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The possibilities for dating Bronze Age bronze artefacts found in Estonia are limited by their scarcity in datable contexts. Settlement sites have yielded casting waste and bronze scrap, but only a few tools or weapons, and graves may contain small items such as bronze buttons, tweezers, razors and ornaments. Axes and spearheads, however, are commonly single stray finds. They are dated according to well-developed Scandinavian typologies or analogies from 'core areas' in south-western Baltic and the Volga-Kama region, assuming the artefacts were used here at the same time. These assumptions can be tested if the artefacts have any associated material with a specific age, for example the remains of wooden hafts, but these are rarely preserved. Studies where such samples have been radiocarbon dated and the tree species identified remain isolated in the whole Baltic Sea region (Asplund et al. in press).

Since 2015, three socketed bronze axes with wooden haft remains have been found in Estonia (Fig. 1). The axes from Kajamaa and Karasi villages and Astangu subdistrict in Tallinn are all different in stylistic details and represent types with rather broad temporal duration. We have AMS dated the haft remains and identified the tree species (Table 1). The samples from Astangu and Kajamaa were dated at Poznan Radiocarbon Laboratory, the stable carbon isotope ([[delta].sup.13]C) analyses were conducted at the Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences. The Karasi sample was AMS dated at 14CHRONO Centre for Climate, the Environment, and Chronology of the Queen's University Belfast. The tree species were identified in Saint Petersburg State University, Resource Center for Geo-Environmental Research and Modeling (GEOMODEL). As the axes were found by metal detectorists, we surveyed all three locations to clarify the find contexts. By combining geological and shore displacement data (Jussila & Kriiska 2004a; 2004b) we assessed the environmental conditions of the sites at the time of deposition. Here, the results are presented. Knowing the tree species informs us about hafting material selection and allows to better judge the accuracy of the AMS dates, which are intended to verify whether the typochronological age estimates made elsewhere apply to Estonian finds as well. Additionally, absolute dates may enable more accurate reconstructions of the deposition environment, particularly for seashore locations such as Astangu whose distance from water has been influenced by land uplift. Since wooden haft remains from Bronze Age bronze objects are rare in all of Europe, the finds from Astangu, Kajamaa and Karasi villages are an important addition to the comparative material from the period.

Material and results

The axe from Astangu

The axe is 8.6 cm long and its slightly curved blade is 3.7 cm wide. Including the wood remains in the socket, it weighs approximately 200 g. The cross-section of the socket is round, its diameter measures 2.1-2.3 cm. The axe has a small loop on one side. It is decorated with a matrix of four horizontal ridges level with the loop, and three rather sparsely positioned vertical ridges, the middle of which crosses the horizontal ones, reaching the mouth (Fig. 2). This kind of ornamentation is characteristic of axes of the Akozino-Malar type (Kuz'minych 1996, fig. 1).

The axe was found in 2015 in Astangu subdistrict of Tallinn, at the back of Kakumae Klint Bay, about 700 m south of the southern shoreline of Lake Harku (Fig. 3). About 250 m south of the findspot, the klint bay is bordered by the steep North Estonian Klint. During the Bronze Age, the location was on seashore, as Lake Harku was isolated from the Limnea Sea only about 850 years ago (Grudzinska et al. 2014). Shore displacement chronology based on Estonian Stone Age seashore settlements (1) indicates that the find location was raised from the sea in the end of the Stone Age, more than 4000 years ago. Depending on the exact time of deposition (see below), the shoreline was located approximately 120-200 m from the findspot (Juri Vassiljev, pers. comm., 01.03.18). The axe was found at a depth of 15 cm, in organic-rich sandy-silty sediments. A survey conducted in 2016 indicated no other archaeological remains or later soil disturbances in the immediate vicinity of the findspot, even though it is surrounded by the ruins of Peter the Great's naval fortress from the early 20th century.

The haft fragment was poorly preserved and partially mineralized (2). Two types of copper- and oxygen-containing mineral formations were observed: black-brown dense concretions and bluish-whitish plaque. Microtomographic study showed that mineral substitution has taken place mainly along the vessels and radial rays of the wood. The surviving elements of anatomy composed of 1-3 rows of homogeneous, seldom heterogeneous rays with one row of square marginal cells (Fig. 2: a) and single round vessels with vasicentric parenchyma (Fig. 2: b), which enabled to identify the species as ash (Fraxinus). The wood was AMS dated to 2345 [+ or -] 30 BP (Poz-82895), which is 510-371 cal BC with 95.4% probability (3). The [[delta].sup.13]C value is -26.6%0 (Table 1; Fig. 4).

The axe from Astangu belongs to the Akozino-Malar type. The type has many regional forms which differ in proportions, the number and placement of decorative lines, as well as the shape of the socket's cross-section (Melheim 2015, 195 ff.). They are distributed over an extensive area from Scandinavia to Tatarstan in Russia, with two main distribution clusters approximately 1200 km apart (Fig. 5: 1). In the eastern cluster between rivers Volga and Oka, approximately 265 axes have been found. The more dispersed western group of about 190 axes is centred in Malaren Valley, Sweden, but includes Norway, Finland and the Baltic countries as well (Melheim 2015, 194 and references cited therein; Engedal 2010). Both the Volga-Oka and the Malaren areas have been interpreted as centres of distribution (for overview see Civilyte 2014, 179 ff.; Kuz'minych 1996; Melheim 2015; Ojala 2016, 174 ff.), but most of the known casting moulds have been found between the clusters (Kuz'minych 1996, fig. 2, tables 1-2; Yushkova 2012, 138 and references). The axe from Astangu has the decoration and socket shape characteristic of the so-called Swedish type (Kuz'minych 1996, fig. 1: B1a), some examples of which are also known from the middle reaches of River Volga and elsewhere in eastern Europe (ibid., figs 6: 3; 7: 5; 8: 5). The axes found in the Volga-Kama region mostly originate from graves and have earlier been dated to 8th-6th centuries BC (Kuz'minykh 1996). More recently, late 10th to late 7th centuries BC have been suggested instead (Yushkova 2012, 144 with reference to Korenyuk 2000). The Nordic axes have rarely been found in closed contexts, so their suggested dates are based on typological features and span from 1300-1100 to after 500 BC (e.g. Baudou 1953; 1960, 19 ff.; Meinander 1954, 37). Only one Akozino-Malar axe has previously been radiocarbon dated. The haft remains of the axe from Vasteraker parish in Uppland, Sweden were dated in 1958 to 2330 [+ or -] 90 BP (Hjarthner-Holdar 1998, 38), which is 757-199 cal BC (95.4% probability; Fig. 4). Such a wide calibrated probability range is attributable to the so-called Hallstatt plateau within the calibration curve and does not help to narrow down the type's chronological span. The date from Astangu appears much less affected by the plateau and places to the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age.

Two more Akozino-Malar axes have been found in Estonia, from Mummassaare village in Ida-Viru county and Silla village in Parnu county (Fig. 1: 4-5). The example from Mummassaare has a zigzag line around the mouth in addition to the matrix of horizontal and vertical lines. Since zigzag ornament is characteristic of axes found in the River Kama region, the Mummassaare axe has been interpreted as a local form indicating both eastern and western influences (Lougas 1970, 87). The axe from Silla is poorly preserved, with the ornamented socket partially destroyed. The remaining vertical lines are characteristic of the so-called Nordic subtypes (Swedish and Norwegian) of the Akozino-Malar axes (Kuz'minych 1996, fig. 1: VII B1a-b, VII B2d).

The axe from Kajamaa

The axe is 6.5 cm long, its blade is 3.6 cm wide and the oval socket measures approximately 2.2 X 3 cm. The small loop at the mouth could be used to secure it to the handle. It resembles axes of the Gotland type which are decorated with outwardly curved ridges on the sides (Baudou 1960, 25). On the heavily weathered find from Kajamaa, however, such a ridge can only be distinguished on the side with the loop. On both cheeks, a V-shaped decoration is faintly traceable (Fig. 6). Including the wood fragment in the socket, the artefact weighs 66 g.

The axe was found on a field in Kajamaa village, Harju county in 2016 (Fig. 7). The location on the southern foot of a low rendzina hillock is characterized by waterlogged conditions due to rising groundwater. The thick layer of blue and green corrosion products on the axe, as well as recent compression breakage on the socket indicate that the axe has been moved around in oxygen-rich surface layers during ploughing. During an initial survey in early 2017, the land plot was under cover crop, making field-walking impractical.

Similarly to the Astangu sample, the haft fragment was very poorly preserved and partially mineralized. The tree species could not be identified with full certainty, but it clearly belongs to the class of Gymnosperms (Gymnospermae). Single-row radial rays with a height up to 9 cells were clearly distinguishable (Fig. 6). Resin channels were not observed. The wood is probably juniper (Juniperus), but spruce (Picea) cannot be completely excluded. The AMS date from the handle fragment is 2720 [+ or -] 30 BP (Poz-82896), 918-811 cal BC with 94.5% probability, and [[delta].sup.13]C value is -23.6[per thousand] (Table 1; Fig. 4).

The axe from Kajamaa is similar to the Gotland (or Koppenow) type distributed in southern Scandinavia, northern Germany and northern Poland, the coastal region between Elbe and Vistula rivers (Baudou 1960, map 16; Fig. 5: 4). The typological date ranges from periods IV to VI (1100-500 cal BC), based on some examples found in hoards (Baudou 1960, 25; Hansson 1927, 125, Pl. 12: 66, 68). From Estonia, four similar axes have been found so far, but each of them is unique in details or measurements (4). The only example from a clearly identified archaeological context is the axe found in Ridala fortified settlement on Saaremaa Island (Fig. 1: 6). So far, no radiocarbon dates have been obtained for the settlement site, but it has been dated to period VI on the basis of pottery and bronze finds (Sperling & Luik 2010, 149; Sperling 2014, 79, 314 f.).

The axe from Karasi

The axe weighs 97.2 grams and is 7.2 cm long. Its slightly curved blade is 3.5 cm wide. The socket is oval and measures 2.9 X 3.4 cm. Both cheeks are decorated with seven vertical ridges. The decoration starts at the socket, covering about 2/3 of the axe length. In the socketmost part, the middle ridge splits in two, forming a Y-shape (Fig. 8). The axe has neither a fastening loop at the socket, nor internal ridges supporting the blade. The heavily weathered artefact is covered with a light brownish green oxidation crust.

The haft fragment was quite well preserved and could be removed from the socket for examination (5) under a microscope. It was worked into a shape to snugly fit in the socket and finely finished to a smooth surface. No tool marks could be detected. Microtomographic study of the wood remains showed the same features of wood anatomy as the Astangu sample. Vasicentric parenchyma (Fig. 8: a) and 1-3 seriate rays (Fig. 8: b) enabled to identify the tree species as ash (Fraxinus). The wood from the axe socket was AMS dated to 2770 [+ or -] 31 BP (UBA-36322; Kiviruut in prep.), 998-838 cal BC with 95.4% probability (Table 1; Fig. 4).

The axe was found in 2017 in Karasi village, Jogeva county, on a plain with sandy quaternary sediments (Fig. 9), in podzol at a depth of about 25-30 cm (finder R. Alberi, pers. comm. 06.05.18). On the eastern and north-eastern sides the plain is bordered by flat lowland. The findspot was surveyed in 2018. Even though the land plot was recently cultivated, no traces of cultural layer could be detected. The only finds were small fragments of animal bones from the ploughed layer.

The axe from Karasi belongs to a type characterized by a decoration on the cheeks consisting of straight or slightly outwardly curved ridges, the middle of which branches in two at the socket (Baudou 1960, 18). Commonly, the decoration consists of three to six ridges. Above the bifurcated middle ridge may be a small dot or circle. Such axes generally measure 6-8 cm in length (ibid.), but some may be over 12 cm long (e.g. Oldeberg 1974, fig. 2714). They have straight sides and a straight or slightly curved blade, which is often narrower than the socket. Most axes lack inner ridges at the blade, some have loops at the socket (Baudou 1960, 18). Based on hoards, they have been dated to the Late Bronze Age, to periods IV-V (Aberg 1935, 153, fig. 63: 13; Baudou 1960, 18 f., Pl. XXX; Oldeberg 1974, 254; 1976, 9; Larsson 1986, fig. 36: 2). Similar axes are mainly found on northern Zealand and north-western Funen (Baudou 1960, Map 9; Fig. 5: 5). In addition, some are known from Scania, northern Jutland, and the Lake Malaren area. From period V, axes with similar Y-shaped decoration are also known from the Lusatian (Lausitz) culture area, as well as from Hungary (Baudou 1960, 18 f.). The closest analogue to the Karasi axe from Estonia was found in Maalasti, Viljandi county (Fig. 1: 7; Paavel 2016). It has fewer decorative ridges and the bifurcated middle ridge is not Y-shaped, but V-shaped. Additionally, a small circle is visible on one axe cheek above the 'V'.


Since organic material generally does not survive well, the instances where wooden haft remains have been found in the sockets of Bronze Age axes are rare, as are systematic programmes for dating them (but see e.g. Needham et al. 1997). In the Baltic region, only two artefacts have been subjected to such studies: a bronze axe of pre-Maaninka type from Paimio, Finland (Asplund et al. in press), and a stone axe found in Vaibla, Estonia (Kriiska 1998). Wood remains have been found in several socketed bronze items from graves in the Volga-Kama region, for example from the Earlier Akhmylovo (Patrushev & Khalikov 1982), Seima, Turbino I, Skorodum, Akozino (Bader 1964, 65; 1970, 106) and Koz'modem'yansk (Kuz'minych 1996, figs 3-5) cemeteries, but only select few of such samples have been radiocarbon dated and the tree species identified (Yunger & Karpelan 2005).

One-piece knee-shaped hafts, as well as composite hafts have been recovered elsewhere in Europe, although rarely (e.g. Dietrich 2010, fig. 2: 1-3; Gross et al. 2017, fig. 7). The haft fragments from Astangu, Kajamaa and Karasi are too small to say which method was used, but we do know that one haft was at least partially made of juniper or spruce and two of ash wood. The popularity of ash in the Baltic region is somewhat surprising, as the stone axe haft from Vaibla and the bronze axe haft from Paimio were made of common ash as well (Fraxinus excelsior L.; Kriiska 1998, 154; Asplund et al. in press). Solid and hard ash wood has been a highly valued material in Estonian traditional woodworking (Viires 1960, 19). It is possible that these properties have also contributed to the wood preservation in the soil. Juniper and spruce are not as hard as oak or ash wood, but are nevertheless relatively tough, flexible and durable. Elsewhere in Europe, copper and bronze axes have been hafted with oak, beech, and conifers such as spruce, yew, and pine (e.g. Gryaznov 1947, 170; Bader 1970, 106; Gross et al. 2017, 218; Marchenko et al. 2017, 6, Table 1 with reference to Yunger & Karpelan 2005).

All three AMS dates of axe handles presented here match the axes' typological dates. As these span five or more centuries, the AMS dates are invaluable for specifying when the individual items were used (6). The Akozino-Malar axes, in particular, have a noticeably broad, tentative typological date based on few closed finds. The relatively late AMS result of the Astangu sample, 6th-4th centuries cal BC, points to the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age. The type's late date at the end of the Bronze Age or in the Early Iron Age has earlier been put forward for example by Carl F. Meinander (1954), Vello Lougas (1970, 88 f.) and Lembit Jaanits et al. (1982, 151). It has also been suggested that the Pre-Roman Iron Age socketed axes made of iron were modelled after the Akozino-Malar examples (Salo 1984, 192). The results from Kajamaa and Karasi axes demonstrate that they were used here at the same time as in Scandinavia from where most of the parallels are known. Their AMS dates place in the 10th-9th centuries cal BC, to the earlier halves of the typological date ranges, but are not earlier than the second half of period IV. This result supports the hypothesis according to which the import of metal artefacts from Scandinavia resumed in late period IV, after a somewhat less active period in the last quarter of the second millennium BC (Lang 2007, 40; Sperling 2013; 2014, 20 f., 24 ff.).

The findspots of Astangu, Kajamaa and Karasi axes are all topographically different: flat seashore in a klint bay, a waterlogged slope of a rendzina hillock, and a sandy plain. Astangu and Karasi sites lack other Bronze Age remains. Karasi would likely have been suitable for a settlement site, and might have been one, but has not left easily detectable traces. The Kajamaa findspot was probably too wet for a settlement site. Although it cannot be determined why the axes were left in these specific locations, they are similar to most sites in Estonia where bronze axes have been found, as these typically yield no other archaeological remains of the same time period. The majority of the finds have been recovered from existing or dried-up water bodies, wetlands or waterlogged soils, possibly indicating intentional depositing in wet locations (Paavel 2017a). The handle remains presented in this paper indicate that at least some of the axeheads were left behind either hafted, or with a broken-off haft bit remaining in the socket.


As wooden hafts of bronze items are rarely preserved, the three new finds from Estonia have given an extraordinary possibility to study the wood chosen for hafting and AMS date it to compare the results to axe typochronology. The axe from Astangu appears to be one of the latest examples of the Akozino-Malar type, as it dates to the transition between the Late Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age, to late 6th to 4th centuries cal BC. The AMS dates for Kajamaa and Karasi axes coincide with the typological dates based on Scandinavian material, confirming that the typochronologies hold here as well. As the axes' typological dates span five hundred or more years, the AMS results have specified their ages by placing them to the earlier halves of the typological date ranges, to 10th-9th centuries cal BC.

The wood fragments preserved in the axe sockets were too small to provide information about the shape of the hafts, but the tree species could be identified. The axe from Kajamaa village was hafted with juniper or spruce wood and the axes from Astangu and Karasi villages with ash wood. Whereas elsewhere in Europe, Bronze Age axe hafts have been commonly made of oak, beech, and conifers, ash wood seems to have been a popular or best preserved choice in the Baltic region.


This study was supported by the research project of the Estonian Research Council 'Estonia in Circum-Baltic space: archaeology of economic, social, and cultural processes' (IUT20-7) and Arheograator Ltd. AMS dating of the Karasi haft remains was financed by the National Heritage Board of Estonia. The authors are grateful to Juri Vassiljev for the shore displacement information for the Astangu findspot. Our gratitude goes to the finders of the artefacts Rene Alberi, Egert Klaas and Alexander Poderachev for their willingness to share information about the find circumstances, as well as people who have helped with the field surveys, and those who have provided feedback on earlier versions of this paper. The publication costs of this article were covered by the Estonian Academy of Sciences, the Institute of History and Archaeology at the University of Tartu, and the Institute of History, Archaeology and Art History of Tallinn University.


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Pronksiaegsete pronkskirveste putkedes on puit nii Eestis kui ka mujal harva sailinud. Eesti pronkskirved on valdavalt juhuleiud, mistottu neid dateeritakse mujal pohjapoolses Euroopas koostatud tupoloogiatele tuginedes. Voimalused absoluutdateeringute abil meie regioonis tupoloogiate paikapidavust kontrollida on siiani praktiliselt puudunud. Pronksiaegse leiumaterjali tupoloogilised dateeringud voivad uhtlasi holmata pooletuhandeaastasi voi pikemaidki perioode, mistottu on uksikesemete tapsed dateeringud eriliselt vaartuslikud. Hiljuti leiti Eestist kolm pronksist putkkirvest koos puitvarrejaanustega: Tallinnast Astangult, Kajamaa kulast Harjumaalt ja Karasi kulast Jogevamaalt (jn 1). Varrepuit dateeriti AMS-meetodiga ja maarati puuliigid (tabel 1; jn 4). Tehti ka susiniku isotoopanaluusid, ent vordlusmaterjali puudumisel ei ole neid tulemusi voimalik veel tolgendada.

Astangult leitud kirves (jn 2-3) kuulub Akozino-Malari tuupi, mille sarnased kirved on levinud laial alal Skandinaaviast Volga ja Kama joe piirkonnani Venemaal (jn 5). Tuubi dateering on pikalt ebaselge olnud ja hinnangud jaavad ajavahemikku 1300-500 eKr ning monevorra hilisemassegi aega. Astangu putke-puidu kalibreeritud AMS-dateering 510-371 eKr viitab, et tegu on uhega hilisematest seda tuupi kirvestest, mida viimati kasutati pronksi- ja rauaaja vahetuse paiku. Samasse uleminekuperioodi jaab ka teine seni teadaolevalt ainus AMS-dateeritud kirves Vasterakerist Rootsist. Astangu kirve vars oli tehtud saarepuust (Fraxinus).

Kajamaa ja Karasi kirves (jn 6-9) on Skandinaavia analoogide pohjal dateeritavad mitte tapsemalt kui ajavahemikuga 1100-600/500 eKr. Kalibreeritud AMS-dateeringud paigutasid molemad kirved selle pika perioodi esimesse poolde, 10.-9. sajandisse eKr. Tupoloogia ja absoluutdateeringu kokkulangevus kinnitab, et Skandinaavia tupokronoloogiad on rakendatavad ka meie pronkskirveste vanuse maaramiseks. Kajamaa varrefragment oli sedavord halvasti sailinud, et puuliiki ei saanud taie kindlusega maarata. On selge, et see oli tehtud kadakast (Juniperus) voi kuusest (Picea). Karasi kirve vars oli valmistatud saarepuust nagu Astangu omagi. Kui mujal Euroopas on vasest ja pronksist kirveste varsi valmistatud tammest, poogist ning okaspuudest, siis vahesed Balti regioonis leitud varrejaanused on huvitaval kombel just saarepuust. Voimalik, et seda on mojutanud nii eelistused varrepuidu valimisel kui ka teiste puuliikidega vorreldes saare parem sailivus siinses pinnases.

Kirveste leiukohad on koik eriilmelised. Astangu kirves jai maha laugele mererannale klindilahes, tollasest veepiirist umbes 120-200 m kaugusele, Kajamaa kirves rahkmullaga kunka liigniiskele nolvale ja Karasi kirves leetunud mullaga tasandikule. Koik leiukohad on ule vaadatud. Astangult ja Karasist ei leitud kinnismuistisele viitavat materjali, ent Karasi leiukoht on asulakohaks iseenesest sobilik. Kajamaa leiukohas jai kinnismuistise olemasolu lahtiseks, kuna pollul olnud taimkate ei voimaldanud pollulkondi. Paiga liigniiskust arvestades paiknes potentsiaalne asulakoht pigem kunka korgemal osal. Uldiselt sobivad leiukohad seni taheldatud seadusparaga, mille kohaselt ei jaanud Eesti pronkskirved enamjaolt maha samaaegsetesse asulakohtadesse, vaid pigem asustuskolblike alade liigniisketesse servadesse voi veekogudesse.

(1) Date by shore displacement chronology with computer program Ranta-ajoitus Eesti 0-7700BP ver. 1.2a (6.4.04) (Jussila & Kriiska 2004a); primary data Jussila & Kriiska 2004b.

(2) The anatomical examination of all wood fragments was performed using X-ray microtomography, implementing SkyScan 2011 X-ray nanotomograph (The 2011 nano-CT) with a resolution of < 1 [micro]m. A scanning voltage of 40 kV with an average of 3-1 frames and a rotation angle of 0.25[degrees] was used. The identification of the wood type was performed according to Benkova & Schweingruber (2004) and Bernabei & Bontadi (2011).

(3) All dates in text are calibrated by OxCal v4.3 (Bronk Ramsey 2017), using IntCal13 atmospheric curve (Reimer et al. 2013).

(4) Juri village in Harju county (Lougas 1970, 90); Jarvekula village in Tartu county (Lang 2012; Paavel 2017a, fig. 2: 4), Ridala village in Saare county (Lougas 1970, 91; Jaanits et al. 1982, 151), and Sotke village in Rapla county (Paavel 2017b).

(5) Removing the haft fragments from the other axe sockets was not possible as they were securely attached.

(6) Two cautionary aspects should be considered when evaluating the acquired dates. Firstly, we do not know which parts of trees were used to make the hafts, as cutting cross-sections of the fragments was deemed too destructive. Wood from the split centre of a broad trunk would give a somewhat older date than branches. Secondly, hafts may have been replaced several times and an axehead may be older than the date based on its final haft suggests. Nevertheless, the date still indicates the latest use of the artefact and can be used to delimit the type's chronological span.
Table 1. Typological dates, [.sup.14]C results, stable isotope values,
and tree species of the studied finds. All dates are calibrated by
OxCal v4.3 (Bronk Ramsey 2017), using IntCal13 atmospheric curve
(Reimer et al. 2013)

Artefact/  Found  Typological    [.sup.14]C result,
sample            date           calibrated date
                                 95.4% probability

Astangu    2015   Per III-VI     2345 [+ or -] 30 BP,
                  (1300-500 BC)  510-371 cal BC
                  or later
Kajamaa    2016   Per IV-VI      2720 [+ or -] 30 BP,
                  (1100-500 BC)  918-811 cal BC
Karasi     2017   Per IV-V       2770 [+ or -] 31 BP,
                  (1100-600 BC)  998-838 cal BC

Artefact/  Tree species         [[delta].sup.13]C  Lab. No.
sample     ([per thousand])

Astangu    Ash (Fraxinus)       -26.6              Poz-82895
Kajamaa    Juniper (Juniperus)  -23.6              Poz-82896
           or spruce (Picea)
Karasi     Ash (Fraxinus)       -                  UBA-36322

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Author:Paavel, Kristiina; Kriiska, Aivar; Lang, Valter; Kulkov, Alexander
Publication:Estonian Journal of Archaeology
Date:Jun 1, 2019

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