,
                                   S29, S30, S31, S33, S34, S35, S37,
                                   S40, S42, S43

Individualism x           16       S1, S3, S16, S19, S213 S26, S27,
Collectivism                       S28, S29, S30, S31, S34, S35, S37,
                                   S42, S43

Long Term versus          15       S1, S3, S19, S23, S27, S28, S29,
Short Term                         S30, S31, S34, S35, S37, S39, S40,
Orientation                        S43

Uncertainty               15       S1, S3, S16, S19, S23, S27, S28,
Avoidance                          S29, S30, S31, S34, S35, S37, S40,

Masculinity versus        13       S1, S3, S19, S23, S26, S27, S28,
Femininity                         S29, S30, S34, S35, S37, S43

Communication Style        8       S7, S13, S15, S21, S26, S39, S40,

Legislation/               8       S10, S13, S20, S25, S26, S30, S39,
bureaucracy                        S42

Religion                   8       S7, S11, S19, S25, S26, 29, S31,

Different Work             7       S5, S9, S13, S15, S21, S24, S39

Moral/Ethics               7       S9, S12, S19, S20, S26, S40, S42

Trust                      6       S2, S22, S26, S32, S40, S42

Beliefs                    5       S7, S13, S19, S31, S39

Calendar differences       5       S13, S17, S30, S31, S39

Different                  5       S13, S15, S20, S31, S39

Personal Values            5       S12, S14, S19, S24, S32

Contextualization          4       S3, S7, S33, S41

Time Perception            4       S3, S19, S27, S28

Creativity                 3       S7, S21, S40

Leadership                 3       S23, S27, S40

Motivation                 3       S20, S26, S31

Schedule Compliance        3       S20, S26, S42

Controllability            2       S27, S40

Economic Environment       2       S26, S39

Education                  2       S4, S13, S39

Indulgence versus          2       S19, S43

Intellectual Capital       2       S11, S38

Knowledge sharing          2       S32, S41

Normative X Pragmatic      2       S19, S28

Promise fulfillment        2       S20, S26

Relationship               2       S7, S40

Response time              2       S20, S21

Work planning              2       S13, S42

Affective Culture X        1       S27

Ascription X               1       S27

Availability               1       S26

Color                      1       S1

Decision Making            1       S13

Determination              1       S8

Effort                     1       S16

Hardware Import            1       S13

Proactivity X              1       S40

Remuneration               1       S23

Satisfaction               1       S9

Social Capital             1       S38

Table 3. Description of Sociocultural aspects.

Sociocultural                        Characteristic

Language           Considered as one of the main cultural distinctions
                   in GSD teams. The lack of a standard language for
                   communication between members makes difficult to
                   develop an effective design.

Power distance     It measures the degree of inequality acceptance. In
                   cultures with high degree of power distance, the
                   people tend to treat inequalities as a natural
                   thing, accepting it easily; already in cultures
                   with low degree of Power Distance, individuals wait
                   that they are dealt in a uniform way regardless of
                   positions (Hofstede et al. 2010).

Individualism x    Individualism has the individual himself as the
Collectivism       main orientation, while collectivism has an
                   orientation directed towards common goals and
                   objectives (MacGregor et al., 2005; Hofstede et al.

Uncertainty        It Refers to the degree to which the members of a
Avoidance          culture feel threatened /unsecured by uncertain or
                   unknown situations. Therefore, when a certain
                   unexpected event occurs, the individual may feel
                   unsure (MacGregor et al., 2005; Hofstede et al.

Communication      There are individuals who use direct communication
Style              style, while others tend to transmit the
                   information by subtle way. There are also people
                   who consider the message context, while others only
                   interpret the message content itself (Lee et al.

Legislation/       It points out that different sites may have their
bureaucracy        own rules or laws. So, problems related to legal
                   aspects, such as the existence of countries with
                   hardware import restrictions, different taxes,
                   among others may arise (Cibotto et al. 2009).

Different Work     There are different work practices (work tools,
Practices          behaviors, etc.), depending on the region, which
                   may interfere with the performance of distributed
                   teams (Avram, 2011).

Moral/Ethics       It Refers to the set of rules applied in daily life
                   and continuously used by every citizen. These rules
                   guide each individual, guiding their actions and
                   their judgments about what is moral or immoral,
                   right or wrong, good or bad.

Ethics             It points out the extracted set of knowledge of the
                   investigation of human behavior when trying to
                   explain the moral rules in a rational, reasoned,
                   scientific and theoretical manner. It is part of
                   the individual's personality. This defines the
                   actions that are "right /wrong" for the same, such
                   as the fulfillment of the word and time.

Trust              It is one of the most important requirements in
                   distributed teams (Age Falk et al., 2005; Moe and
                   Smite, 2008), because the lack of trust among team
                   members can influence communication, collaboration.
                   However, it is not easy to establish a sense of
                   trust. In some countries, the word is much more
                   than a signed document. In others, the absence of
                   such signature may represent a lack of commitment.

Beliefs/Religion   There are several religions in the contemporary
                   world, each one with their beliefs, concepts and
                   rules to follow. Therefore, there are different
                   holidays, importance and significance in the
                   colors, gestures and symbols, assignments related
                   to gender ("role" of man and woman), among others,
                   which can interfere with the GSD project.

Time Perception    There are individuals who can focus and execute
                   only one task at a time, proceeding sequentially
                   (monochrome time), while others operate in
                   parallel, performing several activities
                   simultaneously (polychrome time) (Hofstede et al.
                   2010). This can influence the work planning and
                   tasks allocation among team members.

Creativity         The ability to create, produce new things, the
                   "think outside the box" is also one of the aspects
                   that can interfere with DSD. One example cited by
                   Babar and Zaheadi (2013), is the need, in the
                   requirements engineering, verification for
                   completeness of requirements. Sometimes, may need
                   to "think outside the box" to try to identify all
                   the necessary requirements.

Leadership         It refers to the role, position and leader
                   attribute. A leader is an individual who has the
                   authority to command; person whose actions and
                   words have an influence on the behavior and
                   thinking of others. There are individuals with a
                   culture related with leadership, those born
                   leaders, or who have learned to be leaders
                   (Jablokow, 2010). An appropriate allocation of
                   these people can influence for the success of a
                   project. It may have relationship to distance

Motivation         It is the act of giving reason arouse interest for
                   some activity. Being motivated means that, in
                   addition to have a knowledge and technical skills,
                   the person must have interest in performing a
                   particular function (Schwalbe, 2000) cited
                   Prickadinick (2003). The motivation directly
                   influences the performance of the realization of an
                   activity by the individual.

Controllability    It refers to the degree of avidity to dominate the
                   surrounding environment. Thus, when a problem
                   arises, users with a high level of controllability
                   tend to change the environment, rather than
                   themselves, whereas people with low culture control
                   capability tend to change themselves rather than
                   the situation engaging (Lee et al. 2008). This
                   involves how an individual will react to certain
                   cases, besides the determination to learn new

Economic           It points out that depending on the economic
Environment        environment, there may be a different culture
                   related to the investment time (Long Orientation or
                   Short Term), and there may be different risks,
                   which interfere with the aversion to uncertainty
                   arising, for example, from an unstable economy.

Indulgence         There are people living in a society, which allows
versus             using the gratification of a relatively free way,
Restraint          relating it to enjoy life and have fun. In other
                   societies, the slogan "The work ennobles and
                   dignifies man" is valued (Hofstede et al. 2010).
                   Therefore, issues such as reward systems used in an
                   attempt to motivation no effect on certain people.

Intellectual       It refers to the set of knowledge that a person or
Capital            institution has. The knowledge that individuals can
                   acquire in different locations can be
                   differentiated, resulting in an individual in a
                   certain place can have distinct knowledge of
                   others. Thus, good management of intellectual
                   capital impact on performance in a GSD project,
                   given the variety of people, values and locations

Knowledge          There are people with facility for knowledge
sharing            transfer as own culture. While others retain the
                   knowledge to himself, influencing the performance
                   of the team and training of new members to the team
                   (Huang and Trauth 2007).

Normative X        There are cultures that follow the rules, the
Pragmatic          consolidated traditions by time, while others
                   encourage modern education as a way to prepare for
                   the future (Hofstede, 2010). The differences in the
                   level and style of education received by the
                   individual impact on the knowledge acquired by him/
                   her. Thus, the heterogeneity of education level can
                   have an impact on the team performance. On the
                   other hand, the different "shapes" can contribute
                   to complementary skills or ways to solve problems.

Work               Depending on the culture, the work planning can
planning           occur in different ways, depending on other factors
                   such as the investment of time, workload available,
                   among others (Cibotto et al. 2009).

Affective          Users of affective culture communicate their
Culture X          emotions through language and expressions directly
Neutral            while users of the neutral culture tend to be
                   careful about expressing emotion (Lee et al. 2008),
                   influencing the relationship between individuals,
                   resulting in issues concerned to trust, social
                   capital, among other topics related to GSD.

Availability       It refers to the culture of the people regarding
                   the working day adopted by them. Flexible
                   availability refers to availability outside normal
                   working hours, i.e., a person easily accepts work
                   outside their regular business hours (Leal et al.
                   2012). This interferes, for example with the
                   communication (find meeting times compatible),
                   allocation of people.

Determination      It refers to the strong inclination to be
                   persistent in what one wants to achieve. The
                   differences in the intensity of determination and
                   time that an individual can keep it interfere in
                   the planning /development of a project.

Effort             It relates to the enhancement of physical,
                   intellectual and moral forces to carry out a
                   project or task; what it does with difficulty and
                   commitment; animation; stimulation (Houaiss, 2001).
                   The effort may depend on external factors, such as
                   determination, motivation and rewards.

Proactivity X      There are people with culture of reacting to events
Reactivity         (reactive) and those with ability to anticipate in
                   action, when necessary (proactive) (Vale et al.,

Remuneration       Depending on the location and personal values,
difference         there may be differences in remuneration between
                   local and gender, as well as their acceptance by
                   other members. For instance, there may be people
                   who do not accept that women have same remuneration
                   of a man. Depending on the degree of Power
                   Distance, the salary can vary as well as its
                   acceptance among individuals (Hofstede, 2010).

Social             Stark et al. (2007) define Social Capital as
Capital            "compound of the extension of trust and
                   communication relationships that an individual has
                   with members of his/her team, within a globally
                   distributed team". According to Boden et al.
                   (2009), members of a team with a high level of
                   Capital Social will have more motivation to
                   exchange knowledge with other team members.

Tradition          Refers to the cultural heritage, legacy of beliefs,
                   techniques, set of moral and spiritual values,
                   transmitted from generation to generation; all that
                   is practiced by habit or custom acquired (Houaiss
                   et al. 2001). They define the part of the personal
                   values, influencing their preferences and

Table 4. Classification of Sociocultural Aspects.

Perspective        Driver                   Aspect

Collaboration   Communication   Language
                                Communication Style
                                Social Capital
                                Knowledge Sharing
                Coordination    Power Distance
                                Uncertainty Avoidance
                                Different Work Practices
                Cooperation     Individualism X Collectivism
                                Work Planning
                                Knowledge Sharing
                                Social Capital

People          Individual      Determination
                Aspects         Indulgence
                                Proactivity X Reactivity
                                Affective Culture X Neutral
                Value           Beliefs or Religion

External        Legislation     Remuneration difference
                                Intellectual Capital
                                Intellectual Property
                Economy         Economic environment
                Education       Pragmatic Culture X Normative

Figure 1. Publication year of selected papers.


           5 year moving average

2001   1
2002   0
2003   1
2004   2
2005   1
2006   2
2007   6
2008   3
2009   3
2010   7
2011   6
2012   3
2013   3
2014   5

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Figure 2. Accumulated frequency of sociocultural aspects


                                     Accumulated frequency

Language                                   10,1%
Power distance                             18,4%
Individualism x Collectivism               25,8%
Uncertainty Avoidance                      32,7%
Long versus Short Term Orientation         39,6%
Masculinity versus Femininity              45,6%
Legislation/bureaucracy                    49,3%
Religion                                   53,0%
Communication Style                        56,7%
Different Work Practices                   59,9%
Moral/Ethics                               63,1%
Trust                                      65,9%
Personal Values                            68,2%
Beliefs                                    70,5%

Note: Table made from line graph.
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Article Details
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Author:Massago, Yoji; Leal, Gislaine Camila Lapasini; Balancieri, Renato; Galdamez, Edwin Vladimir Cardoza
Publication:Journal of Information Systems & Technology Management
Date:Jan 1, 2018

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