Printer Friendly

TOGA:NDRA NAME KA:PPA:TTANO: MAY THE GODS PROTECT US A CONTRIBUTION TO NILGIRI RELIGIOUS INFRASTRUCTURE.

An Irula informant comments on the tribe's religious observances. Text in Irula, with translation and extended commentary by Kamil Zvelebil.

INTRODUCTION

IRULA RELIGION [1] SEEMS TO BE organized in a complex hierarchical structure with important nuclei and nodes, and less-important peripheral spots and areas. It is of course a living organism from which deities are lost while others are added. This complex structure has its nucleus in the local level of the protective village deities and the family or clan home-gods, who are regarded as the most powerful, effective, concrete and best-defined divinities.

For all Irulas there is, on the highest level, a vague notion of the Supreme, called pa:rvadi-Parame:cura, always quoted as a pair, derived from the supreme divine pair of Hindu Saivism. [2] The next, much more concrete and important level, with its own myths and cultic places (Rangaswamy Peak, Karaimadai Temple, Nanjangode Temple, etc.), is occupied by two gods, the Vaisnava Rangaca:mi and the Saiva Maha:de:curaca:mi, also appearing as Malle:svara, Ma:de:cura, Ma:de:cu:rca:mi, or even Nanjunda.

On the third level are the local village deities (protective gods worshipped by all inhabitants of the respective place of habitation) and house-gods, that is, protective deities of clans and/or families (these, too, have their own myths and mini-myths as well as legends and anecdotic stories).

The collective terms used to designate the deities of the three "upper" levels are toga:ndra (Dravidian) [3] or deyva ([less than] Indo-Aryan). [4]

"Below" the three levels of the hierarchy already mentioned there are many "lower" levels occupied by demons or devils (pe: [less than] DEDR 4438 Ta. pey), often bound to a locality and worshipped by all Irulas of that particular place; goblins and ghosts (go:lu, cf. Kurumba go:lu, ?DEDR 1918 Ta. kuli); demoniac and monstrous demigods (muni [less than] Skt. muni); vampires (jo:ke, DEDR 2870 Ta. coku).

Several mountains are worshipped as divine or sacred; ant-hills are worshipped (often with "resident" cobras); trees are worshipped, too. It also seems that certain animals are considered worthy of worship (snake, tiger, junglecat--Felis chaus). Certain ancestors and mythical heroes (e.g., Karayya, Billayya, Kovan, etc.) are, too, objects of worship and legends in various Irula communities.

It is this third level of local village and clan deities that forms the subject of the following study.

Myths, even seemingly crude, simple, "primitive" myths, transmit a basic message from generation to generation and represent an attempt--probably of a non-rational kind, perhaps a kind of universal "primitive" non-rational, non-linear logic--to grasp reality, or rather, I should say, Reality. We agree that the special quality of myth is not that it is false but that it is "divinely true" for those who believe it, while it is a fairy-tale to those who don't. Another paper will hopefully be dedicated to Irula myths. [5]

The present paper consists of an Irula text with translation and annotation, and my commentary on a species of taxonomy of the third level of deities, along with some description of the bu:je, or ritual worship of these divinities. This description is authentic in the sense that it is a primary text, offered by an educated native Mele Na:du Irula informant, a young man [6] from the Mele Na:du Irula village of Kunjapene. [7] It was taken down by me early in 1981 and is well preserved on magnetic tape.

The present paper represents the first part of my interview with the informant, which ended with my questions and some discussion, and included the informant's enumeration of the deities worshipped in Kunjapene:

nama u:rili banimaga, bagavadi, tambattekkallu ma:ri, vo:ttettoga biliyatoga, padanema:ri. nama u:rili immattu da:n. togan:ndru name ka:ppa:ttano. banimaga ta:yi ka:ppa:ttano. "In our village [there are] Banimaga, Bagavadi, Ma:ri of the Pillar Stone, Deity of Hunt--The Great God [and] Padanema:ri. That's it in our village. May the gods protect us. May Mother Banimaga protect us."

Of these deities, four are female: Banimaga, Bagavadi, Ma:ri of the Pillar Stone, and Padanema:ri; the deity of the hunt, considered the great deity is, according to the informant, neither male nor female. The protective deity of the whole village is Banimaga. Padanema:ri is the guardian goddess of the informant's kula.

After an interruption, the interview continued; the informant was kind enough to supply me with many further details, which require additional careful study, and will, hopefully, be the subject of an independent paper.

IRULA TEXT

1. na:mu toga:ngadu da: nambuge:mu. 2. toga:n collugatti, namaku nama badukeku [8] ennenne ve:nungade, namaku ta:n da: de:varuga, deyvanga, togaga. 3. banimaka, macanita:yi, bagavadi, padanema:ri, ve:ttettoga. 4. inne, na:mu kolla ca:miye na:m' vananguge:mu. 5. anne bu:jikamu, banimaka, macanita:yi, bagavadi, padanema:ri ovvonduku ondondu. 6. banimaka:ngadu, namu u:riliye kadaka toga. 7. macanita:yingadu, nama u:rili kadakadu. 8. bagavadingadu, nama u:rili kadakadu. 9. padanema:ringadu, vo:re u:rili kadakadu. 10. ve:tte toga. 11. idu na:m ve:tteku po:gatti, namku toga:ndera pa:ttu, nalla oru ve:ttene tarano, i: ve:ttettogatte na:m' vanan(gu)ge:mu. 12. inumu, ve:ttettogadengade, biliya toga. 13. ada:vadu biliya togaku na:mu ga:vu kodukadu, a:du, ko:yi, idella: na:mu ga:vu koduke:mu. 14. (i)nnu tambittekkalu. [9] 15. tambittekkallu ma:ri' enda oru pe:ru. 16. idu' oru togattu pe:ru. 17. nama u:ruku ma: manju illa:de po:na:, ma: vu:ganunda:ku ve:ndi, i: tambitte kallanga:duke na:mu po:yi, tegina ka:yi dettu, toga ku koduke:mu, vananguge:mu 18. idu namak'oru nambike. 19. i: toga:nd'ella eppu na:m toga morge:mu [10] da:, e:pral ma:ca, a: tamilili cittre ma:catti, na:m togatte . . . toga morge:mu, toga morgatti namku bu:je-n-ondu kadakadu. 20. bu:jeli teginakayi, va:pammu, co:dacambra:ni, [11] puttupammu, [12] idella na:m adike padike:mu. [13] 21. innum collapana:, ga:vumu [14] koduke:mu. 22. ma:rita:yi-n-conna: ga:v'allukka ta:yingadu pe:ru. 23. i: to:ga'lla:, e:nduoru ma:catti toda:nginamu, [15] mangavara, buduvara, i: randu na:lu toga morgad'ondu. 24. a: toga mo:rdaku mudallu, na:m' mudal na:lu u:r cutrano. [16] 25. u:re vala vandu da:n, [unintelligible] par(u)ppo: pammo: id'ella vaiici, [17] u:r cetti, bu:je aduttu ku:reke vattu, maruna:lu ra:ve, gudike po:ge:mu. 26. adi po:yi, bu:je ma:di, togaku ni:ru vattu, ida: ni:ru vattu i: bu:je ma:duku mudallu, nallacanne ni:r'a:dano, ni:r'adna pinbe, va:yike vandu, ci:le kettono. 27. pudu ci:lene kettono. 28. pudu ci:le kedkada: [18] alladu, va:yilene dekkono. [19] 29. va:yilene anne dettu, pindu pudu tundu kettina:, bu:je ceygano. 30. bu:je ceygat'mudallu, gente, [20] genatte, bu:je tattu, id'ella na:m' ve1iki, cuttama: kond'po:yi vitkkano.

KVZ: ya:ru pu:je ceyra:nga?

PSV: bu:ja:ri.

KVZ: pu:ja:riya:?

PSV: a:.

31. pinbe genatte, va:pammu, udubatti, [21] venne, pa:lu, iduma:ri bu:jeca:manatt'ella na:m' vattu, buduvara na:!ku, ellakum colli u:rke: colli, ella vandudu, [22] amma:dri toga mo:rgemu, annen' collivono. 32. artara:ve, [23] na:m' po:yi poranga:lu, id'ella eduttupoyi jo:du ca:pa:tt' eli' eduttu po:yi, adi bu:je ma:dano, bu:je ma:didu [24] a:ttapa:tta kadakadu. 33. ella: a:ttapa:ttam ittu, adili pongci, [25] anda togaku vandu, bu:jeyili paracikka, [26] paracina kon'vittu tegina kay,de [27] dekkadu, id'ella dettu-m [28]--ittu vande, [29] podayikkano, mudallu. 34. podatta vande [30] adili pammu, teginakayi, aremudi [31] teginakayi a:lge kodutta: aremudi

Vandu togaku vattugaru, ade kadeycili a: pammugummu [32] kadana: ad'ella:m panni ti:n' tingaru. [33] ideu banimaga [34] toga.

KVZ: banimaga toga?

PSR: a:.

36. innondu puttupammu proukka ma:ri.

KVZ: ma:ri innoru...?

SPR: ma:ri.

37. puttupammu porukka-v-en'conna:, mudal na:lu vandu ella: [unintelligible] [35] puttupammu dekka varala:, detta voyi. 38 togakum a:ttum [36] voyi. 39 pa:ndiputtu [37] kambaputtu [38] 40. apo: puttu dettaodane, adta na:lu puttupammuo:de ade eduttuvargadu, vayicu vanda ponnu makka. 41. vayicu vanda ponnu makka, ado:de a:la ce:ra:da ponnu makka, cinna ponnu makka. 42. namu u:rili banimaga, bagavadi, tambattekkallu ma:ri, vottenttoga biliyatoga, padanema:ri. 43. nama u:rili immatu da:n. 44. toga:ndru name ka:ppa:ttano. 45. banimaga ta:yi ka:ppa:ttano.

ENGLISH TRANSLATION [39]

1. We believe that there are indeed god[s]. [40] 2. When you say "god[s]," whatever is needed by us for our livelihood, for us [there are] truly gods, divine beings, deities. [41] 3. Banimaka, [42] Mother Macani, Bagavadi, Padanema:ri, Hunt-Deity. 4. In this way, we worship many gods. [43] 5. Thus we perform worship for each one of them separately, [for] Banimaka, Mother Macani, Bagavadi, padanema:ri. 6. Banimaka is a deity available in our very village. 7. Mother Macani is found in our village. 8. Bagavadi occurs in our village. 9. Padanema:ri is available in another village [44] 10. Hunt-Deity. 11. This, when we go hunting, having looked at our gods, we worship this hunt-deity in order to give [us] a good hunt. 12. Moreover, if you say "Hunt Deity," it is a great deity. [45] 13. Precisely to that great deity we bring sacrifice, goats, fowls, all that we offers [as] sacrifice. 14. Moreover, there is the Pillar stone. [46] 15. The name of the Pillar Stone is Ma:ri. 16. This [too] is the name of a deity. 17. I f there are no rain-clouds [over] our place, in the desire to cause rain to fall, we go near this Pillar Stone, break fresh coconut and give [it] to the deity [and] worship. 18. This is a belief of ours. 19. As to when we worship all these divinities, in the month of April, in that Tamil [language] [it is] the month of Cittira, [47] we worship the deities ... the deities, and worshipping the deities, there is a bu:je (ceremonious, structured worship) [48] for us. 20. In the bu:je, we offer to them fresh coconuts, plantains, sixteen [kinds of] incense, [49] food and fruit, all this. 21. Moreover, one should say [that] we give [also] bloody sacrifice. [50] 22. Why, to be sure, Ma:rita:yi (Mother Ma:ri) is called "sacrifice-enjoying Mother." [51] 23. All these deities we worshipped every month, Tuesday and Wednesday, these two days are the one [time] to worship deities. 24. Before the worship of those deities, on the first day we must go around the village. [25]. Having thus come in procession, [52] going around the village carrying pulse and fruit and all this, [we] place [it] in the hut adjacent to the bu:je, [and] next day in the night we go to the temple. [53] 26. Going there, performing the bu:je, "placing water for the deity," this very "placing water" [is the necessary thing to do], before [54] performing the bu:je, it is necessary to bathe well [and] after having bathed, it is necessary to tie a cloth [55] around the mouth. [56] 27. A new cloth must be tied. 28. If a new cloth is not available, it is necessary to cover the mouth. 29. Having thus covered the mouth, then, when a new tundu [57] is tied, the bu:je should be performed. 30. Before doing the bu:je, it is necessary to put out and clean the small metal bow1[s], the sacrificial salver[s], all this.

KVZ: Who performs the puja?

PSR: The pu:ja:ri. [58]

KVZ: The pu:ja:ri?

PSR: Yes.

31. Then we, having placed, like this, small metal bowl[s], ripe banana[s], incense stick[s], [fresh] butter, milk, all things [for the] puja, on a Wednesday, telling all [people], telling [the whole] village, "Do come all!" we worship the deity like that; it must be said thus. 32. At midnight we go [walking upon] back[s] of the feet, [and] taking all this, having taken all this for a common meal, [59] it is necessary to perform worship there, "Let [them] perform the puja," there's song-and-dance. 33. All having taken part in song-and-dance, being elated there, [they] go to that deity to praise in worship, [and] having finished the praises, [it is] indeed (= now) the offering (lit., 'placing, bestowing') of fresh coconuts, [and] while offering and placing all this, first it is necessary to break [them = the coconuts]. 34. After the breaking there the fruit, the fresh coconut, half of the kernel of fresh coconut, half of the kernel of coconut is given to the people [and] half of the coconut's kernel they will place for the deity, [and] finally that, all that fruit when it obtains, all that having been done, they will [finally] eat [the food]. 35. This is the deity Banimaga.

KVZ: The deity Banimaga?

PSR: Yes.

36. Another one [is] Ma:ri who gets gruel and fruit as food.

KVZ: Ma:ri is another...?

PSR: Ma:ri.

37. If you ask [what it means] "to get [as food] gruel and fruit," [60] all [ ... unintelligible ...] may come and place (= offer) food and fruit on the first day; [this is] the way of having placed (= offered). 38. [It is] the way to appease the deity. 39. Gruel of pa:ndi, [61] gruel of kambam. [62] 40. Then, as soon as the food has been placed, next day with the food and fruit, taking that they will come, grown-up women. [63] 41. Grown-up women, with them girls who have not [yet] joined men, [64] small children. 42. In our village, [there are] Banimaga, Bagavadi, Ma:ri of the Pillar Stone, The Deity of Hunt--the Great God, [and] Padenema:ri. 43. That's it in our village. 44. May the gods protect us. 45. May Mother Banimaga protect us.

COMMENTARY

This commentary is arranged as an annotated list (in alphabetical order) of items occurring in the preceding Irula text and its translation, and of additional comments on some crucial items pertaining to Irula religion. For a more systematic account of the religion of the Irulas, the reader should consult the pertinent parts of the publications cited below.

The Irula cultic places are of two kinds: small local jungle shrines close to or at some distance from a settlement, called gudi, usually dedicated to the Irula toga; and a few more important shrines, not "belonging" to a particular settlement but functioning as pilgrimage centers, some of which also function as Hindu temples. As far as I know, the following temples or shrines function as Irula sacred places, accepted by all Irula-speaking communities of the greater Nilgiri area: Rangabottu (Rangaswami Peak), Karaimadai (Hindu Vaisnava temple), Sattimangalam (Hindu Vaisnava temple), Coimbatore (temple of Ko:vanamma), Nanjangode (Hindu Saiva temple), Mallesvara Peak, Bannari (a Ma:riyamman temple), Masinagudi (Macaniyamma temple) and Ranganatha temple on Biligiri Rangana Hills.

The holiest mountain of the Irulas and perhaps the seat of the original, indigenous worship of a mountain-god of the tribe is the Rangaswami Peak, q.v.; the name of the god is Ranga, Rangaca:mi, Rangana:da, but also Ni:lagiritoga or Ni:lagiriranga. For Karaimadai and other pilgrimage centers, cf. Zvelebil 1982: 137-40. For a detailed description of the gudi, see Zvelebil 1982: 140-43.

The deity with which an Irula comes into daily contact is the toga, either in the form of the protective deity of the tribe, or in the form of the domestic god of the particular kula. It is represented by different objects: by stones (kallu), by large earthen pots (kumba) or wooden blocks. For detailed description of toga worship, see Zvelebil 1982:154-60. Among other objects of worship one should mention several animals (Zvelebil 1982: 147-49), the anthill, and mountains. An important feature of Irula religion is possession, trance (ja:ya), including foretelling the future and divination (cf. Zvelebil 1982: 157-60). For Irula eschatology, see Zvelebil 1982: 160-62.

abba Festival, festivity, particularly religious festival. Cf. colloquial Kannada habba festival, holiday. Derivation: cf. DBIA 256 Ka. parba, ultimately IA (cf. Skt. parvanPkt.pavva-, Hindi parb, parab festival). The great abba of all Mele Nadu (MN) and Vette Kadu (VK) Irulas is in the month of Vaikaci (May-June) on Rangasami Peak. It is also attended by some Uralis, Badagas, and Tamils. For details, see Zvelebil 1982: 135. The other important Jr. festival is Karemade te:ru, the chariot-festival in the Karaimadai temple.

amma: (DEDR 183) "Mother" is term reserved in Ir. for "mother-goddesses," whom the Irulas worship along with the so-called Hindu "village deities"; some of these ammas are of a general nature and in their worship the Irulas participate in the common South Indian folk religion. Some of the mother-goddesses are however locally limited or otherwise specific. Cf. Zvelebil 1982: 152. The Ir. proper term for physical (human) "mother" is not amma: but auve (auve, agve, auge, augve, oggwe) (DEDR 273; the differences reflect various dialects).

animal sacrifice Harkness (1832) witnessed Irulas sacrificing cocks and a goat, Shortt (1868) mentioned cock and goat sacrifices to Ma:ri. Nowadays Irulas tend not to perform bloody sacrifices. But I was told repeatedly (1968, 1976, 1978 and 1981) that cocks and goats are still sacrificed before grain sowing, harvest, and some religious festivals. Flesh of birds and animals sacrificially slaughtered is eaten. Cf. Zvelebil 1982: 155. In Zvelebil 1988: 144-45 is described the sacrifice of a large sambar deer (kadame). My 1981 informant stated explicitly: "Moreover, one should say [that] we give [also] bloody sacrifice. Why, to be sure, Mother Ma:ri is called 'sacrifice-enjoying Mother."' The term for bloody sacrifice is gavu, q.v. Cf. also notes 14 (in the Irula text) and 50 and 51(on the translation).

animal worship Apart from the worship of snakes, I have actually no direct or textual evidence of the worship of any animals, save, perhaps, the wild cat (q.v.).

Snake-worship is directly connected with the worship of white ant-hills. There are however vague references to an almost "sacred" or, at least, very elevated status of some animals (like the tiger or the jungle cat). Snakes, particularly the cobra, are regarded as possessing high intelligence, great powers, and almost human emotions.

ant-hill Along with the wild jungle cat (q.v.), an important element of the deep and ancient layer of Irula religion. There are often strikingly high reddish structures called puttu, puttu (DED 4335) or gu:du (DEDR 1883), and they are often homes of snakes, particularly cobras. Ant-hill earth (puttumannu, puttumarundu) is believed to have medicinal properties. Ant-hills are regarded as the clitoris of Mother Earth, but also as abodes of demons, apart from being worshipped as representations of gods. In Urali religion, the Mother Goddess of the Ant-hill, Puttamma:de:vi, is a most important deity. Cf. Zvelebil 1979: 88-89, 92-93 and Zvelebil 1982: 148.

a:tta pa:tta Lit., "dancing-singing." Song and dance are indispensable parts of Ir. religious festivals.

Bagavadi: Name of a goddess; derived [less than] Skt. bhagavati Laksmi/Durga, The deity is common to a number of tribes in the Nilgiri area: Wainad Chettis worship her (also under the name Mangini Amma). The Irulas of Ku:njapene worship her every April with a big feast. She seems to be, as such, a rather recent addition, "acquired" as powerful "commodity" for the Kunjapanai pantheon only in 1980. Her "original" residence is at Alur, near Sirumugei. Cf. Zvelebil 1988: 136-37.

Banimaga: Name of a goddess (rarely appearing as banimaka), lit., "the daughter of Bani." The etymology of the name remains so far unexplained, excepting the second part (-maga, DEDR 4616); is bani- connected with barani, a female personal name? The information I have so far on this goddess is contained in utterances 34-35 of the Irula text.

bhavani See Va:ni/Va:ni.

bo:ka See cat, wild or jungle.

bu:ja:ri, bu:jari (Ka. [less than] pujari, Ta. pucari, ultimately Skt. puja- DBIA 274 + Skt. acarya- teacher; Pa. acariya-, acera-) Shaman-priest; he is bound to a certain shrine or shrines and a deity or deities, but not to a locality. The office of the ritual specialist is most often hereditary; hierarchically, it is the most important position after the village chieftain. One bu:ja:ri can take care of more than one shrine. Cf. specially Zvelebil 1988: 139-43; with fig. 31.

bu:je/bu:ja: Puja, structured ritual worship. The structure of any Irula ritual worship seems to be a tripartite event spread over two or three days. Usually the three parts are a procession, the worship proper, and a feast accompanied by song and dance. On the first day, Irula men (accompanied by children and watched by women) go in procession round the village, with the music of oboes, clarinets, flutes, and drums. The worship proper is performed at a sacred place, which is either a structural shrine (gudi, q.v.) in the jungle near the village, or any other sacred place (trees with flat stones, rocks, a waterpool, an ant-hill). Song and dance and a common feast close the worship. Once a year, usually, a grand feast (biliyatoga) is celebrated as a kind of thanksgiving to the local protective deity or deities. Cf. Zvelebil 1979: 90-91; 1982: 154-57.

bu:je munda The deity of the puja; the word munda is possibly connected with DEDR 5020(a) Ta. mun, cf. muntai antiquity, the past; ancestor; muntu take the lead, be first, etc.; may refer to ancestor worship.

bu:man ta:yi / bu:mi ta:yi / bu:mide:vi Mother Earth, alias Earth Goddess, cf. Ta. pumitevi (TL) goddess of earth; Ka. bhudevi, bhumidevi the earth looked upon as a goddess (Kittel). Alu Kur. bu:ma-ta:yi Erdmutter, Erdgottin (D. B. Kapp). Worshipped ritually after a patch of jungle has been cut down and burnt and cleared, before the men begin sowing, that she may pardon them for injuring her with digging stick. Her clitoris is the ant-hill, q.v. She is particularly invoked while making solemn promises; one swears by Mother Earth (bu:mitay:ku cattiyama: poduva:).

cat, wild or jungle Felis chaus Guldenstaedt, Ir. names bo:kka, bo:kka, bo:kke; po:ka, po:ki, pu:ki; cf. Palu Kur. pokkanu, Alu Kur. bo:ka (connected with DEDR 4106 pakkan, Ma. pokkan, etc., cat, wild cat), a lovely beast of golden brown to dark brown color, probably the most important animal in traditional Irula lore. One myth makes the jungle cat the direct ancestor of the Irulas (cf. Zvelebil 1982: 214-17). Cf. also Zvelebil 1988: 41, 153-54, and especially Zvelebil 1990a: 165-70 and 1990b: 159-71. Bokapurattuma:ravar is the name of deity at the village of Bo:kapura (Ootacamund Taluk, important center of Kasaba and MN Irulas, with tribal residential school), lit., 'Wild Cat Town'.

dua Deity, in particular, a Hindu (i.e., non-tribal) deity. Derived from Skt. deva-, devva-, cf. DBIA 219.

dua uga:du Inviting the deity [to come and possess]; cf. dua uga pa:ttu: the song through which the deity is invited to come and enter a ja:yaka:ra (q.v.) in possession (q.v.).

ga:vu: Ritual sacrifice, usually bloody. Cf. Alu Kur. ga:vu n. Opfer; (bes.) Tieropfer (Kapp 1982). Lw. [less than] Ta. kavu sacrifice, oblation to inferior deities ... (TL) [less than]Skt. ghatuka- killing, cf. Pkt. ghau-kama- desirous of striking.

When a larger stone (cele) represents the deity proper, a smaller stone, ga:vutoga, is set up next to it, and blood (netaru) is applied only to the top of the smaller stone, cf. Zvelebil 1988: 144-45.

go:Iu, go:lu Goblin, ghost; they live in trees, are also believed to eat people. Important in eschatology, since all dead people first become ghosts when they die; as ghosts they roam about and scare the living. They must remain ghosts until a ceremony is performed for them (ci:ru, ci:ru vakkadu), which consists in placing a memorial stone (q.v.) in the memorial temple (koppe, q.v.). This ceremony takes place soon after death (ca. one month) or sometimes later (up to two years), but usually within six months (since it is necessary to invite many people for the feast, the timing is a question of economy). After the ceremony, the go:lu goes through a rebirth (marupiravi). Cf. Alu Kur. go:lu n. Geist, Gespenst (Kapp 1982). Etymology unknown, unless connected with DEDR 1918 Ta. kuli devil, demon, Ka. (Hay.) kole ghost, Th. kule id., apparition (D. B. Kapp's suggestion).

Go:ppamma Name of a goddess, the mother (aggwe) of all Rangas (the Ranga of Rangaswami Peak, the Biligiri Ranga, etc.). The Rangas have only a mother, no father. The first puja is said to be always done for this Mother-Goddess (cf. Zvelebil 1988: 138). Etymology unknown.

gudi (DEDR 1655 Ta. kuti house, etc.) In a number of languages (cf. Ko. gury, To. kury Hindu temple, Ka. gudi, Th. gudi, Te. gudi, etc.) the term designates "sanctuary, temple." Irula temples are small structures of varying size built with the same materials and in the same overall shape as houses. They are usually small local jungle shrines at varying distances from a settlement. Occasionally, gudi denotes simply bare place in the forest where a certain object is worshipped. Cf. Zvelebil 1982: 140ff.

human sacrifice I have not come across human sacrifice or its vestiges anywhere in the Nilgiris. Cf., however, K. Gnanambal 1954: 19.

hunt, ceremonial and ritual Cf. Zvelebil 1988: 144-45.

ja:ya Possession, trance, cf. Alu Kur. ja:ya. Of unknown etymology. Foretelling the future, divination, and possession are obviously part of an archaic layer of hula tribal religion. According to my data, ja:ya is performed whenever the Irulas need divine guidance or help in solving a personal or a collective problem, whenever they wish to obtain assistance or advice from the deity, or when the deity comes spontaneously to interfere in a matter of some importance. God or goddess may descend on any male of the tribe, take possession of his body, and use his mouth to speak to those assembled. Such a person is then termed ja:yaka:ra. For a detailed description see Zvelebil 1982: 157-60; 1988: 145-48.

jo:ke (cf. DEDR 2870 Ta. coku, Ka. soku, etc.) Vampire, e.g., Komariborajo:ke "the vampire of Kumaripura (?)."

kallugoppe A koppe 'memorial hut' (q.v.) filled with memorial stones (kallu). When a person dies, the chief mourner carries the memorial stone (very large for important persons, large for grown-ups, small for children) to the koppe of his lineage or clan. The stone is placed along with the stones of dead ancestors. Cf. Zvelebil 1982: 160-62(fig. 17); 1988: 101, fig.24 on p. 103.

kallutoga Stone-deity, i.e., stone representation of deity (also toga kallu deity-stone); Zvelebil 1982: 146-47.

Karaimadai (Ir. ka:remade/ka:remede) Nowadays considered a Tamil Vaisnava temple. Previous to brahmanization, it was one of the important Nilgiri tribal shrines, most probably an Irula temple. It is served by Iyengar Vaisnava brahmins, but an indigenous Irula priest arrives in the temple always, after the puja begins, to assist in it. There is also a yearly gathering of the Irulas. The various sacred items, etc., in the temple manifest typical Irula Vaisnava-Saiva syncretism visible also on Rangaswami Peak (q.v.). Cf. Zvelebil 1982: 137-38.

ko:dalu (cf. DEDR 1109 Ta. katavul) Ir. term for Hindu (i.e., non-Irula) deity.

koppe (very probably connected with DEDR 1731 Ta. kuppai heap, mound, Ma. kuppa heap of dirt or refuse, Ka. kuppe heap, pile, dunghill, Malto qope to heap) Memorial hut. Every clan or clan lineage has its own koppe; a man's wife and children share his koppe. Graves outside this burial hut are relatively shallow pits marked (if at all) by low mounds. In the koppe, each deceased person is indicated by a kallu, a round memorial stone.

kula (Skt. kula- herd, race, family, caste) Corresponds roughly to "clan"; members of a few different clans live in the same village. The clans are patriarchal and exogamous. For details, see Zvelebil 1982: 114-19; 1988: 90, n. 2, DBIA 110.

kuladeyva/kulatoga Clan-deity. Each clan has its deity (not to the exclusion of other deities). These are sometimes identical with village deities, sometimes not; sometimes, family or household deities are identical with clan-deities, sometimes not. Instance: P. Sivaraj of the Kuppa clan (b. 1953) quoted Padanemari as his clan-deity, but Ka:lita:yi and Peruma:l Rangaca:mi as the guardian (protective) deities of his family.

ku:retoga/ku:redeyva alias kudumbatoga (ku:re, DEDR 1904 Ta. kurai small hut, Ir. meaning is "house"; kudumba, DEDR 1655 Ta. kuti house, home, family, etc. Cf. Skt. kuta-, etc., and especially kutumba- household, whence Ta. Ma. kutumpam id.) The term in Ir. is applied to domestic deity, deity of the house, family deity. In 1981, at Ku:njapene, Ja:natti Ra:mh's family worshipped, as their protective deity, Padanema:ri; others (like Ka:riya, Vellei, etc.) worshipped Banaimaga as their house-goddess. There is a lovely and funny story (cf. Zvelebil 1982: 287-90, "Two Lovers of One Woman") involving the house-god (ku:retoga).

Ma:damma: A goddess of Urali Irulas; of the Madigas; also called Matangi. Cf. W. T. Elmore, Dravidian Gods in Modern Hinduism (1925), 22ff. Connection with the Central Ura1i Myth: Zvelebil 1982: 230ff.

Maha:de:curaca:mi (alias Ma:de:cura, Ma:de:cu:rca:mi, Ma:de:va, Malle:svara, Ma:dappa) A central deity of Urali Irulas and Sholegas, as well as of Vette Kadu Irulas; obviously connected with Mahadesvara and "Madheswara," i.e., Maha-deva-Isvara, an epithet of Siva as supreme god. His myth is known to all hula (and Sholega) communities either completely or in various fragments and motifs. In its most expanded form, it is current as the all-encompassing myth of the Uralis. It has a divine hero, god Ma:de:cu:raca:mi (born from the virgin Mother-Goddess, Puttamma:de:vi, q.v.), a demoniac anti-hero, Cavanan, and a human hero, the Urali ancestor Ka:rayya. This immensely complex deity is connected with the Madappa community, with the pre-Aryan tribes of Urali Irulas and Sholegas, but he is also a manifestation of Siva at Nanjangode (Mahadeva Isvara), identical with the Mallesvara of Vette Kadu Irulas, and having possible Virasaiva connections. Cf. Zvelebil 1982: 168-71, 230-57. There is also a MN Irula version of the Ma:dappa myth (Zvelebil 1982: 249). This grand myth will be the subject of a detailed analytic treatment by the author.

Ma:riyamma, Ma:riamma, Ma:ri Surprisingly, the name of this immensely popular goddess is derived from IA, cf. Skt. mari- death, pestilence, smallpox, DBIA 296, cf. Ta. mari death, smallpox, goddess of smallpox, Durga ... etc. "Mother Mari" is a deity who is omnipresent in popular south Indian Hinduism. This was recognized already by J.A. Dubois (d. 1848), who speaks of her as "the most evil-minded and bloodthirsty of all the deities of India." This undoubtedly pre-Aryan, "pre-Hindu" deity has been identified with Siva's consort; she is the goddess whose visitations can cause chickenpox, smallpox, rubella, measles, and acute conjunctivitis (Hockings 1992). Various forms of Ma:ri are worshipped by the Badagas, and some of this worship is closely connected with Irula-speaking tribes: thus Muyya:r Ma:riamma is worshipped at Cikkammagudi, a temple on the rim of the Moyar Ditch, twenty kilometers north of Ootacamund; weekly worship is offered by a Kasaba priest; a great annual ceremony in March is attended by over ten thousand people (Hockings 1992). Other forms of Ma:ri worshipped by Nilgiri communities are Kattikal Ma:riamma, a smallpox goddess at So:lu:ru; there is also a Kattikalma:rigudi (another name of the Irula settlement of Bo:kapura), which is the site of a jungle shrine to Ma:riamma ca. fifteen kilometers nort-northwest of Ootacamund. For special worship of Ma:ri, cf. Zvelebil 1988: 145. The Vette Ka:du version of Ma:ri is called Ma:riyatta. Ma:ri is so omnipresent and "powerful" that she is worshipped even by the Todas, and appears in Toda songs. Her Toda name is Mo:ramndow, and her most important shrine is at Mosinyxury (Toda name of Masinigudi, q. v.). The actual Irula temple of Ma:ri is at Bo:kapura, near Masanigudi on the northern slopes of the Nilgiris. An entire Toda song--see M. B. Emeneau, Toda Songs (Oxford, 1971), no. 204, pp. 613-14--is dedicated "for the goddess M., for the temple at M" (mo:ramndowk/mosinyxuryk). Other Toda songs, too, mention this important deity: 13: 48 speaks of "sacred place with divine power, sacred place which looks at the goddess Mariamma"; 36: 20 (a lament) says "you went to the temple of Mariamma at Masinigudi," and 81: 85 asks, "have you abandoned the temple of Mariamma at Masinigudi?" A wedding song (122: 20-21) speaks about the same form of the goddess, mentioning "a vow with a young goat" (the same phrase appears in 153:16), whereas song 183: 20 mentions Ma:riamma's temple in Ootacamund: "I hoped in vain that I would go to Ootacamund, carrying my child. / I hoped in vain that I would pay another vow to Mariamma's temple in Ootacamund." [65]

Masini, Macani, Macini, Ma:siniamma An all-powerful goddess sometimes conflated with Ma:ri. But not for Sivaraj, who speaks of Ma:ri of the Pillar Stone, of Padanema:ri, and of Mother Macani as three different goddesses. It seems that a pre-brahmanic, pre-Hindu, probably "tribal" deity has been identified with Siva's consort, as has Ma:ri. In some communities and at some cultic places, the two (originally most probably different female deities) have fallen together; in other contexts, they are still considered and worshipped as two different goddesses (e.g., at Ku:njapene). Among all the amma: goddesses, Macani/Macini is regarded perhaps as the most powerful; her worship is universal among the Nilgiri tribal (as well as non-tribal) population. Her small but important temple at Masinigudi on the lower northern slopes of the mountains is considered a very sacred place. She is mainly the goddess of cholera and other dreadful diseases. Her name most often employed in Ir. is Macanita:yi 'Mother M.' Often a bloody animal sacrifice of cocks, sheep, or goats is arranged for her. The author has come into contact with four manifestations of this goddess: Macanita:yi of Va:gapene, Macanita:yi of Ku:njapene, Macaniyamma of Macinigudi (q.v.) and Ga:njanu:ru Macani, who possessed an Urali Irula at Gundri on March 2, 1978, and spoke through him (for details, see Zvelebil 1982: 159-60, and Zvelebil 1988: 146). Cf. Bad. Ma:sini amma, Masi, elder sister of Sikkamma (the smallpox goddess, i.e., Muyya: Ma:riamma), Parvati, consort of god Siva (Hockings 1992). For the Badagas, and for some Irulas, the two goddesses, Ma:ri and Macani, represent a "division of labor": Ma:ri for smallpox, Macani for cholera. Cf. further Alu Kur. mdcani, 1w. Ka. masani, smasani Kali or Durga (Kittel 1893; Kapp 1982). Kapp gives this etymology: Skt. smasana- pyre for burning dead, burial place for cremated bones; Pa. susana- cemetery; Pkt. masana- susana- place for cremation. [66] The other Alu Kur. form of the name is Majani. There are yet other importan t features of this goddess: according to their tribal lore, the Uralis were children of god Ranga and goddess Macani. Also, a number of names of Irula-speaking tribals are identical with or derived from the name of the goddess (one of my MN informants was called Macana Me:ttiri). [67]

Ma:sinigudi, Macanigudi, Macinigudi (anglicized as Masinigudi, Masinagudi, Masanagudi, Masnagudi, Mushnigoody, Mussnel Covil, Museum Coil [!]; Toda name Mosinyxury, alias Mo:ramndow) A large village (elevation 930 m) of mixed population at the foot of the Nilgiri escarpment, in the Mudumalai Wild Life Sanctuary, ca. eighteen kilometers north-northwest of Ootacamund, head village of Masinagudi Panchayat, with a modest but rather important shrine of goddess Ma:riyamma-Macanita:yi. Its annual festival attracts thousands of tribal and nontribal devotees. [68]

memorial stones and temples The hula bury their dead; cremation is not practiced. Memorial temples (huts) are built amidst low earthen burial mounds. The hut is open toward the east; within the memorial temples, against back walls, are shallow earthen altars where waterworn memorial stones and occasionally sculptured stones are placed. The memorial huts are called koppemane, koppeku:re, or simply koppe. For details, see Noble 1978: 91-92 and Zvelebil 1982: 161-62.

muni/muni ([less than] Skt. muni- sage, saint, seer) In Tamil folk religion, the noble sage/saint has been transformed into a demon, or demon-like demigod. [69] Among the Irulas, a muni is a voracious, cannibalistic monster, often also rather stupid. Also called muniyan/muniyan. Cf. Ko. munyv, Alu Kur. muni. However, Muni:spura (cf. Ka. munisvara) is "N. des Schutzgeistes des Stammes der Alu-Kurumbas, der ... fur das Wohlergehen des Stammes sorgt" (Kapp 1982).

Ni:lagiritoga One of the names of Rangaca:mi. Also called Ni:lagiriranga, His seat is Rangaswami Peak, q.v. The names involving Ni:lagiri seem to be rather recent. For details, see under Rangaca:mi.

no:mhi (cf. DEDR 3800 Ka. nompi any religious act or obligation enjoined by the gods, any meritorious act of devotion or austerity) Ir. religious festival of Ir. tribal deities.

nonvegetarian sacrifice Cf. Zvelebil 1988: 144-45.

paca:du/peca:du (no clear etymology; perhaps connected with Skt. pisaca-) Vette Kadu Ir. term for protective deity, functionally and conceptually identical with toga (q.v.). Other VKIr term: karudeyva/kardeyva ('black-deity'?). For worship, see Zvelebil 1982: 155.

Padanema:ri Name of a goddess, worshipped about once in two years. Several families in Kunjapene in 1981 worshipped her as their protective deity and "house-goddess." So far, I have no more data on her.

Pa:rvadi-Paramaciva/Parame:cura The highest deity of all Irulas, almost always quoted as a pair (and understood as a compound). Clear Sanskrit etymology: Parvati-Paramasiva/Paramesvara. Described by my informant as ula:gaku biliyava 'the greatest in the world'. According to several creation stories, this composite deity is involved in creating the first Irulas. In one VK myth the deity is quoted as nama pa:rvadiyainma: and nama paramaciv' ayya, as two persons; in a MN story, Pa:rvadi feeds an abandoned child.

pe:y, pe: (DEDR 4438) Goblin, devil, demon (Dravidian *pey/*pec/*peh (?), both male and female: pe:ygudi 'devil-shrine'; pe:pa:ttu 'demon song', by which the pe:y is invited to come and settle in the shrine or take possession of a person. For detailed description of pe:y worship cf. Zvelebil 1988: 139-44 (including picture of pe:ygudi and photograph of shaman-priest of a female pe:y). Accord. to DEDR 4438, the Toda o:n 'the god of the dead' is connected, as well as, possibly, Pa. vedid (and Tamil ventan king ?). The whole topic of which goes back to the earliest stage of Tamil literature, is fascinating and must be investigated in depth.

pilgrimage centers of the Irulas Cf. Zvelebil 1982:138-40.

possession, by deity See ja:ya. Detailed description in Zvelebil 1982: 157-60, 368 (for "possession-song"), and Zvelebil 1988: 145-46.

Puttamma: de:vi Mother-Goddess of the Anthill. According to the central Urali myth, the Mother-Goddess of the Anthill (puttu) was born from the bo:nu 'hole' of an anthill built by white termites (keraga) in Uttu:rde:ca (somewhere in Mysore). She is a virginal goddess, an Ur-mother of the Urali tribe. Cf. "Central Urali Myth" in Zvelebil 1982: 230-57, particularly p. 254.

Rangaswamy Peak (Ir. Rangabottu, Rangaca:mibottu) The most sacred mountain of the Irulas, towering above the Nilgiris' eastern slopes (1768 m), the seat of Ranga (also called Rangaca:mi, Rangana:da or Ni:lagiriranga alias Ni:lagiritoga). For detailed description of this holy mountain, which is the main place of the yearly fertility-harvest festival, see Zvelebil 1982: 132-37, which also gives a detailed description of the central shrine and its worship. Its myth is given on pp. 258-61.

Tambattekkallu / Tambitte kallu Ma:ri 'Ma:ri of the Immovable/Pillar Stone', one of the MNIr female deities, worshipped to induce rainfall. I have, so far, very meager information on this goddess.

toga (most probably connected with Ta. tolukai worshipping, adoration, prayer: DEDR 3525 Ta. tolu to worship, adore, pay homage to; Zvelebil 1973: 45, no. 233; 1979: 57, no. 325) Generic name of protective deities of Mele Nadu Irula tribe; also, 'worship'. The Ir. form toga may be probably derived as *torka [less than] *torukay (cf. Ta. tolukai, Ma. toluka). The term is used in a number of different meanings: as a general term in the meaning of a (non-Hindu) god or deity; in the sense of 'deity' as second part of a compound, e.g., kudumbatoga 'family deity', or Ma:riyammatoga; in the meaning of the protective, guardian deity of an Ir. social unit, family or tribe; of a village; and in the sense of ritual worship. Cf., in particular, Zvelebil 1982: 146-47. When one refers to the toga deities as an entire genus in the plural, one uses either (regular p1.) togaga, or toga:ndra (an old specific p1. form probably derived from *toga:ndrV [less than] *toga-n-de:ru where -de:ru [less than] *tevaru gods); the form tog ade:ru, togande:ru is actually also heard. The worship of various togas forms the core of Irula religion.

Valli, Valliyamma(n) According to one version of the MNIr creation-origin myth, Valliyamma, a virgin goddess, taught the Irulas to eat the nu:re-root.

Va:ni/Va:ni Ir. name of the river Bhavani, worshipped as one of the manifestations of Siva's consort. Zvelebil 1982: 16-17.

vendi/vendi MNIr term for 'idol of a deity'. No certain etymology. Possible connections: Old Ta. ventu, ventan king (DEDR 5529) or Pa. vedid, vedid god (5530), found also in Ga. and Go. Cf. also Ta. pey, q.v.

Ve:ttettoga One of the most important (ancient) deities of all Irula tribes, lit., 'deity of the hunt' (DEDR 5527). It is always described as biliyatoga 'great deity', and according to my informant Sivaraj it is "neither male nor female." The hunt-god is said to be so ancient that his personal name was forgotten. He is said to be rarely properly worshipped-only once in five to ten years--by a very big feast with animal sacrifices. However, before and after a hunting expedition, the hunters pray to this deity; after a (successful) hunt, ulume leaf with part of the liver is offered to the god. The Badagas worship Be:te Sa:mi, Lord of the Hunt, 'god of sport', a minor deity to whom the be:te habba hunting festival is directed (Hockings, 1992). According to Hockings, there are no Badaga temples in his honor, but "the 19th Cent. Todas appear to have venerated him at Nambala:ko:du" (Hockings, 1992: 435).

(1.) This simplified introductory statement does not make any distinction between actually occurring differences manifested in the four Irula-speaking tribal/demitribal communities (Mele Nadu Irulas (MNIr.], Vette Kadu Irulas [VKIr.], Kasabas or Northern Irulas and Irula Uralis). It is formulated as if there were actually one single religious infrastructure common to all four communities. This is, in fact, a necessary abstraction; the differences, although they undoubtedly exist, are of subsidiary importance.

(2.) How far this is an "innovation," to what extent it is "recent," remains a moot question. In earlier literature, Irula religion, if at all mentioned, was characterized as a sort of superficial Vaisnavism, and this was both oversimplified and incorrect.

(3.) Probably to be connected with DEDR 3525 Ta. toru worship, torukai worshipping, prayer, etc., or non-Dravidian (?) "substratum" item? The regular plural form is togaga. For the p1. form toga:ndra, cf. linguistic notes below.

(4.) Skt. deva god; daiva, daivya divine; Pkt. deva, devva. The Ir. word is a loan from Ta. teyvam. Less frequently these deities are called de:varuga ([less than]Skt.). Ca:mi ([less than] Skt. via Ka. or Ta.) is also used as a general and common designation of deities (p1. ca:miga), but more frequently reserved for the "higher" or "highest" deities.

(5.) Cf. also Zvelebil 1990b.

(6.) Pulaiyan Sivaraj (b. 1953), son of S. Pulaiyan of Kuppa kula. He studied at the Government Tribal Residential School at Coonoor, became warden in a boy's hostel there, later a teacher of Irula children in Kunjapanai. He is fluent in Irula, Tamil, Badaga, and has a fair knowledge of English (in fact, at that time he was, according to my information, the only Irula who understood and spoke English). He distinguishes well between Irula and Tamil, and has a good grasp of Irula culture.

(7.) Kunjapanai (Ir. Ku:njapene), Coonoor Taluk: an important Mele Nadu Irula settlement with a government tribal school and a small dispensary established by the late Dr. Narasimhan (d. 1978), as well as a small nursery school. Easily accessible, anthropologically and linguistically exploited by G. Diffloth, R. Periyazhvar, and myself.

(8.) baduke (DEDR 5372) livelihood, prosperity, fortune, wealth, good life, cf. Bad. baduku, badaku n. wealth, property, income, prosperity, fortune ... etc., Ka. baduku, badaku living, life, livelihood, etc. PDr. [var.sup.*]-/[var.sup.*]-V-

(9.) tambitte kallu "immovable stone": cf. Ta. tambitta [left arrow] tampil/stampi [less than] Skt. stambh- to become immovable, stiff, stunned. Another form of this is tambatte-k-kallu "pillar-stone," cf. Ta. tampam [less than] Skt. stambha-. Such variations are frequent in the informant's dialect of Irula, depending on the distinction between 'normal-speed' ('slow') and 'fast' forms, whether he tries to speak carefully and distinctly (for the benefit of the questioner, etc.). Thus the name of the deity appears once as Banimaka, but also, and more often, as Banimaga, Banimaga. The god of hunt is Ve:ttetoga, but once definitely Vo:ttetoga (implying the possibility of free variation between e: and o:, otherwise distinct phonemes). Cf. also tambattekkalu/tambitte kallu.

(10.) mor- (morg-) v. to worship. Cf. DEDR 5123 Ka. morgu to bend, bow, bow to ... Malto murgre to lie with the face downward. In many languages, one of the meanings is "to bow to the ground before god or god-like person" (e.g., in Kota), "to worship." Interestingly enough, no Ta. cognate.

(11.) co:daca:mbrani, cf. Ta. *cotaca campirani sixteen [kinds of] incense; the term Ta, campirnai is a loan from Malay samrani (TL 1375) the material for the frankincense being an extraction (gum) of benzoin tree (Styrax benzoin). "Sixteen" is an auspicious number (cf. the 16 mythic centers of the body, the 16 purificatory rites, the 16 notes of the gamut, etc.).

(12.) puttupammu "food [and] fruit"; puttu n. a kind of pastry; food (in general), Zvelebil 1973: 1. 314, cf. TL pittu (p. 2651) a kind of confectionery; millet flour; cf. Skt, pista-, DBIA 269b; or 269a Skt. pista- flour, meal, Pkt. Pa. pittha-; cf. Betu Kurumba puttu food.

(13.) Ir. padi- (padik-) to offer; padike:mu; the [k] is strongly palatalized by preceding [i] before [e]. Probably DEDR 3848 Ta. pati (v, nt) to settle, rest... ;(pp, tt) to practice, habituate oneself to. The informant's gloss was rather "to offer regularly, to give usually."

(14.) ga:vu: a very important concept in Ir. religion. Cf. AluKurumba gd:vu n. Opfer (Kapp). Lw. [less than] Ta. kavu sacrifice, oblation to inferior deities...(TL); cf. Skt. ghatuka- killing; Pkt. ghaukama- desirous of striking. DBIA. In Jr., this term refers primarily to bloody sacrifice; then to ritual sacrifice, sacrifice in general to a deity which is called ga:vutoga; its ga:vu kallu, sacrificial stone-image, often accompanies the main idol, so that blood (netaru) is applied only to the top of this stone, cf. Zvelebil 1988: 144 and 12.

(15.) toda:nginamu "we worshipped": tota:dzgu- (-ug-) v. to worship (?DEDR 3525; cf. Pe. tad- to bow, Ma. toruka to salute by joining the hands). I don't know why the past tense (-in-) was used. Is this word obsolete? The ending -amu is rather North Irula (Kasaba) than MNIr.

(16.) Observe the preservation of the alveolar -tr- and -r (in utterance 25) and -tt- (in contrast to t and r).

(17.) vanci [vant[i], fast and palatalized form of van gtti which is itself a fast form of vangittu, corresponding to Ta. vankivittu having taken, got, obtained, carried.

(18.) Fast for of kidaikkada:. The whole phrase means "if not available; if not got; if not obtained."

(19.) de- (dekk-, dett-) to cover, shut, close, with the typical aphaeresis: DEDR 83 Ta. atai, Ka. ade. Ir. seems to be the only Dr. language to manifest aphaeresis in this item. Even AKu. (a closely related language) has ade-. Another Jr. verb de- (deg-, dend- intr., dek-, dett- tr.) has the underlying form *utay- (DEDR 946) to break, cf. utterance 17.

(20.) gena, ohl. genat(t)-, accus. genatte small vessel, small metal bowl. Ta. kinnam. The form gente is fast form of accus. genatte. DEDR 1543.

(21.) udubatti, cf. Ka. adapatti a thin stick covered with frankincense (Kittel), Bad. u:dabatti n. incense stick; DRIA 252; Ka. udu frankincense ?[less than] Arabic uda. Ta. utuvatti, Urdu ud incense stick.

(22.) vandudu, definitive-completive ([less than] vidu) imperative: "let all come; come all (definitely)!"

(23.) artara:ve n. cpd. midnight (cf. Ta. arttardtriri).

(24.) ma:didu, cf. n. 15; "let [them] perform [puja]," "make definitely] [the puja]!"

(25.) pongci [ponsi], ct n. 17 vanci; i.e., fast and palatalized form of pongtti, itself fast form of pongittu, corresponding to Ta. ponkivittu having been or being elated or overjoyed.

(26.) parucikka to praise, extol. If not a lw. from Literary Ta., this Ir. verb (paraca-, past stem paracin-) preserves a rather old usage; cf. also Ko. parc- to pray, To. part- id., Old Ka. parasu to utter a benediction, bless.

(27.) de: fast form of emph. particle (corresponds to Ta. tan); here translatable as "well," "indeed" or "now."

(28.) Hiatus-filler: cf. Zvelebil 1979: 25.

(29.) vandu + -e; used as a connective element, expressive of continuation; may be translated "and," or "after [that]," or "subsequently"; or it simply indicates continuation.

(30.) Cf. n. 29.

(31.) aremudi (Ta. arai + muti): mudi itself designates "the half of the kernel of a coconut"; are half.

(32.) pammugummu: a nice case of echo-word: "fruit and all that," "fruit and similar things," "all that fruit."

(33.) Lit, "eat, will eat (tingaru) the food (ti:ni)."

(34.) Cf. N. 11.

(35.) The recording in unintelligible here; it seems, though, that the informant used an Eng. expression, for one can hear something like [korekte/korektse] probably standing for 'correctly'.

(36.) a:ttu to appease, to mollify.

(37.) pa:ndiputtu n. cpd. Gruel from(?) Italian millet (Setaria italica Beauv. = Panicum italicum L.). Alu Kur. a:ndi.

(38.) kambaputtu n. cpd. Gruel made from kambu, i.e., bulrush millet. Cf. Skt. Kambu-. DEDR 1242. Ta. Kampam-pul; kampam a grain. For puttu, cf. Ta. pittu a kind of confectionary, Ka. pittu porridge, food, etc., ultimately lw. [less than]IA, cf. Skt. Pista- kneaded, DBIA 269b. ILI-1. 314.

(39.) I have preferred in this Eng. version to follow as closely as possible the Irula original; hence the translation is, in places, rather stiff and "odd."

(40.) Here the term toga refers to all kinds of deities and divinities in the most general sense; rather, to the entire world of the "supernatural" (i.e., including forms of worship).

(41.) For the etymology of the words de:varuga, deyvanga and togaga, see notes 3 and 4. There is also a slight difference in connotation: de:varuga refers to "imported" Hindu gods and goddesses, or to deities in general; deyvanga to deities in general; the term toga refers rather to village and clan deities, mostly of non-Hindu origin.

(42.) These various deities will be commented on below.

(43.) The term ca:mi refers here to the "lords," i.e., deities (male and female), in general.

(44.) The informant insisted on the fact that Padanema:ri was not one of the female deities of his village; however, she was the deity of his own kula and family. This is an important point (see below).

(45.) The deity of the hunt, Ve:ttettoga, is said to be a very ancient and very powerful deity, so ancient that his proper (personal) name was forgotten. The deity is rarely worshipped as such. Cf. the Be:te Sa:mi of the Badagas.

(46.) Cf. n. 9. Some deities are represented by one or more vertical stones (toga kallu) of uneven height, sometimes bearing marks both Vaisnava and Saiva. This particular Ma:ri (there are so many Ma:ris) is represented by a large vertical "immovable" (tambitte), i.e., fixed stone.

(47.) I.e., the first month of the Hindu year, roughly April-May.

(48.) Bu:je ([less than]Coll. Ta. or Ka.) [less than]Skt. puj- to honor, worship; puja-worship; structured ceremonial/ritual worship or adoration of gods with proper ceremonies and/or rites.

(49.) Derived from "high" Hindu ritual; cf. n. 11. "Sixteen" is an auspicious number.

(50.) For ga:vu, referring to bloody sacrifice, cf. n. 14.

(51.) Mother Ma:ri (Ma:rita:yi) is especially fond of (bloody) sacrifices. Cf. Zvelebil 1982: 152; 1988: 83 and 145.

(52.) u:revala, Ta. urvalam, procession on festive occasions round a town or village, the course of such procession being such that the village is always to one's right side (TL 500).

(53.) Ir. word for Irula temple is gudi (DEDR 1655 Ta. kuti house, abode, family, home... ,etc.). In Ko. the term refers to place of worship, too (gury); in To., kury designates a Hindu (!) temple. In some CDr languages, the corresponding terms refer, too, to a temple.

(54.) Dative + mudallu; cf. Ta. mutale first, before.

(55.) Jr. ci:le, Ta. cilai (DEDR 2629) cloth, garment, woman's cloth. This particular ci:le is more precisely designated as ka:vici:le, kanapeci:le or manjaci:le, and is usually of red, reddish or saffron color.

(56.) I was actually allowed to take pictures of the shaman-priest of Garkiyur (eastern slopes of Rangaswami Peak) in February 1981; he had a piece of red cloth (ci:le) tied around his mouth. Cf. Zvelebil 1988: 141, and the photograph, fig. 31, on p. 143.

(58.) Ir. bu:ja:ri/bu:ja:ri, derived from Ta. pujari, pucari, pucacari, this [less than] Skt. puja + acarya. Puja is structured ceremonial or ritual worship or adoration of gods with proper rites. Pucari in Tamil Hinduism is a designation reserved for two classes of ritual specialists: for priests (non-brahmin) of the so-called village deities (usually of sudra varna), and for exorcists. Cf. DBIA 274. Cf. Bad. pu:ja:ri/pu:je:ri, Alu Kur. pu:ja:ri Priester (generell) (Kapp). In the Irula context, it would probably be best to speak of "shaman-priest." Usually there is a bu:ja:ri for the village, and there may be more or less important shaman-priests attached to various more or less "powerful" shrines and deities, too; however, there are also shaman-priests who are not bound to a locality. One bu:ja:ri can take care of more than one shrine.

(57.) tundu (DEDR 3310) piece, bit, fragment..., etc., especially small piece of cloth, towel. Here it refers to a reddish towel tied around the waist, reaching to the knees.

(59.) Ir. jo:du ca:ppa:du, lit., "meal in pair(s)"; by extension, "common meal"; the participation of the whole settlement in a common feast is an important part of the ritual, just like "song-and-dance."

(60.) Ir. puttupammu, lit., "gruel/porridge [and] fruit"; the word puttu (ultimately of IA origin, cf. DBIA 269b) refers, by extension, to food in general (cf. Ko. pit, To. it), and particularly in the frequent compound with pammu it refers to anything boiled! baked given with (unboiled, fresh) fruit, as offering.

(61.) pa:ndi/pa:ndi, cf. Alu Kur. a:ndi, Bad. ha:ndi/a:ndi refers either to Setaria italica Beauv. = Panicum italicum L. Italian millet, or to true (common, Indian) millet, Panicum sumatrense. The term is of unknown etymology.

(62.) Ir. kambam, cf. Alu Kur.kambu, refers probably to the Holcus spinatus millet, i.e., bulrush millet, Italian millet (DEDR 1242), Cf. Skt. kambu.

(63.) Ir. vayicu vanda ponnu, lit., "women who have come of age."

(64.) I.e., virgins.

(65.) mo:ryxuryk in wid arkym ufcsepik o:nenin. The name of Ma:ri's temple at Ooty is, in Toda, Mo:ryxury (i.e., Ma:rigudi). All references are to Emeneau's collection.

(66.) If, however, the name Ma:cini, Ma:cani is somehow connected with Ma:ci (as seems to be the case, see below), then Ma:si could be brought into connection (according to Hockings) with Skt. mahasakti. In any case, another name of Macini is, for some tribal or demi-tribal populations of the mountains, exactly Ma:ci, Ma:si (i.e., Parvati, consort of Siva). Cf. such Badaga names (apud Hockings) as Ma:si Bettu (name of a hill), lit., "Parvati + hill."

(67.) This seems to be the case with the Alu Kurumbas, too; cf. male names like Macana, Majana, and female names like Macani, Majani (Kapp).

(68.) According to Hockings, its original name was De:vara: yapattana (a former fortress below the Nilgiri escarpment, one kilometer north of Masinigudi bazaar; archaeological site in ruins by 1812). For more details, cf. Hockings and Pilot-Raichur 1992: 322-23 and 472. Cf. also Emeneau 1971: nos. 36, 81, 115, 122, 202, 204; 106, 166, 204, 153, for allusions to Macani and to Macanigudi

(69.) Cf. TL 3309 which, quite improbably, derives muni devil, goblin from muni- v. to dislike, to be angry with. DEDR 5021.

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY

Burrow, T., and M. B. Emeneau. 1984. A Dravidian Etymological Dictionary. 2nd ed. [DEDR]. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Emeneau, M. B. 1971. Toda Songs. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Emeneau, M. B., and T. Burrow. 1962. Dravidian Borrowings from Indo-Aryan [DBIA]. Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press.

Gnanambal, K. 1954. The Kanikkar of Travancore: Their Religion and Magical Practices. Dept. of Anthropology Bulletin (Calcutta) 3 (January).

Hockings, Paul, and Christine Pilot-Raichoor. 1992. A Badaga-English Dictionary. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Kapp, D. B. 1982. Die Sprache der Alu Kurumbas. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Kittel, F. 1893. A Kannada-English Dictionary. Mangalore: Basel Mission Press.

Noble, W. A. 1978. Cultural Contrasts and Similarities among Five Ethnic Groups in the Nilgiri District, Madras State, India, 1800-1963. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ. Press.

Tamil Lexicon [TL]. 1928-62. Madras: University of Madras.

Zvelebil, K. V. 1973. The Irula Language. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.

_____. 1979. The Irula (Erla) Language, pt. 2. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.

_____. 1982. The Irula (Erla) Language. Pt. 3: Irula Lore, Texts and Translations. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.

_____. 1988. The Irulas of the Blue Mountains. Syracuse, N.Y: Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University.

_____. 1990a. The Cat in Irula Culture. Anthropos 85: 165-70.

_____. 1990b. Creation and Origin Myths of Some Nilgiri Tribes. Temenos 16: 159-71.
COPYRIGHT 2000 American Oriental Society
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2000 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:ZVELEBIL, KAMIL V.
Publication:The Journal of the American Oriental Society
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Apr 1, 2000
Words:9854
Previous Article:FROM BIDA TO SUNNA: THE WILAYA OF ALI IN THE SHII ADHAN.
Next Article:BASHO AND THE MASTERY OF POETIC SPACE IN OKU NO HOSOMICHI.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2022 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |