THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF ANTHROPOMETRIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF BASKETBALL REFEREES.
Aim. The basketball referee is the person who judges all phases of the game, taking decisions in fractions of a second. For this we need to analyze him in depth meaning also his antropometric and physiological indices.
Methods. I have verified a number of anthropometric indices such as size, weight and span, a number of physiological indices: respiratory frequency, cardiac frequency, vital capacity.
Results. All correlations that can be extracted from existing tests have been objectively observed..
Conclusions. Also, the tests that are required at this date, without a centralized and well-prepared training basis, are not relevant and can not be correlated with the subjects' anthropometric or physiological parameters.
Keywords: anthropometric, physiological, basketball, referees
The referee is "the person who is in charge of conducting a sports competition." (DEXI, 2007, p.117)
"Each referee knows that basketball is a fast and exciting game with coaches and spectators, who, especially at the end of the game, can not control themselves. It is up to a good referee to prepare for such situations and to control such emotions" (Priebst, 2007, p.11)
He often applies training close to the level at which top athletes apply, the best-rated teams, with all the specialists they need.
The theoretical basis of this approach is provided by some research that states "linear increase in oxygen consumption and heart rate depending on the intensity of the submaximal effort, allows predicting by extrapolation the maximum oxygen consumption that subject might have, without the need to subject it to maximal effort." (Weineck, 1997, p.89-95)
"Physical training includes a whole system of measures ensuring a functional capacity high body by the high level of development of motor skills base and the specific optimal values of the indices morpho-functional full possession of exercises used and perfect health." (Negrea, Musat, 2016, p. 585-589)
The subjects of the research are 55 basketball referees, referees from the National Championship (Men's National Basketball League and Women's National Basketball League). I have verified a number of anthropometric indices such as size, weight and span, a number of physiological indices: respiratory frequency, cardiac frequency, vital capacity.
"Achieving high-performance in major competitions, highlighted a number of aspects that characterize the current basketball game practiced by the best teams in the world" (Predescu, Ghrtescu, 2001, p 7-9)
Below we will present the data from our substantive records on a number of 55 subjects. The data are anthropometric and physiological indices that are recorded at the beginning of each season, both on the basis of the measurements and on the basis of a medical certificate from the specialist.
Following the chart with the size index representations, we observe a high homogeneity of the subjects. And the statistical coefficient analysis table shows a coefficient of variability of 2%, so the average is representative, the median being 182cm, with a maximum of 192cm, and a minimum of 170cm.
2. Chart Weight
As a result of calculating the coefficient of variability, 10% for the weight index, we have a high homogeneity of the subjects of the proposed sample, but not as high as it is for the index height. The minimum of this index is 63kg and the maximum of 99kg.
Based on the graph for the span data of the subjects, a coefficient of variability of 3% can be observed, which means that the homogeneity is high and the average of the subjects is representative.
Following the correlation of anthropometric data we have the following results:
As we can well see, the data of the anthropometric indices currently used for the evaluation of the basketball referees are correlated with each other, and we can say that they are very important for the level of training and performance of the referees.
Next, we will present the statistical data and the resulting graphical data for the physiological indices of the sample of subjects for preliminary testing.
Having a 7% coefficient of variability for the physiological index, the heart rate HR, we can conclude that the homogeneity in this echelon is high, the mean being representative.
As it can be noticed from the table above, we have a coefficient of variation of 5%, for respiratory rate, RR which means a high degree of homogeneity and a relevant average of the sample.
The coefficient of variability of the vital capacity, VC, index is 3%, which means a relevant mean of the sample and a high homogeneity.
We will further present the correlations between the physiological indices of the sample:
I would like to say that the work of a referee to become the best is similar to the work of a top player. He must also have an important amount of talent, and by talent here we mean having a "sense of game", which is indispensable for a referee who wants to reach the highest levels.
"The modern basketball game is running at high speed, at a sustained pace, which implies great physical effort". (Negrea, 2016)
"On the background of a specific and partial endurance effort that runs close to the aerobic-anaerobic threshold, the basketball referee performs short and medium speed efforts." (Martinescu, 2014)
We have to notice that, over the years, the changes to the regulation have led to an increase in the importance and responsibility of referees during the games. We must not forget that the referee is that judge in the field who has the power and responsibility to make decisions.
"The considerable increase in the role of the specific training of the referees involved in the development of the number of the international sports competitions and, implicitly, of the national ones, specialized the training co-entrant and methodology according to the needs of the competitions." (Predescu, Ghitescu, 2001, p. 128).
"In order to obtain good performance by a referee, the ability to solve the specific problems that arise during the competition must be developed by creating similar situations in the training." (Arnauld, 2004, p. 34)
Observing all this new challenges and trends in basketball we can say that this topic is not enough researched in our country, although at the present time the bases of a very rigorous training system for basketball referees in Europe are laid.
In conclusion, after analyzing the preliminary data, we note that between the indices that are currently demanded, namely the anthropometric, size, weight, span and physiological indices, FC, FR, CV, for which we need medical certificates from specialized doctors, inconclusive data result on the level and objective evaluation of basketball referees. Also, the tests that are required at this date, without a centralized and well-prepared training basis, are not relevant and cannot be correlated with the subjects' anthropometric or physiological parameters.
All correlations that can be extracted from existing tests have been objectively observed. Thus, we can underline the fact that at this time the tests applied to the basketball referees are very little relevant with the level of umpire age, the development of the training and the performance of the referees for higher level results.
"When a referee realizes that he is responsible for seeing all players on the court, refuses to be intimidated by players, couaches and supporters and leads the game with the full flexibility of his judgement, and implements knowledge with skill and courage, only then can he be considered worthy by the name of the referee." (FRB., 1995)
For all of our participants from my study I want to say thank you.
Arnauld H, 2004, La preparation phisique et sa dimension prophilactique, nr. 83, Paris
Martinescu F, 2014, Teza de doctorat - Arbitrajul in baschet--tendinte si strategii de optimizare a pregatirii si prestatiei arbitrilor divizionari "A", Universitatea Nationals de Educatie Fizica si Sport din Bucuresti.
Negrea V, 2016, Metodica jocului de baschet, Ed. Ovidius University Press, Constanta.
Negrea V, Musat G, 2016, Development of motor skills through movement games and contests to fifth graders, Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport / Science, Movement and Health. Vol. XVI, ISSUE 2 Supplement, 2016. Romania, p. 585-589.
Predescu T, Ghitescu G, 2001, Baschet. Pregatirea echipelor de performanta, Ed. SemnE, Bucuresti.
Priebst M, 2007, "Urteilsverzerrungen bei Schiedsrichtern: Die Wirkung sozialer Einflusse auf Schiedsrichterentscheidungen im Basketball, Staatsexamensarbeit Sekundarstufe II", Fachbereich Psychologie und Sportwissenschaft, Westfalische Wilhelms- Universitat Munster.
WEINECK J, 1997, Manuel d' antrainement, 4e edition, Ed.. Vigot, Paris
XXX - DICTIONAR explicativ ilustrat al LIMBII ROMANE, 2007, Ed. ARC&GUNIVAS, Chisinau
XXX - FEDERATIA ROMANA DE BASCHET, 1995, International Referee Candidates Clinic, Cluj Napoca
MARTINESCU-BADALAN Fabiana (1)
(1) "Nicolae Balcescu" Land Forces Academy, Sibiu, ROMANIA
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received 13.03.2016 / Accepted 05.04.2016
Table no. 1 Data of the index size Size Mean 181,2545455 Standard Error 0,806630011 Median 182 Mode 182 Standard Deviation 5,982128266 Sample Variance 35,78585859 Kurtosis 0,250344071 Skewness -0,607428955 Range 27 Minimum 165 Maximum 192 Sum 9969 Count 55 Largest(1) 192 Smallest(1) 165 Confidence Level(95.0%) 1,617195791 CV 0,033004018 Table no. 2Data of the index weight Weight Mean 81,66363636 Standard Error 1,298280042 Median 84 Mode 84 Standard Deviation 9,628302486 Sample Variance 92,70420875 Kurtosis 1,265723582 Skewness -1,122993554 Range 43,5 Minimum 53,5 Maximum 97 Sum 4491,5 Count 55 Largest(1) 97 Smallest(1) 53,5 Confidence Level (95.0%) 2,60289475 CV 0,117901956 Tableno.3 Data of the index span Span Mean 179,1272727 Standard Error 0,886887094 Median 179 Mode 180 Standard Deviation 6,577330725 Sample Variance 43,26127946 Kurtosis 0,127249329 Skewness -0,217408291 Range 31 Minimum 162 Maximum 193 Sum 9852 Count 55 Largest(1) 193 Smallest(1) 162 Confidence Level (95.0%) 1,778101554 CV 0,036718757 Table no. 4 Data of indices' correlations Indices Correlation Comments index Size-Weight 0,891425 A directly proportional and very strong correlation. (89%) Weight-Span 0,810864 A directly proportional and very strong correlation. (81%) Span -Size 0,922754 A directly proportional and very strong correlation. (92%) Table no.5Data of HR index HR Mean 70,87272727 Standard Error 0,806144144 Median 71 Mode 75 Standard Deviation 5,978524981 Sample Variance 35,74276094 Kurtosis 2,495843936 Skewness 0,316563976 Range 37 Minimum 55 Maximum 92 Sum 3898 Count 55 Largest(1) 92 Smallest(1) 55 Confidence Level(95.0%) 1,616221687 CV 0,084355791 Table no. 6 Data of RR index RR Mean 18,8 Standard Error 0,145412452 Median 19 Mode 20 Standard Deviation 1,078407605 Sample Variance 1,162962963 Kurtosis -1,087962659 Skewness -0,41188265 Range 3 Minimum 17 Maximum 20 Sum 1034 Count 55 Largest(1) 20 Smallest(1) 17 Confidence Level(95.0%) 0,291534411 CV 0,057362107 Table no. 7 Data of VC index VC Mean 4528,727273 Standard Error 20,04297495 Median 4475 Mode 4450 Standard Deviation 148,6426805 Sample Variance 22094,64646 Kurtosis -0,863611777 Skewness 0,381902046 Range 500 Minimum 4300 Maximum 4800 Sum 249080 Count 55 Largest(1) 4800 Smallest(1) 4300 Confidence Level(95.0%) 40,18374508 CV 0,032822175 Table no. 8 Correlation of the physiological indices of the sample Indices Correlation Comments FC-FR 0,025969 A directly proportional and very strong correlation. (2%) FR-CV -0,17475 An inversely proportional and not very strong correlation. (17%) FC-CV 0,34964 A directly proportional and stronger correlation than FC-FR. (34%) Table no.9 Correlation of anthropometric indices with physiological indices Indices Correlation Comments Size-FC -0,01598 An inversely proportional and not very strong correlation (5%) Size-FR -0,09684 An inversely proportional and not very strong correlation (9%) Size-CV 0,210398 A proportional and stronger correlation (21%) Weight-FC 0,004616 A directly proportional but not strong correlation. (0, 4%) Weight -FR 0 There is no correlation between these indices. Weight- CV 0,156771 A directly proportional but not strong correlation (15%) Span- FC 0.066299 A directly proportional but not strong correlation. (6%) Span-FR -0.10479 An inversely proportional correlation. (10%) Span- CV 0.14189 A directly proportional and not strong correlation. (14%)
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|Title Annotation:||Original article|
|Publication:||Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport/Science, Movement and Health|
|Date:||Jun 15, 2017|
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