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The two million prison inmates in the United States with half of them being high school drop-out students, and with a recent history of doubling in size over the last ten years creates a "nation at risk." Since about 80 percent of those two million inmates are already addicted to alcohol or drugs, most of them with little interest in change, the prognosis for saving very many of them as productive citizens is not very good. It is becoming increasingly clear that we must find ways to prevent delinquency and crime, which serves as the basis for becoming such prison inmates, and the new focus must be on the development of delinquency and crime prevention in our high schools as the means to reduce our prison populations. The program must be implemented during the early teen years of our youth. and while they are students in the local high schools across our nation (Cassel, 2000a, and 2001b, and Cassel and Reiger, 2000) In California, for example, our global economy for each individual that is prevented from becoming a prison inmate, the high schools will have saved the nation $38,200 each year.

Global Functioning Concept

The single criterion that serves to discern between the prison inmate and the typical individual has to do with "global functioning," and the degree to which individuals are productive citizen. In 1987 The American Psychiatric Association introduced the "global functioning" concept as a very basic element and condition in relation to the health and welfare of individuals. It was the product of 26 advisory committees where the focus was on identifying the major childhood and adolescent behavior disorders, and how they affected the productivity and success of individuals (DSM-III-R, 1987, and DSM-IV, 1994). The Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF) was developed and used as a basic diagnostic factor in relation to the health and welfare of individuals. The GAF is a five point scale where a "5" represents full global functioning, a "3" average global functioning, and a "1" complete lack of global functioning. The use of the GAF scale from 1987 (DSM-III-R) through 11994 (DSM-IV) until the present time represents a critical means for understanding the health status of individuals in health care. In usual health care evaluations delinquents and prison inmates tend to receive a GAF rating of "1," suggesting that each one of them has lost h/her global functioning almost completely.

The Personal Development Test

In an effort to functionalize the "Global Functioning" concept in a more scientific fashion The Personal Development Test (PDT) (Cassel, Chow, 2001a) was developed to evaluate "Global Functioning" as it applies to individuals living in a democracy like the United States. It is based on John Dewey's definition of a democracy (Dewey, (1938)--"The Interdependence of Independent individuals." This is interpreted as meaning: (1) Independence--the ability to compete and make a living in an economic-based society, and (2) interdependence--the ability and willingness to get along and treat as equals all different kinds of people--race, religion and ethnic structures. The PDT test is comprised of 200 true/false type items distributed equally in two different sections: (1) For "Independence" Personal Maturity, and (2) for Interdependence "Social Integration, and with four part scores in each that seek to discern critical personality dynamics associated with such functioning. The "Discerning Score (LIE) seeks to indicate whether the items on the test were being reads, and/or understood.:
I. Personal Maturity:             II. Social Integration:

   1. Self-esteem-EST                 5. Conformity - CFM
   2. Coping Skills-COP               6. Sympathy-SYM
   3. Positive Assertivevess-ASS      7. Self-efficacy-EFF
   4. Locus of Control-LOC            8. Caring-CAR

      1. Part I Total-PERMAT             2. Part 2 Total-SOCINT

                     PDT Total PDTTOT

                 Discerning Score -- LIE

Juvenile Delinquents and Prison Inmates

The PDT test was administered to several groups of juvenile delinquents and prison inmates, and when such scores were compared to corresponding youth or adults (youth for delinquents and adults for prison inmates), in general a clear statistical significant difference was obtained for each of the eight part scores (Cassel,, 2001a, 2001b, and 2001c). The Delinquent and Prison Inmate scores showed significant less of "Hall-Marks for Success in a Democracy." It is clear that an effective delinquency prevention program must serve to foster in each high school student an ego-ideal based on such such "hall-marks" as a firm basis for delinquency prevention purposes (Cassel, 1970). They must be clearly established during the early teen years when individuals are seeking to formulate their personal behavior patterns for life. This means no later than high school, and it must be considered as an integral aspect of personal development, and one of the major requirements for high school graduation. If our high schools are expected to build an effective bridge between the home and the work-place or college, delinquency prevention must be included as an important element (Cassel, 2001a, and Cassel and Reiger, 2000).

Fostering "Hall-Marks" by Instruction

The fostering of "hall-marks for Success" begins with systematically organized programs to accomplish each of the `hall-marks' for success. Typically, it begins with the most important ones first, followed in successive order for all of the other eight of such `hall-marks.' None of them can be forgotten in the delinquency prevention program. The first three always are based on an instructional type program where proficiency examinations are included, and where appropriate notations are placed in the student portfolio; not unlike the subject matter areas (Cassel, 2000c).

Locus of Control

First, there must be an understanding of the critical importance in life in relation to personal goals and the scientific process for the development of such goals. Things don't simply happen in life; rather people make them happen, and it begins with a carefully defined goal or personal objective. It is not based on being at the right place at the right time, or good luck of the individual (Locus of Control). Second in importance, is the full knowledge that personal goals serve as the only basis for an individual's personal motivation and a desire to achieve; for without personal goals there can be no motivation to achieve. It is like putting a ship in the water without a rudder to guide it. The scientific process for decision making is called "systems analysis' and it includes the following well defined steps or stages (Cassel, 1973, and 2000a):

1. A Careful identification of personal goals or objectives for which decisions are to be made.

2. An immediate elimination of constraints that are not involved as goals.

3. A careful examination of the full range of possible alternatives that always includes: passive, middle of road, and militant choices.

4. A careful examination of the usual hazards for each such alternative.

5. A just as careful examination of the likely consequence for such alternative

6. A cautious identification of the three most promising of all choices.

7. An equally cautious implementation of the most promising of the three best choices with a careful attention as to whether or not it develops the promise.

8. When and if the promise is not fulfilled for the first choice, the second best choices is immediately substituted with the same critical evaluation.


This `hall-mark' is second only in importance to the Locus of Control, and it is based solidly on Bandura's research and theory (Bandura, 1997). He insists that if people believe they have no power to produce results, they simply will not even attempt to make things happen. Bandura's research shows that outcomes are always a product of human actions, and the outcomes people anticipate depend largely on their judgments of how well they will be able to perform in given situations. Self-efficacy, then, for Bandura, is the judgment of one's ability to organize and execute given types of performances. People may use their efficacy to adapt to their environment or to change it, but the self-assurance with which people approach and manage difficult tasks determines largely whether they make good use of their personal capabilities. Insidious self-doubts can easily override the best of skills.

People with high self-efficacy not only prefer normatively difficult activities, but also display high staying power in those pursuits. The more encompassing the social milieu to which one gravitates, the more the course of one's life is affected. The stronger people's belief in their efficacy, the more options they consider possible, the greater the interest they show in them, the better they prepare themselves educationally for different occupational career areas, and the greater the staying power in such pursuits. Personal expectations and self-efficacy are intimately related phenomena, and you can't have one without the other. People's actual achievements are never greater than their own personal expectations.

Competitive Extra-Mural Activities

Competitive type extra-mural activities serve to rather closely simulate life in a competitive economic based democratic society like the United States. First and foremost there are always well defined offensive and defensive type strategies, and where each team members is assigned a specific and primary role. Every aspect of that strategy focuses squarely on goal achievement for the offensive tactics, and the prevention of such goal achievement for the defensive ones. The roles assigned to each and every member is always in full support of the game playing strategies, but where goal attainment opportunity emerges on the playing field, each and every member is expected to individually exploit the situation with vigor; thus, negating h/her pre-assigned role. This type of game strategy includes competitive games like chess and checkers, or in the band or chorus where drums and other instruments serve as means of support of vocalists or other features planned. Always, full and complete knowledge of the rules of the game are imperative to playing effectively, and one is never permitted to enter a competitive playing field until they are thoroughly familiar with such rules. Honesty and fair play of each and every member must be a rule that is strictly and completely enforced, and victory involving dishonesty or the absence of fair play is simply not worth having.

Fostering "Hall-Marks Through Extra-Curricular Activities

The other "hall-marks" are typically achieved through personal participation in school extra-curricular activities of a competitive type. It is of interest to note that the in 32nd Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools (Rose and Gallup, 2000), parents insist that their children be personally involved in high school extra-curricular activities as a requirement for graduation (Cassel, 2001 a, 2001b, and Cassel & Reiger, 2000).


Membership in competitive teams during the early teen years creates feelings of belonging and being a member of a team. It always includes pride in such membership and personal achievements. Here they learn early that no team is stronger than its weakest link, and it must include the personal responsibility for carrying own share of the responsibility for success. Always, an important element has to do with personally knowing and following the rules of the game, and then there must follow a characteristic honesty and fair play in their execution. It is largely from these associations that self-esteem becomes a reality (Cassel, 2000a, and 2000b).

Coping Skills

The development of coping skills are always a critical element in competitive team play, and where each individual team member has a specific and well defined role to play in relation to team success and victory. Such playing skills require long and tedious hours of learning for the honing and sharpening of playing skills to perfection. The degree to which each team member plays that assigned and well defined role, determines in large part the chances for team success in the respective competitive event involved; whether it be sports, debating, chess or other types of activity (Cassel, 1973, and Cassel, 2000a).

Positive Assertiveness

This dynamic involves the willingness and ability to be personally assertive and strive to achieve objectives that are assigned and personally embraced. The positive aspects has to do with making sure that such assertiveness is honest and straight forward, and that it is in full agreement with the values and objectives embraced by the group membership. Victory in vital competitive events has no real value any other way. Group cohesiveness is always to be preferred to individual initiative, but where individual opportunity for goal achievement emerges, the group cohesiveness becomes subordinate.


This has to do with the full range of life activities, and where there is always some guarantee that the full membership shares the same values and mission in life. It means that one's personal values and way of life is in full agreement with the total group membership. It must include one's mode of dress, values embraced and exhibited, and total interactions with others. This always includes the sharing of self with others in a straight forward and positive manner.


People who experience sympathy are always able to empathize with others, and to put self in the place of another and to feel the pleasure or pain presently being experienced by the other person. It always includes a reaching out to others, and to accept them as members of the same team or universe. This typically includes becoming a full fledged member of the total group. That is what `democracy' is all about.


This is kind of a universal quality; so that what every happens to one person anywhere in the world is important to every other person everywhere in the world. What happens to animals is important to people. and people care in a genuine way about what is happening. It always includes a personal responsibility element that seeks to reach out to other people and to share in their pleasures and pains. For example, when an individual sees another person smoking cigarettes, or using drugs or alcohol, the caring typically includes expressions of caring for another's health. etc. (Cassel, 1971).


Bandura. A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: W.H. Freeman.

Cassel. R.N. (1970). Critical stages in man's ego-ideal and conscience development. Psychology, 7(3), 15-25.

Cassel, R.N. (1971). Drug Abuse Education. North Quincy. Massachusetts: The Christopher Publishing Company.

Cassel, R.N. (1973). The Psychology of Decision Making. North Quincy, Massachusetts: The Christopher Publishing Company.

Cassel, R.N. (2000a). Leadership Patterns Associated with Success. Chula Vista, California; Project Innovation.

Cassel, R.N. (2000b). Third Force Psychology and Person-Centered Theory: From Ego-Status to Ego-Ideal. Psychology, 37,(3/4), 44-48.

Cassel. R.N. (2000c). The ten imperatives of a student-centered portfolio. Education, 121(1), 201-206.

Cassel, R.N. (2001a). Interpreting General Colin Powell's notion of a high school program that prevents delinquency and crime. Education, 121(3), 422-430.

Cassel, R.N. (2001b). A person-centered high school delinquency prevention program based on eight hall-marks for success in a democracy. Education, 121(3), 431-435.

Cassel, R.N., and Reiger, R.C. (2000). The New Third Force Psychology promises to reduce the growing prison population through student-centered high schools, Education, 121(1), 34-37.

Cassel, R.N. and Chow, P., (2001a). The Personal Development Test (PDT).

Cassel, R.N., Chow. P., DeMouin. D.F., and Reiger, R.C. (2001b). The Cognitive Dissonance Test (DISS). Chula Vista, California: Project Innovation.

Cassel, R.N., Chow, P., DeMouin, D.F., and Reiger, R.C. (2001c). Comparing the Hall-Marks for Success in a Democracy of 116 Juvenile Delinquent Boys with that of 4611 Typical High School Students. Education, 121(3). 436-440.

Cassel, R.N., Chow, P., DeMouin, D.F., and Reiger, R.C. (2001d). Comparing the Hall-Marks for Success in a Democracy of 57 Juvenile Delinquent Girls with that of 461 Typical High School Students. Education. 121(3). 441-445.

Cassel, R.N., Chow. P., DeMouin, D.F., and Reiger. R.C. (2001e). Comparing the Hall-Marks for Success in a Democracy of 92 Male Prison Inmates with that of 1492 Typical Adults. Education, 121(3), 446-448.

Cassel, R.N., Chow, P., DeMouin, D.F., and Reiger, R.C. (2001f). Comparing the Cognitive Dissonance of 116 Juvenile Delinquent Boys with that of 215 Typical High School Students. Education, 121(3), 449-453.

Cassel, R.N., Chow, P., DeMouin, D.F., and Reiger, R.C. (2001g). Comparing the Cognitive Dissonance of 57 Juvenile Delinquent Girls with that of 215 Typical High School Students. Education, 121(3), 454-458.

Dewey, J. (1938). Experience in Education. New York: The Macmillan Company.

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DSM-IV (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Washington, D.C.: The American Psychiatric Association.

Rose, L.C., and Gallup, A.M. (2000). The 32nd Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the public's Attitude Toward the Public Schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(1), 41-66.
The Cassel Institute,
Where Today is Tomorrow in Health Care,
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Chula Vista, California 91910-7114
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Article Type:Statistical Data Included
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Date:Jun 22, 2001
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