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THE MUSIC MANUSCRIPTS IN THE CHURCH OF SAN FRANCISCO DE QUITO: AN UNDOCUMENTED COLLECTION.

Introduction

The Church of San Francisco de Quito preserves a collection of thirty-eight music manuscripts in its library. These codices were used to perform the liturgy from approximately the late-sixteenth century to the mid-twentieth century. They belong undoubtedly to the Franciscan tradition as it was created by friars inside the Convent of Quito. Thanks to the Instituto Metropolitano de Patrimonio de Quito (IMP), access to these codices has been made possible through an agreement with the church authorities (1). The inventory features fifteen antiphonaries, four graduals, eight hymnals, ten psalters, and one ritual (2).

Identifying the precise date of the entire collection has been difficult for three reasons: firstly, the lack of signatures and/or dates; secondly, the damage due to humidity; and lastly, the mutilation of a relevant number of folios that served as flyleaves and support for other codices written on paper. However, there are a few codices in which dates are legible. These are: Codex BSF4 (dated 1648), BSF6 (1741), BSF8 (1671), P9BSF19 (21 March 1929), P2BSF20 (1930), BSF22 (21 December 1761), P1BSF25 (1635 [added folios] and 1655 [remainder of the codex]), P13BSF27 (1660), BSF29 (1 August 1929), and BSF36 and BSF37 (3 March 1677). Furthermore, codices BSF7 and P12BSF12 deserve special attention. The first one is dated on f. 103v, but it is impossible to read the other two digits (17--) due to humidity. The second one was written around 1675, as evidenced by the signature of Friar Francisco de Pena Herrera (3), but no other indication of dates and/or signatures are found.

The first notice of this choirbook collection was published by Friar Benjamin Gento Sanz in 1942 (4), but he never mentioned its quantity or contents. Significant research on early church music in Quito has been conducted by several scholars, including the American musicologist Robert M. Stevenson (1916-2012), who in the early 1960s carried out extensive historiographical work on the music in the Cathedral of Quito. Later, inside the archives of the Cathedral of Quito in 2001, Spanish musicologist Alejandro Masso identified the Requiem Mass in honour of King Phillip II of Spain composed by his Kapellmeister, the Flemish composer Philippe Rogier (ca. 1561-1596) (5). The Ecuadorian musicologist Mario Godoy Aguirre also represents a leading figure in early church music research (6). Nevertheless, no evidence of inventories or catalogues of Ecuadorian churches have been published in regard to plainchant.

According to Latin American inventories previously done for some churches and cathedrals (7), the number of plainchant music manuscripts only represents a small percentage of the plentiful musical heritage inherited from Spain and Europe. On this matter, published inventories and catalogues regarding plainchant in Ecuadorian churches and cathedrals are nonexistent. Therefore, the relevance of this article is based on the significance of disseminating information on previously unknown sources of church music, in order to fill the current gap concerning this subject in Ecuador.

Description of the Documents

The description of the collection features essential data, based on some protocols suggested by Elisa Ruiz Garcia (8) and Andrew Hughes (9). These protocols incorporate:

* Identification data: includes the shelf-mark and sigla, type of book, copyist and date (if applicable) or its approximate, and writing support material.

* Foliation/Pagination: includes the current condition of the codex, page layout, complete number of folios and flyleaves, and missing folios.

* Notation: includes the type of script, music notation, texture, clefs, custos (10), bars, and accidentals.

* Decoration and Binding: includes the illustrated initials (11) and capital letters, filigree designs and cadels (12), and bookbinding.

* Content: includes the liturgical feasts according to the Temporale (Proper of the Time) or the Sanctorale (Proper of the Saints).

As an editorial procedure, identifying the entire collection with the initials "EC" was necessary, according to the country (Ecuador) where it is located (13). Shown below is the document description of each manuscript listed according to the shelf-mark found in the church's library (14).

* MS EC-BSF1 (Psalter)

Probably copied in the twentieth century; paper over reused parchment. Good condition with some scratched folios; 490 mm x 350 mm; seventy-nine folios with two flyleaves and three rear flyleaves; no index; incomplete Arabic pagination in black ink. Template script and rotunda gothic script on flyleaves; ff. 59v-60v were to be reused; no music notation. Initials, capitals, and rubrics in red ink; no filigree designs; brown leather over boards. Little Office of B. M. V., St. Ambrose and St. Augustine.

* MS EC-BSF2 (Psalter)

Probably copied in the twentieth century; paper over reused parchment. Very good condition; 480 mm x 370 mm with five-line staves in black ink alternating music and text; eighty-one folios with two flyleaves; ff. 73r-74v and ff. 76r-76v are missing; with index; incomplete Arabic pagination in black ink; later inaccurate Arabic foliation in pencil. Template script and rotunda gothic script on flyleaves; square notation with F clef; monophony; custos and bars are indicated. Initials, capitals, and rubrics in red ink; no filigree designs; brown leather over boards. Psalms for Sundays, Athanasian Creed, other psalms, the hymn Memento rerum conditor (incomplete), the antiphon Asperges me Domine.

* MS EC-BSF3 (Hymnal)

Probably copied in the twentieth century; paper over reused parchment. Restored, good condition with some scratched and amended folios; 500 mm x 380 mm; 127 folios with flyleaves between each folio; with index; incomplete Arabic pagination in black ink. Template script; no music notation. Initials, capitals and rubrics in red ink; no filigree designs; brown leather over cardboard. Hymns for the Saints of the Franciscan Order, Common of the Saints, Annual Feasts of Holy Mary, Office for a Child, Passiontide, Cyril and Methodius.

* MS EC-BSF4 (15) (Hymnal)

Copied in 1648; vellum. Good condition with some signs of the effects of humidity; 680 mm x 500 mm with five-line staves in red ink alternating music and text; 115 folios with one flyleaf; with index; incomplete Arabic foliation in red ink; later incomplete Arabic pagination in pencil; ff. 59v-60r are missing. Rotunda gothic script; ff. 44r- 46v are added with the evidence of a different copyist's hand; square notation with F and C clefs; monophony; flats, modes, custos, and bars are indicated. Initials in red, blue, and black ink with filigree designs in same/alternate colours; capitals and rubrics in red ink; brown leather over boards. Proper of the Time, Proper of the Saints, Common of the Saints, Saturdays and Sundays in Ferial Office.

* MS EC-BSF5 (Antiphonal)

Probably copied in the twentieth century; paper over reused parchment. Very good condition; 670 mm x 450 mm with five-line staves in black ink alternating music and text; seventy folios; ff. 1r-12v and ff. 42v-43r are missing; no index; incomplete Arabic pagination in black ink. Template script; square notation with F and C clefs; monophony and polyphony (only ff. 18v-22v); flats, sharps, naturals, modes, custos, and bars are indicated. Initials, capitals, and rubrics in red ink; no filigree designs; brown leather over boards. Proper of the Time and Proper of the Saints, Ordinary of the Mass (interpolated polyphony folios).

* MS EC-BSF6 (Antiphonal)

Copied in 1741; vellum. Very good condition; 560 mm x 390 mm with five-line staves in black ink alternating music and text; 139 folios with two flyleaves and two rear flyleaves; with index; inaccurate Arabic foliation in black ink; ff. 71r-71v are foliated twice; ff. 1r-2v are missing. Rotunda gothic script; square notation with F and C clefs; monophony; modes, custos, and bars are indicated. Initials in red, blue, black, green, gold, purple, and yellow ink with filigree designs in same/alternate colours; cadels in black ink; capitals and rubrics in red ink; brown leather over boards with brass corner pieces. Proper of the Time from Holy Thursday to Holy Saturday.

* MS EC-BSF7 (Psalter)

Copied in the eighteenth century by Friar Balthazar Benites; vellum. Good condition; 660 mm x 480 mm; 103 folios; no index; later inaccurate and incomplete Arabic pagination in black ink; ff. 1r-1v, ff. 4r-4v, ff. 6r-8v and ff. 11r-18v are missing. Rotunda gothic script; no music notation. Phytomorphic and zoomorphic initials, capitals and rubrics in red ink; no filigree designs; cadels in black ink; brown leather over boards. Psalms for Thursdays and Fridays in Ferial Office at Matins and Lauds.

* MS EC-BSF8 (Antiphonal)

Copied in 1671 by Friar Francisco de Herrera (16); vellum. Good condition with some signs of the effect of humidity and some amended and mutilated folios; 680 mm x 460 mm with five-line staves in black ink alternating music and text; 109 folios; no index; incomplete Arabic foliation in red ink; ff. 17r-17v are missing. Rotunda gothic script; ff. 2r-2v, ff. 32r-32v and ff. 108r-109v are amended with the evidence of a different copyist's hand; square notation with F and C clefs; monophony; modes, custos, and bars are indicated. Phytomorphic initials in red, blue, black, green, gold, pink, purple, and yellow ink with filigree designs in same/alternate colours; cadels in black ink; capitals and rubrics in red ink; no leather; boards with braided linen. Feasts of the Holy Virgin Mary.

* MS EC-BSF9 (Antiphonal)

Probably copied in the twentieth century; paper over reused parchment. Very good condition with some amended folios; 610 mm x 410 mm with five-line staves in black ink alternating music and text; 145 folios with three rear flyleaves; no index; complete Arabic pagination in black ink. Template script; square notation with F and C clefs; monophony; flats, modes, custos, and bars are indicated. Initials, capitals, and rubrics in red ink; no filigree designs; brown leather over boards. Proper of the Time from Holy Thursday to Holy Saturday.

* MS EC-BSF10 (Hymnal)

Probably copied in the twentieth century; paper over reused parchment. Good condition with some scratched folios; 560 mm x 370 mm with five-line staves in red ink alternating music and text; fifty-one folios with two flyleaves; no index; inaccurate and incomplete Arabic pagination in black ink. Template script; ff. 28r-51v with rotunda gothic script were to be reused; square notation with F and C clefs; monophony; flats, custos, and bars are indicated. Initials, capitals, and rubrics in red ink; no filigree designs; brown leather over boards. Proper of the Time, Proper of the Saints, Common of the Saints.

* MS EC-BSF11 (Ritual)

Probably copied in the twentieth century; paper over reused parchment. Very good condition; 580 mm x 430 mm with five-line staves in black ink alternating music and text; sixty-four folios with two flyleaves and four rear flyleaves; no index; inaccurate and incomplete Arabic pagination in black ink; ff. 14v-15r are missing. Template script and rotunda gothic script on rear flyleaves; square notation with F and C clefs; monophony and polyphony (only on ff. 53v-64v); flats, sharps, naturals, modes, custos, and bars are indicated. Initials, capitals, and rubrics in red ink; no filigree designs; brown leather over boards. Requiem Mass, Office of the Dead (incomplete), Solemn Requiem Mass.

* MS EC-P12BSF12 (Antiphonal)

Copied ca. 1675 by Friar Francisco de Pena Herrera (17); vellum. Good condition with signs of the effect of humidity and some amended and restored folios; 670 mm x 490 mm with five-line staves in black ink alternating music and text; ninety-seven folios; no index; later incomplete Arabic pagination in black ink. Rotunda gothic script; ff. 5r- 5v, ff. 13r-15v, ff. 84r-84v and ff. 92r-92v are added with the evidence of a different copyist's hand; square notation with F and C clefs; monophony; flats, modes, custos, and bars are indicated. Phytomorphic initials in red, black, and gold ink with filigree designs in same/ alternate colours; cadels in black and gold ink; capitals and rubrics in red ink; restored brown leather over boards. Vespers in Ferial Office, Sundays at Compline (incomplete), the responsorial verse Gloria patri et filio, the antiphons Salva nos and Nunc dimittis servum, the antiphon Salva nos, and the hymn Stella coeli extirpavit (incomplete).

* MS EC-P7BSF13 (Hymnal)

Probably copied in the twentieth century; paper over reused parchment. Very good condition; 620 mm x 460 mm; seventy-seven folios with three flyleaves; no index; incomplete Arabic pagination in black ink. Template script; ff. 47r-77v with rotunda gothic script were to be reused; no music notation. Initials, capitals, and rubrics in red ink; no filigree designs; brown leather over boards. Seven Founders of the Servite Order B. M. V., Our Lady of the Rosary, Holy Family, Apparition of Mary, Viae Dolorosae D. N. J. C., Little Office of B. M. V. (incomplete), Nicholas of Bari.

* MS EC-P8BSF14 (Hymnal)

Probably copied in the twentieth century; paper over reused parchment. Very good condition; 670 mm x 450 mm; 111 folios with one flyleaf and two rear flyleaves; with index; incomplete Arabic pagination in black ink. Template script; no music notation. Initials, capitals, and rubrics in red ink; no filigree designs; brown leather over boards. Proper of the Time, Common of the Saints, Feasts of Holy Virgin Mary, Feasts of Our Lord Jesus Christ.

* MS EC-BSF1518 (Gradual)

Probably copied in the twentieth century; paper over reused parchment. Good condition with some scratched folios; 710 mm x 510 mm with five-line staves in red ink alternating music and text; eighty-two folios with two flyleaves; no index; not foliated. Template script ff. 1r-67r and rotunda gothic script on flyleaves; ff. 67v-82v were to be reused; square notation with F and C clefs; monophony; flats, sharps, naturals, custos, and bars are indicated. Initials, capitals, and rubrics in red ink; no filigree designs; black leather over boards with brass corner pieces. Ordinary of the Mass, H. Dumont's Masses (19), Yniguez's Kyries (20), Credo (incomplete).

* MS EC-BSF16 (Antiphonal)

Probably copied in the eighteenth century; vellum. Very good condition with signs of the effect of humidity and some mutilated folios; 630 mm x 460 mm with five-line staves in black ink alternating music and text; ninety-seven folios; no index; incomplete Arabic pagination in black ink; ff. 1r-9v are missing. Rotunda gothic script; square notation with F and C clefs; monophony; flats, modes, custos, and bars are indicated. Initials in red and black; no filigree designs; cadels in black ink; capitals and rubrics in red ink; no cover. Proper of the Time from First Sunday after Epiphany to Monday after Palm Sunday.

* MS EC-P15BSF17 (Psalter)

Probably copied in the twentieth century; paper over reused parchment. Very good condition with some amended folios; 740 mm x 540 mm; 153 folios with six flyleaves and five rear flyleaves; no index; incomplete Arabic pagination in black ink; ff. 37v-38r are missing. Template script and rotunda gothic script on flyleaves; no music notation. Initials, capitals, and rubrics in red ink; no filigree designs; brown leather over boards. Psalms from Mondays to Saturdays.

* MS EC-P16BSF18 (21) (Gradual)

Probably copied ca. 1595; vellum. Good condition with some signs of the effect of humidity; 630 mm x 440 mm with five-line staves in red ink alternating music and text; 148 folios; no index; complete Arabic foliation in red ink; ff. 116r-148v are added with Roman foliation. Rotunda gothic script with the evidence of a different copyist's hand on ff. 146v148v; square notation with F and C clefs; monophony; custos and bars are indicated. Phytomorphic initials in red, blue, black, and yellow ink with filigree designs in same/alternate colours; cadels in black ink; capitals and rubrics in red ink; broken brown leather over broken boards. Proper of the Time from Palm Sunday to Whitsun Eve, Masses and interpolated Offices for Proper of the Time and Proper of the Saints, the sequence Victimae paschali laudes.

* MS EC-P9BSF19 (Psalter)

Copied 21 March 1929; paper over reused parchment. Very good condition; 650 mm x 450 mm with five-line staves in black ink alternating music and text (only on misplaced folios); 106 folios with two flyleaves; no index; incomplete Arabic pagination in black ink; ff. 99v-106v are misplaced. Template script; square notation with F and C clefs (only on misplaced folios); monophony; flats, custos, and bars are indicated. Initials, capitals, and rubrics in red ink; no filigree designs; brown leather over boards. Fridays and Saturdays in Ferial Office, misplaced folios with Masses of the Proper of the Time from the Nineteenth Sunday after Pentecost to the Twenty-Third Sunday after Pentecost.

* MS EC-P2BSF20 (Hymnal)

Copied in 1930; paper over reused parchment. Good condition with some scratched and amended folios; 680 mm x 440 mm; 116 folios; with index; incomplete Arabic pagination in black ink. Template script; no music notation. Initials, capitals, and rubrics in red ink; no filigree designs; brown leather over boards. Proper of the Saints, misplaced folios.

* MS EC-P14BSF21 (Antiphonal)

Probably copied in the seventeenth century; vellum. Good condition with the signs of the effect of humidity and some mutilated folios; 580 mm x 440 mm with five-line staves in red ink alternating music and text; sixty-one folios; no index; not foliated; ff. 14r-15v are mutilated. Rotunda gothic script; square notation with F and C clefs; monophony; catchwords, custos, and bars are indicated. Initials in red and blue ink with filigree designs in same/alternate colours; capitals and rubrics in red ink; no cover. Proper of the Time from Sexagesima Sunday to Easter Sunday, Transfiguration of Jesus (incomplete), Michael the Archangel (incomplete), All Saints' Day (incomplete).

* MS EC-BSF22 (Gradual)

Copied 21 December 1761; vellum. Good condition with signs of the effect of humidity and some mutilated folios; 600 mm x 460 mm with five-line staves in black ink alternating music and text; 101 folios; no index; incomplete Arabic foliation in red ink; ff. 1r-12v are missing. Rotunda gothic script; square notation with F and C clefs; monophony; flats, sharps, custos, and bars are indicated. Phytomorphic initials in red, blue, black, green, purple, gold, and yellow ink with filigree designs in same/alternate colours; capitals in red and purple ink; rubrics in red ink; no cover. Common of the Saints.

* MS EC-BSF23 (Gradual)

Probably copied in the twentieth century; paper over reused parchment. Very good condition; 580 mm x 400 mm with five-line staves in black ink alternating music and text; eighty-seven folios; with index; complete Arabic pagination in black ink. Template script; square notation with F and C clefs; monophony; flats, sharps, custos, and bars are indicated. Initials, capitals, and rubrics in red ink; no filigree designs; brown leather over boards. Proper of the Time, Proper of the Saints.

* MS EC-P6BSF24 (Hymnal)

Probably copied in the twentieth century; paper over reused parchment. Very good condition; 580 mm x 470 mm; 238 folios with two flyleaves; with index; incomplete Arabic pagination in black ink; ff. 28v-29r are missing. Template script; no music notation. Initials, capitals, and rubrics in red ink; no filigree designs; brown leather over boards. Proper of the Saints; ff. 104r-116v are misplaced. Hymns for the Office except for Compline and Little Hours, Common of the Saints, Proper of the Time, Proper of the Saints.

* MS EC-P1BSF25 (Antiphonal)

Copied in 1655 and 1635 (added folios); vellum. Good condition with signs of the effect of humidity and some mutilated folios; 670 mm x 500 mm with five-line staves in black and red ink (added folios) alternating music and text; 118 folios with two flyleaves; no index; incomplete Arabic foliation in red ink; ff. 43r-43v are missing; ff. 73r-86v are added. Rotunda gothic script; square notation with F and C clefs; monophony; custos and bars are indicated. Initials in red, blue and black ink with filigree designs in same/alternate colours; cadels in black ink; capitals and rubrics in red ink; brown leather over boards. Proper of the Time (Circumcision, Epiphany and Easter Week).

* MS EC-BSF26 (Psalter)

Probably copied in the twentieth century; paper over reused parchment. Very good condition; 670 mm x 490 mm; 149 folios with two flyleaves; with index; incomplete Arabic pagination in black ink; ff. 37v-38r are missing. Template script; no music notation. Initials, capitals, and rubrics in red ink; no filigree designs; brown leather over boards. Psalms for Sundays at Matins and Lauds, Canticles of David, Zachary and Ezequiel.

* MS EC-P13BSF27 (Antiphonal)

Copied in 1660; vellum. Good condition with signs of the effect of humidity and some mutilated folios; 690 mm x 490 mm with five-line staves in black alternating music and text; 139 folios; no index; incomplete Arabic foliation in red ink ff. 1r-117v and later Roman foliation ff. 118r-139v. Rotunda gothic script; square notation with F and C clefs; monophony; modes, custos, and bars are indicated. Initials in red, blue, black, gold, and yellow ink with filigree designs in same/alternate colours; cadels in black ink; capitals and rubrics in red ink; f. 43v has a handsome chalice drawing; brown leather over boards. Holy Trinity, Corpus Christi, Commemoration of the Crowns (Mass and Office), Assumption and Presentation of Mary (incomplete).

* MS EC-BSF28 (Antiphonal)

Probably copied in the twentieth century; paper over reused parchment. Very good condition; 710 mm x 480 mm with five-line staves in black ink alternating music and text; 126 folios with two flyleaves and two rear flyleaves; with index; incomplete Arabic pagination in red ink. Template script; square notation with F and C clefs; ff. 1r-35v polyphony and ff. 36r-126v monophony; flats, sharps, naturals, custos, and bars are indicated. Initials, capitals, and rubrics in red ink; no filigree designs; brown leather over boards. Ordinary of the Mass, Proper of the Time, Proper of the Saints.

* MS EC-BSF29 (Psalter)

Copied 1 August 1929; paper over reused parchment. Very good condition; 660 mm x 460 mm; 138 folios with two flyleaves; no index; incomplete Arabic pagination in black ink; ff. 28v-29r are missing. Template script; no music notation. Initials, capitals, and rubrics in red ink; no filigree designs; brown leather over boards. Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays, misplaced folios.

* MS EC-P11BSF30 (Psalter)

Probably copied in the twentieth century; paper over reused parchment. Very good condition; 670 mm x 460 mm; 100 folios with two flyleaves; no index; complete Arabic pagination in black ink. Template script; no music notation. Initials, capitals, and rubrics in red ink; no filigree designs; brown leather over boards. Sundays and Mondays, Salve regina, misplaced folios.

* MS EC-BSF31 (Antiphonal)

Probably copied in the seventeenth century; vellum. Good condition with signs of the effect of humidity and some mutilated folios; 580 mm x 440 mm with five-line staves in black alternating music and text; ninety-six folios; no index; not foliated. Rotunda gothic script; ff. 69r-96v were to be reused; square notation with F and C clefs; monophony; custos and bars are indicated. Anthropomorphic, phytomorphic, and zoomorphic initials in red, blue, black, green, gold, and yellow ink with filigree designs in same/alternate colours; cadels in black and gold ink; capitals and rubrics in red ink; brown leather over boards. Holy Thursday.

* MS EC-P4BSF32 (Hymnal)

Probably copied in the twentieth century; paper over reused parchment. Very good condition; 560 mm x 380 mm; 135 folios with four flyleaves and one rear flyleaf; with index; incomplete Arabic pagination in black ink. Template script; no music notation. Initials, capitals, and rubrics in red ink; no filigree designs; brown leather over boards. Hymns for the Office, except for Compline and Little Hours, Proper of the Time, Proper of the Saints.

* MS EC-P10BSF33 (Antiphonal)

Probably copied in the twentieth century; paper over reused parchment. Very good condition; 580 mm x 400 mm with five-line staves in black ink alternating music and text; 100 folios with two rear flyleaves; with index; incomplete Arabic pagination in black ink; ff. 78v-79r are missing. Template script; square notation with F and C clefs; monophony; flats, sharps, naturals, custos, and bars are indicated. Initials, capitals, and rubrics in red ink; no filigree designs; brown leather over boards. Proper of the Time, Proper of the Saints, Common of the Saints.

* MS EC-BSF34 (Antiphonal)

Probably copied in the twentieth century; paper over reused parchment. Good condition with some amended folios; 530 mm x 380 mm with five-line staves in black ink alternating music and text; 150 folios with two rear flyleaves; with index; incomplete Arabic pagination in black ink; ff. 114r-115v and ff. 117r-118v are missing. Template script; square notation with F and C clefs; monophony; flats, sharps, naturals, custos, and bars are indicated. Initials, capitals, and rubrics in red ink; no filigree designs; brown leather over boards. Proper of the Time, Proper of the Saints, Common of the Saints.

* MS EC-P3BSF35 (Psalter)

Probably copied in the twentieth century; paper over reused parchment. Good condition with some amended folios; 530 mm x 400 mm; 132 folios; with index; inaccurate Arabic pagination in black ink; later pagination in pencil. Template script; no music notation. Initials, capitals, and rubrics in red ink; no filigree designs; brown leather over boards. Little Hours, Vespers, and Compline, Athanasian Creed, other psalms, the antiphon Asperges me Domine.

* MS EC-BSF36 (22) (Antiphonal)

Copied in 1677 by Friar Francisco de Pena Herrera; vellum. Very good condition with some restored folios; 700 mm x 480 mm with five-line staves in black ink alternating music and text; 120 folios; no index; incomplete Arabic foliation in red ink; ff. 27r-27v are added with the evidence of a different copyist's hand; ff. 15r-15v and ff. 52r- 52v are missing. Rotunda gothic script; square notation with F and C clefs; monophony; custos and bars are indicated. Anthropomorphic and phytomorphic initials in red, black, blue, green, and gold ink with filigree designs in same/alternate colours (some of them were mutilated and restored later); cadels in black, red, and gold ink; capitals and rubrics in red ink; brown leather over boards. Common of the Saints.

* MS EC-BSF37 (Antiphonal)

Copied 3 March 1677 by Friar Francisco de Pena Herrera; vellum. Very good condition with some mutilated folios; 700 mm x 480 mm with five-line staves in black ink alternating music and text; 137 folios; no index; incomplete Arabic foliation in red ink; ff. 47r-47v are added with the evidence of a different copyist's hand; ff. 1r-1v, ff. 8r-8v and ff. 133r- 133v are missing. Rotunda gothic script; square notation with F and C clefs; monophony; custos and bars are indicated. Anthropomorphic and phytomorphic initials in red, black, blue, green, and gold ink with filigree designs in same/alternate colours (some of them were mutilated and restored later); cadels in black, red, and gold ink; capitals and rubrics in red ink; brown leather over boards. Common of the Saints.

* MS EC-BSF38 (Psalter)

Probably copied in the twentieth century; paper over reused parchment. Restored good condition with some scratched and amended folios; 650 mm x 490 mm; 100 folios with flyleaves between each folio; with index; incomplete Arabic pagination in black ink; ff. 1r-15v are missing. Template script in Spanish; no music notation. Initials, capitals, and rubrics in red ink; no filigree designs; brown leather over boards. Little Office of B. M. V., Office of the Dead.

Historical Notes

On December 1534, a Franciscan commission arrived in Quito from Mexico. Encouraged by General Commissioner Juan de Granada and Friar Marcos de Niza, Friar Jodocus Rickye and Friar Pierre Gosseal established the Church and Convent of San Francisco on 25 January 1535 (23), being the first music and painting teachers respectively. These subjects were later taught at Colegio de San Andres, sponsored by Rickye and founded by Friar Francisco de Morales in 1551 (24). Furthermore, the Spanish Gaspar Becerra and Andres Lazo were the first teachers of polyphony, sackbut, and flute, among other instruments (25). Eventually, by 1568, the list of teachers also included a few Ecuadorians: Diego Gutierrez Bermejo, Pedro Diaz, Juan Mitima, and Cristobal de Santa Maria for music, and friars Francisco Morillo, Francisco de Ortega, and Jose de Villalobos for painting, writing, and grammar respectively (26).

Given the need for both liturgical and choral books, the creation of such was encouraged by the school itself. As a result, proficient scribes arose throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. These included friars Gaspar de la Asuncion, Ignacio Mideros, Francisco de Herrera, and Francisco de Pena Herrera. In addition, as evidenced throughout this study, the name of Balthazar Benites represents a new kind of eighteenth- century Franciscan scribe.

In 1675, after the closure of the Colegio de San Andres, a new school arose: the Colegio de San Buenaventura, founded by Friar Dionisio Guerrero (27). Evidence of Guerrero's influence and contribution are three codices copied by Friar Francisco de Pena Herrera. The first is a 132-folio of Franciscan Saints' Offices, dated 8 December 1673 and previously mentioned by Robert M. Stevenson (28). The other two are the manuscripts EC- BSF36 and EC-BSF37, dated 3 March 1677. Folio 137v shows the legend (29), which supports that the great work was sponsored by Guerrero.

Despite the proficient artistic labour, thirty-three codices in this collection remain anonymous. Nowadays, the signatures of friars Francisco de Pena Herrera, Francisco de Herrera, and Balthazar Benites are the only testament to their skilfulness as scribes in the Church of San Francisco de Quito.

Iberian and Flemish Relations

Rickye's family had a close relationship with the court of the Emperor Charles V (30). Consequently, he learned from both Iberian and Flemish teachers. In fact, the Spanish composer and priest Juan de Anchieta (ca. 1462-1523) was one of his teachers within Charles' court at Malines (31). Another influential teacher was the Flemish Friar Pieter van der Moere, also known as Fray Pedro de Gante.

Through the establishment of the Colegio de San Andres, all the knowledge achieved from Rickye's early life was transmitted to the Ecuadorians. Furthermore, the artistic influence of the Flemish Friar Pierre Gosseal and the Iberians Friar Pedro de Rodenas, Gaspar Becerra, and Andres Lazo was also a fruitful complement.

Concerning the compositional style of church music, the Iberian and Flemish influences in these codices are remarkable. On the one hand, the four Masses composed by Henri Dumont (1610-1684) are unquestionable evidence of the link between Quito and the Flemish region in the seventeenth century. On the other hand, the Iberian link with Quito is demonstrated through seven Kyries composed by Buenaventura Iniguez (1840-1902) (32).

Finally, another evidence of Iberian influence within the collection is the "Missa Zaragozana" (Mass from Zaragoza) by an anonymous composer. This Mass is located in the codex EC-BSF22, ff. 24r-38v, and it includes chants for the Ordinary of the Mass. Since the Church of San Francisco de Quito was the first one established in Ecuador, these could be the initial transcribed sources of church music from ancient Iberian codices.

Liturgical Feasts and Repertoire

There is one liturgical feast absent in the Cantus Index (33): the Mass in Portiuncula (also known as Porziuncola), in honour of a small church located in Assisi, where St. Francis died in 1226. Although the chants are well-known (they are the same as for the Dedication of a Church), the addition of this feast to Cantus will represent a relevant contribution to musicological resources. This feast is located in the codex EC-BSF23, ff. 58v- 61r.

Another outstanding example is the Mass in Honour of Didacus of Alcala. The Introit used for this feast (34) cannot be previously identified in any other source of early church music. As a result, the five chants introduced in Cantus that belong to this Mass represent the first recorded contribution to the repertoire for this feast. What is more, these chants could be the earliest ones used for this Mass.

Finally, Dumont's and Iniguez's compositions deserve special attention. Located in the codex EC-BSF15, ff. 41r-66r, the output of these two composers includes Dumont's four Masses (in mode I, II, III, and the "Missa Imperialis") (35), and Iniguez's seven Kyries (in modes I-VII). The chants in Dumont's Masses belong to the Ordinary of the Mass. Disseminating information on Dumont's and Iniguez's compositions will also represent an important contribution that complements current research.

Conclusion

The music manuscript collection in the Church of San Francisco de Quito contains a wealth of unpublished information. Thus, it is worth noting, first, the name of Friar Balthazar Benites as an eighteenth-century Ecuadorian scribe; second, the musical works of Henri Dumont and Buenaventura Iniguez; and last, the little-known liturgical feasts and repertoire, including the Mass in Portiuncula, the "Missa Zaragozana", and the introit Humiliavit se in omnibus from the Mass of Didacus of Alcala.

The inclusion of this collection in Cantus also represents a significant contribution to the musicological community. In fact, eighty-nine new chants have been added in the last couple of years.

Despite the brief mention of Friar Benjamin Gento Sanz in 1942, and the extensive historiographical work of Robert M. Stevenson in the 1960s, no other material has been published. Consequently, it is necessary to update and promote the dissemination of these undocumented music sources, in order to expand current inventories. Through this, further studies that shed new light on Latin American liturgical practices and its connection to Iberian and Flemish roots are feasible.

Jesus Estevez is a professor and music researcher working at the Universidad San Francisco (USFQ) College of Music, Quito, Ecuador. He may be contacted at jestevez@usfq.edu.ec.

(1.) I would like to express my special thanks to Hector Vega, architect in charge of the restoration, and to Friar Jorge Gonzalez, curator of the church, for their support and kindness throughout the investigation of these sources.

(2.) There is no evidence that any other inventory was previously done. The author has created the inventory of this collection through this study.

(3.) Franciscan copyist of one of the "twenty-nine huge plainchant books" housed at the Cathedral of Quito, mentioned in Robert Stevenson, "Music in Quito: Four Centuries", Hispanic American Historical Review 43, no. 2 (May 1963): 247-266, at 262; as well as in his "Musica en Quito", Revista Musical Chilena 16, no. 81-82 (1962): 172-194, at 190, and La Musica en Quito, 2d ed. (Quito: Banco Central, 1989), 31.

(4.) Benjamin Gento Sanz, Historia de la Obra Constructiva de San Francisco de Quito desde su fundacion hasta nuestros dtas 1535-1942 (Quito: Imprenta Municipal, 1942), 23.

(5.) Alicia Coloma de Reed, La Sociedad Filarmonica de Quito. 50 Anos (Quito: Mariscal, 2002), 14. After identifying this Mass, a transcription and edition project was carried out by musicologists Gustavo Lovato (Ecuador) and Miguel Juarez (Argentina). As a result, a concert was performed at Casa de la Musica on 11 October 2010; see "Quito da nueva vida a la Misa de Felipe II". El Comercio, 30 December 2010, http://www.elcomercio.com /tendencias/cultura/quito-da-nueva-vida-misa.html, accessed 27 December 2018.

(6.) His research projects include several bibliographical publications concerning Ecuadorian music history, and the significant rescue of 298 folios with polyphonic music in the Archdiocese of Ibarra in 1994, compiled and ordered previously (1991) by Jorge Isaac Cazorla, Ecuadorian researcher, writer, and palaeographer. This work was recently published as Villancicos, Romances y Chanzonetas: Archivo Historico de la Diocesis de Ibarra, Ecuador siglos XVIIy XVIII (Quito: Fundacion Filarmonica Casa de la Musica, 2018).

(7.) See Gerard Behague, La Musica en America Latina (Caracas: Monte Avila Editores, 1983), 29.

(8.) Elisa Ruiz Garcia, Introduction a la Codicologta, 2d ed. (Madrid: Fundacion German Sanchez Ruiperez, 2002), 352-372.

(9.) Andrew Hughes, Medieval Music Manuscripts for Mass and Office: A Guide to Their Organization and Terminology (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1982), 103-106.

(10.) A symbol located at the end of the stave in order to indicate the pitch of the next note.

(11.) Anthropomorphic, phytomorphic, and/or zoomorphic initials.

(12.) A decorative extension of letters by using ascending and descending strokes.

(13.) According to the advice for editorial procedures suggested by John Caldwell, Editing Early Music (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985), 6.

(14.) The shelfmark process was realised in 2006 by the church's authorities.

(15.) All the chants of this codex have already been recorded in Cantus: A Database for Latin Ecclesiastical Plainchant, http://cantus.uwaterloo.ca/source/672452, accessed 27 December 2018.

(16.) As a member of the Franciscan Order at Quito in the seventeenth century, he learned painting and creating manuscript books. These tasks were initially taught by Friar Pierre Gosseal and his successors at Colegio San Andres. He was also one of the sixteenth and seventeenth-centuries most skillful scribes, in addition to Friar Gaspar de la Asuncion and Friar Ignacio Mideros; see Benjamin Gento Sanz, "The History and Art of the Church and Monastery of San Francisco de Quito", The Americas 4, no 2 (October 1947): 175-194 at 184.

(17.) Since the signature of Friar Francisco de Pena Herrera is found in the codex BSF37 dated 1677, the date can be inferred. His signature also appears on an "exquisite 132-folio" dated 8 December 1673, housed in the archives of the Cathedral of Quito; see Robert Stevenson "Music in Quito: Four Centuries", Hispanic American Historical Review 43, no. 2 (May 1963): 247-266 at 262; as well as his "Musica en Quito", Revista Musical Chilena 16, no. 81-82 (1962): 172-194 at 190, and La Musica en Quito, 2d ed. (Quito: Banco Central, 1989), 31.

(18.) The signature and date are located on the parchment flyleaf folios, which were reused for this codex. This indicates that the authentic old manuscript was written in 1672 by Friar Francisco de Herrera. Nevertheless, the use of template script over paper glued on reused parchment seems to be a common practice in this church throughout the twentieth century. This harmful technique is also found in the codices BSF29, P9BSF19 (dated 1929), and the codex P2BSF20 (dated 1930).

(19.) Henri Dumont (1610-1684), Southern-Netherlandish composer and organist at Saint Paul Church.

(20.) Buenaventura Iniguez (1840-1902), Spanish composer and main organist at Seville's Cathedral from 1865 until his death in 1902. He had a close relationship with the convent of the Franciscan Sisters of Santa Ines, where he composed a vast amount of musical works; see Maria Isabel Osuna Lucena, et al., "Buenaventura Iniguez en el Convento de Santa Ines de Sevilla", Cuadernos de los Amigos de los Museos de Osuna 15 (2013): 38-43.

(21.) All the chants in this codex have already been recorded in Cantus: A Database for Latin Ecclesiastical Plainchant, http://cantus.uwaterloo.ca/source/669907, accessed 27 December 2018.

(22.) This codex is the first of two volumes titled Libro de Comunes, finished, signed, and dated 3 March 1677 by Friar Francisco de Pena Herrera in the second volume (BSF37).

(23.) Diego de Cordova Salinas, Cronica Franciscana de las Provincias del Peru, ed. Lino G. Canedo (Mexico: Editorial Jus, 1957), 73.

(24.) Jose Gabriel Navarro, Los franciscanos en la conquista y colonization de America (Madrid: Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, 1955), 113.

(25.) Jose Maria Vargas, El Arte Quiteno en los Siglos XVI, XVIIy XVIII (Quito: Litografia e Imprenta Romero, 1949), 158.

(26.) Jose Maria Vargas, Patrimonio Arttstico Ecuatoriano (Quito: Editorial Santo Domingo, 1967), 8-9.

(27.) Jose Maria Vargas, Historia de la Cultura Ecuatoriana (Quito: Editorial Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1965), 222.

(28.) See Robert Stevenson, "Music in Quito: Four Centuries", Hispanic American Historical Review 43, no. 2 (May 1963): 247-266 at 262.

(29.) f. 137v: "Acabose este libro el tres de Marzo de 1677 ano. En tepo que N. M. R. P. fray Dionysio Guerrero lector jubilado y P perpetuo secuda vez gouernaua co todo acierto y prudecia como Prouf nra ordn sto esta Sta Proua a cuya proteccion se dirige, por auer sido por cuyo fometo dio dichoso fin a esta obra el P. Fr. franco de pena Herrera cura Doctrinero de S. Pablo de la Laguna".

(30.) See Mario Godoy Aguirre, Historia de la Musica del Ecuador (Quito: Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Ecuador, 2012), 76, and Agustin de Vetancourt, Cronica de la Provincia del Santo Evangelio de Mexico. Tomo III (Mexico: Imprenta de I. Escalante y C., 1871), 76.

(31.) Agustin Moreno, Fray Jodoco Rique y Fray Pedro Gocial: Apostoles y Maestros Franciscanos de Quito (Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1998), 48-58.

(32.) Relevant works about Buenaventura Iniguez include Juan-Cruz Labeaga Mendiola, "Buenaventura Iniguez, organista de la Catedral de Sevilla, y su ciudad natal Sanguesa (Navarra)", Revista de Musicologta 14, no. 1-2, III Congreso Nacional de Musicologia (enero-septiembre 1991): 597-603; Maria Isabel Osuna Lucena, "La Musica en el Monasterio de Santa Ines: D. Buenaventura Iniguez", Laboratorio de Arte 2, tomo 2 (1993): 177-218; and Jesus Maria Macaya Floristan, Buenaventura Iniguez. El musico Navarro de Sevilla (Pamplona: Sahats Servicios Editoriales, 2015).

(33.) Cantus Index: Online Catalogue for Mass and Office Chants, http://cantusindex.org/, accessed 27 December 2018.

(34.) Humiliavit se in omnibus "Can g02841". The text of this chant belongs to the apocryphal book of Ecclesiastes, chapter 3, verses 21-22.

(35.) This Mass was performed in 1882 in England; see "Brief Summary of Country News", Musical Times and Singing Class Circular 23, no. 474 (1 August 1882): 455-456.

Caption: Fig. 1. Bookshelf room.

Caption: Fig. 2. MS BSF8, f. 92v.

Caption: Fig. 3. MS BSF7, f. 103v.

Caption: Fig. 4. MS P12BSF12, f. 86v.

Caption: Fig. 5. MS BSF15, flyleaf 1.

Caption: Fig. 6. MS P2BSF20, f. 2r.

Caption: Fig. 7. MS EC-BSF37, f. 137v.
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Author:Estevez, Jesus
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Date:Jan 1, 2019
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