THE STUDY OF CEPHALIC INDEX IN EASTERN ODISHA POPULATION.
Changes are expected in all living beings on Morphology. In the same species also, changes may occur due to different factors like nutrition, culture, nature of work etc.  Also, age and sex differences are marked.
Cephalometry is a simple procedure with less error and is very practical. The said index can be used as a tool for analysis of differences in individuals. This can be studied from information gathered from children and parents. [2,10]
Regarding the effect of geography, ethnicity and racial factors on head dimensions, the present study was aimed to elucidate the norms of cephalic indices [3,1], the type of head shapes and sexual dimorphism in Eastern Odisha. Different dimensional measurements in anthropometry were taken into consideration and required calculations [6,8,9] referring to the standard deviation in the system. The present study was done in Eastern Odisha population with reference to the study of Dr. Sunita Patro et. al. where they had conducted their study in another zone of the Odisha (Southern Odisha). [9,11,16]
Year of Study
Cross Sectional Study
Samples were taken from 9 (nine) coastal districts of Eastern Odisha from where the patients and their accompanying relatives depended upon SCB Medical College and Hospital, Cuttack, Odisha. After obtaining consent from them, the due measurements were made. While taking measurements, some issues were noted early like deformities due to nutritional factors, genetic deformities, etc. Such cases were excluded from the present study. All the measurements were taken with the person sitting in the chair in relaxed condition and the head in the normal anatomical position. The method used for accessing cranial index was Hrdlick's Method.  The maximum head length was measured as the maximum antero-posterior diameter by spreading calipers from glabella to irion. The maximum head breadth was measured as the maximum diameter between the two euryons using spreading calipers (electronic width sensitivity of 0.1 mm).
All measurements were taken in millimeters to an accuracy of 0.1 fraction. The cephalic indices were calculated by multiplying the head breadth with 100 and dividing it by the head length. These indices express the type of head shapes which were classified as given by William's et. al., 1995.  The variations have been reported to exhibit a clear racial or zonal trend. The strategically important points during osteometry procedures which would enlighten the neural or vascular complications that might arise after any surgery on head and neck. The relevant data on cephalic index of a population is very much essential in designing various orthopedic and physiotherapy equipment of head and face like cranial remodeling band (helmet), headphones, goggles etc. by formulating standard sizes.
In the present study, 2050 outdoor patients of SCB Medical College and Hospital, Cuttack were included. Age of the patients ranged from 20 to 60 years. Cases of accident affecting face or cranium, deformities of face and cases with some abnormalities in the head and neck were excluded.
* Glabella--A point above the nasal root between the eye brows and vertically intersected by mid-sagittal plane.
* Inion--The distal most point placed on the external occipital protuberance in the mid-sagittal plane.
* Euryon--The lateral most point placed on the side of the head.
Classification done as given by Williams et al 1995.
Sl. No. Head Shape Cephalic Index Range 1 Dolichocephalic <75.0 2 Mesocephalic 75.0-79.9 3 Brachycephalic 80.0-84.9 4 Hyperbrachycephalic 85.0-89.9
The data was analyzed by Microsoft Excel and all the statistical tests and the calculations were performed using the software GraphPad Prism Version 5. From the observations of the present study, the parametric data was analyzed using unpaired t-test (for two unmatched populations). [20,21]
SD--Standard Deviation, calculated for maximum head length (MHL), maximum head breadth (MHB) and Cephalic Index (CI).
The mean cephalic index of Eastern Odisha population was 77.89 with SD [+ or -] 3.31. Mean cephalic index for male was 77.16 [+ or -] 3.25 and for female it was 78.79 [+ or -] 3.40.
The Index difference was significant in male and female (P<0.001). The mean head length and breadth for male were 197.1 [+ or -] 11.4 mm and 152.1 [+ or -] 9.3 mm, for female 192.2 [+ or -] 15.3 and 151.2 [+ or -] 13.8 mm.
The difference was significant in head length (P<0.001) but insignificant in head breadth (P>0.05).
Study of cephalic index had been done by some workers as follows:
Sl. Name of Population Mean Cephalic No. Workers Studied Index 1. Oladipo and Ijaw Males 80.98 Olotu, 2006  Ijaw Females 78.24 2. Oladipo and Igbo Males 79.04 Olotu, 2006  Igbo Females 76.83 3. Oladipo and Ogonis Males 111.18 Olotu, 2009  Ogonis Females 75.09 4. Odokuma West African Males 77.67 et al, 2010  West African Females 78.14 5. Ilayperuma I, Srilankan Males 78.04 2011  Srilankan Females 79.32 6. Anitha North Indian Males 79.14 et al, 2011  North Indian Females 80.74 7. Yogain V K Indian Students 77.92 et al, 2012  Males Indian Students 80.85 Females 8. Mahesh Kumar Haryanvi Males 66.72 et al, 2012  Haryanvi Females 72.25 9. Ila Jitesh Gujaria Marathi Males 77.08 et al, 2012  Marathi Females 79.02 10. Ila Jitesh Gujaria Andhra Males 76.28 et al, 2012  Andhra Females 78.16 11. Ila Jitesh Gujaria Gujarati Males 80.42 et al, 2012  Gujarati Females 81.20 12. PPatro Sumitra, et Southern Odisha 77.28 al, 2014  Females Southern Odisha 78.38 Females 13. Present study, Eastern Odisha 77.16 2016 Male Eastern Odisha 78.79 Female
Our data shows that the cephalic index in our study population is closest to that of Marathi males and females.
1. Male dominated types--Mesocephalic 67.32%.
2. Female dominant type--Mesocephalic 45.91%.
* Male--Dolichocephalic, Brachycephalic and Hyperbrachycephalic.
* Female--Brachycephalic, Dolichocephalic and Hyperbrachycephalic in that order. Differences observed in different studies may be due to genetic, nutritional, and socioeconomic factors.
The cephalic index in our study population is closest to that of Marathi males and females. Further study with larger sample is needed. Food habits and socio-economy need to be corelated. A genetic study is also needed.
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Ranjan Kumar Das (1), Sujata Mohanty (2)
(1) Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, PRM Medical College, Baripada, Odisha, India.
(2) Scientific Officer, Regional Forensics Science Laboratory, Berhampur, Odisha, India.
'Financial or Other Competing Interest': None.
Submission 09-12-2018, Peer Review 01-02-2019, Acceptance 09-02-2019, Published 01-04-2019.
Dr. Ranjan Kumar Das, Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, PRM Medical College, Baripada, Odisha, India.
Caption: Mean Cephalic Index
Table 1. Distribution of Male and Female Sl. No. Sex No. Mean [+ or -] SD MHL (in cm) 1 Male 1120 197.1 [+ or -] 11.9 2 Female 930 192.0 [+ or -] 16.0 Sl. No. Mean [+ or -] SD MHB (in cm) C.I. 1 152.1 [+ or -] 9.7 77.16 [+ or -] 3.2 2 151.2 [+ or -] 13.8 78.79 [+ or -] 3.40 Table 2. Distribution of different head shapes in different sex Sl. No. Gender Group Dolichocephalic Mesocephalic 1 Male 215 (19.19%) 754 (67.32%) 2 Female 189 (20%) 427 (45.91%) Sl. No. Brachycephalic Hyper Row Total Brachycephalic 1 130 (11.60%) 21 (1.87%) 1120 2 296 (31.83%) 21 (2.25%) 930
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|Title Annotation:||Original Research Article|
|Author:||Das, Ranjan Kumar; Mohanty, Sujata|
|Publication:||Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences|
|Date:||Apr 1, 2019|
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