Printer Friendly

THERAPEUTIC STUDY ON EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED COCCIDIOSIS AND ITS EFFECTS ON DIFFERENT PARAMETERS IN QUAILS: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL.

Byline: Abdul Hameed, Muhammad Sarwar Khan, Abdul Rehman, Salman Khalid and Muhammad Umair Iftikhar

ABSTRACT:

To study the effect of coccidiosis on different blood parameters and its therapeutic trials, a total of 180 quails of 2 weeks old were reared on coccidiostat free feed and of these 150 were experimentally induced with coccidiosis. The birds were divided into 6 groups (i.e. A, B, C, D, E, and F) of 30 birds each. Groups A and B were treated with Amprolium 20 % and Sulphadimidine sodium, respectively. The groups C and D were treated with Amprolium 20 % and Sulphadimidine sodium, respectively, and were also supplemented with Vitamin A and K. Group E was kept as positive control whereas healthy birds were kept in Group F as negative control. After medication, the clinical signs were observed to be more pronounced in groups A and B, whereas, group C manifested mild signs. The mortality rate in group C was found to be low and oocysts per gram (OPG) was nil at 12th day of incubation.

Feed conversion ratio (FCR), average weight gain and haemoglobin values of the birds were significantly improved in groups C and D as compared to other groups with highest haemoglobin value in group C. Amprolium with supplementation of Vitamin A and K was proved to be more effective against coccidiosis in quails.

Key words: Quail; Amprolium 20%; Sulphadimidine sodium; Haemoglobin; FCR

INTRODUCTION

Coccidiosis is a disease caused by parasites of the genus Eimeria and Isospora belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa with a complex life cycle, affecting mainly the intestinal tract of many species of mammals and birds. It is of great economic significance in farm animals, especially chickens. Most of the knowledge on coccidiosis has been obtained from chickens, where this disease has been studied most intensively. In commercial poultry, this parasite causes a great damage due to the fact that birds are reared together in large numbers and high densities. The economic significance of coccidiosis is attributed to decreased animal production (higher feed conversion ratio, growth depression and increased mortality) [1].

Given the importance of coccidiosis in poultry production, consumer concern and the expected ban on the use of coccidiostats [2], there is a great interest in the development of alternatives in the prevention and treatment of this disease. With the increase in awareness about the importance of animal origin protein in the daily diet, the consumption of poultry meat and eggs has increased drastically over the time in Pakistan. In spite of the fact that livestock and poultry industries are organised on scientific lines, we have not been able to achieve the target of 27.5gm protein per capita for human consumption on daily basis. To achieve this target, quail farming has been introduced in Pakistan along with chicken. Quail farming requires less investment as compared to chicken and quail meat is famous for its tenderness. They can be sold at 4-5 weeks of age.

Table 1. Average oocysts count/gram of faeces at various days of treatment

Day###Groups###

###A###B###C###D###E###F

1st###8000###8500###7000###7000###8500###Nil

8th###1800###3000###1000###4000###12000###Nil

12th###500###1000###100###800###16000###Nil

Efficacy (%)###93.75###88.23###98.57###88.57###+###0

Table 2. Mean FCR value in various groups after therapeutic trials

###Groups###

###A###B###C###D###E###F

FCR###3.9###4.2###3.7###3.9###4.8###3.2

Table 3. Mortality rate in various groups

###Groups (n= 30 birds in each group)

Parameter###A###B###C###D###E###F

Deceased bird###4###7###2###5###11###0

Percentage###13.33###23.33###6.66###16.66###36.66###0

Table 4. Haemoglobin level in different groups of quails

###Groups (Hb gm/100ml)

Days###A###B###C###D###E###F

1st###9.36###9.25###9.65###9.12###9.70###11.20

8th###9.98###9.85###10.25###9.90###8.90###11.40

12th###10.90###10.80###11.10###10.95###8.25###11.25

A number of anti-coccidial drugs are being used for the control and treatment of coccidiosis in chickens but use of these drugs is reported to cause disturbance in the intestinal flora resulting in vitamin K deficiency and ultimately haemorrhagic syndrome [3].

In order to study the efficacy of alternatives, a treatment model for coccidiosis is needed. In the course of our studies on alternative approaches to counteract coccidiosis in broiler chickens, we have used different models of treatment. In this paper, we compare and contrast the various methods that we have used. It is anticipated that the data presented here may contribute to the selection of the most appropriate treatment model for coccidiosis in quails.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

One hundred and eighty (180) quails of two weeks old were obtained from a local commercial hatchery and were reared at the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, in a clean and disinfected shed. The chicks were given coccidiostat free feed ad-libitum.

The birds were divided into 6 groups of 30 birds each. The infectious agent was obtained from Veterinary research Institute (Lahore) and field isolates and was processed as described previously [4]. McMaster technique [5] was used for counting of oocysts. In the first 5 groups, dilution was made containing 50,000 oocysts/ml and 1ml diluent was injected directly into the crop of each quail with the help of a syringe. Daily faecal examination was carried out to check the clinical infection. The treatment was started on the appearance of clinical signs. Mortality rate and feed conversion ratio were also calculated.

Table 5

Groups###Medicine used

A###Amprolium 20 % @ 500mg/lit of drinking

###water for 7 days.

B###Sulphadimidine sodium 33.33% @ 2.5 ml/lit

###of drinking water for 3 days and course was

###repeated after 2 days.

C###Amprolium 20% @ 500mg/lit of drinking

###water + Vitamin-K @ 6mg/lit of drinking

###water + Vitamin-A @ 12500 IU/kg of feed for

###7 days

D###Sulphadimidine sodium 33.33% @ 2.5 ml/lit

###of drinking water + Vitamin-K @ 6mg/lit of

###drinking water + Vitamin A @ 12500 I.U/kg

Pretreatment OPG - Post treatment OPG x 100

Pretreatment OPG

Haematological Examination

Prior to medication, two birds from each group were selected randomly to study the blood samples for haemoglobin concentration. EDTA coated vacutainers were used to collect the blood samples [7]. This procedure was repeated on the 8th and 12th day of medication.

Statistical Analysis

The data was analyzed statistically using ANOVA and means were compared by least significant test (LST) [8].

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The symptoms of coccidiosis including bloody diarrhea were more pronounced in group E (infected and untreated) and mortality was 33.66% and high OPG value (16000 oocysys/gms of faeces on 12th day) in this group. The symptoms of disease were also evident in group A, B and mortality was 13.33% and 23.33% and OPG values were 300 and 1000 oocyst/gm of faeces at 12th day of incubation, respectively. The result showed that Amprolium was more effective than Sulphadimidine sodium are in close arrangement with the work of Chapman [9] and [10]. It was concluded that the symptoms of disease were less severe and OPG value was nil at 12 day of incubation in group C (infected and treated with Amprolium and Vitamins A and K) and mortality rate was recorded 6.66% respectively. This observation is supported by the work of Pellerdy [11].

When vitamin K is deficient the coagulation time of blood increased and prothrombin level is increased. The effect of dietary vitamin K on the course of infection is due to the involvement in blood clotting and thus preventing excessive loss of blood in caecum [12]. In our study lesser mortality and better weight gain were seen in group C and D, respectively, which were given vitamin A and vitamin K supplements in feed.

At the end of experiment the birds were weighed and feed conversation ratio (FCR) was recorded. The characteristics reduction in body weight gain and FCR in chicken infected with oocysts was observed. Supplementation with vitamin A in feed at the rate of 12,500 IU/kg was somewhat helpful in reducing the losses due to reduction in FCR. Minimum loss in the form of reduction in FCR was observed in group C which was given vitamins A and K and Amprolium then group A and D which were given Amprolium and Sulphadimidine and Vitamin A and K, respectively. The results of the present study are in close agreement with Ghazala [13] who observed that when Esb3 dispensed along with vitamins A and K gave good results to control the mortality rate.

Haemoglobin was estimated at 1st day, 8th day and 12th day of medication. The level of Haemoglobin on 1st day of medication in groups A, B, C, D, E and F 9.36, 9.25, 9.65, 9.12, 9.70 and 11.20 gm/100 ml of blood, respectively. The results showed that the average values of haemoglobin levels were lower post-infection as compared to the respective control group.

REFERENCES

1. Veterinary Quarterly, 31(3), 143-161(2011).

2. Animal Sciences Group, Rapport 05/I00648(2005).

3. .M.Sc Thesis, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. 1984

4. Parasitology, 53, 324(1963).

5. Advances in parasitology, pp 706-718(1982).

6. Vet. Med. Czech., 49, 42-46(2004).

7. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, pp 507(1986).

8. Principles and procedures of statistics, (1982).

9. Res. Vet. Sci., 47, 125-128(1989).

10. Veterinary Parasitology, 35(3), 259-267(1990)

11. Mag.Allator Lapja., 17, 413-15(1962).

12. Parasitology, 76, pp 11-20(1978).

13. M.Sc (Hons.) Thesis, Parasitology, UVAS, Lahore, (1990).

1Department of Livestock and Dairy Development, Punjab; 2Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery;

3Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore - 54000, Punjab, Pakistan; School of Health Sciences, University of Salford, Manchester

Corresponding author Tel.: +923344053221; E-mail address: abdul.rehman@uvas.edu.pk

Running Title: Therapeutic trials against coccidiosis in quails
COPYRIGHT 2012 Asianet-Pakistan
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2012 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Publication:Science International
Date:Dec 31, 2012
Words:1664
Previous Article:A REVIEW ON RECOMMENDER TECHNIQUES, SYSTEMS AND EVALUATION METRICS.
Next Article:CHANGE DETECTION ANALYSIS OF LAND USE BY USING GEOSPATIAL TECHNIQUES: A CASE STUDY OF FAISALABAD-PAKISTAN.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters