THE LEISURE EXPERIENCE OF YOUNG PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES/ LA EXPERIENCIA DE OCIO EN LAS PERSONAS JOVENES CON DISCAPACIDAD/ A EXPERIENCIA DE LAZER EM JOVENS COM DEFICIENCIA.
This paper discusses the leisure experiences of young people with different types of disabilities and describes leisure practices within various leisure areas. The descriptive variables of leisure activities used are: organisers, participants, frequency, and location. The article also describes the opinions, preferences, motivations and values of young people with disabilities in relation to their leisure experiences.
This section contains a brief conceptual outline of the topics that are most closely related to the leisure experiences of young people with disabilities, with the aim of providing the theoretical background for the discussion of the data presented later.
The most significant change regarding leisure in recent decades refers to how it is perceived, as it is currently considered socially necessary (Cuenca, 2014). It also encompasses a broad range of activities with multiple outcomes, both for society and for the individual. The relationship between leisure and human development (Catedra Ocio y Discapacidad, 2014) means that a large part of the efforts are focused on people's needs, in an attempt to identify and interpret their demands and motivations, and how they relate to building fuller lives (CERMI, 2012). Leisure is presented as a fundamental environment for the overall development of the individual for any population group, not only for people with disabilities (Madariaga & Lazcano, 2014).
It has also been noted that leisure plays a significant role as an area of overall development throughout life (Cuenca, 2014). Various studies support the view that leisure is a basic human right, and an important area for personal development and life quality. Leisure contributes to the promotion of physical, cognitive, emotional and behavioural aspects at both the individual and the social level (Madariaga & Romero, 2016). Participation in leisure activities promotes personal development and has various additional benefits (King, Rigby & Batorowicz, 2013). It can therefore be said that leisure practices and experiences contribute to the development of human potential, and it is essential that young people with disabilities overcome the barriers that prevent them from accessing different leisure experiences that promote their full development (Lorenzo, Motau, Van der Merwe, Janse van Rensburg, & Cramm, 2015; Law, Anaby, Imms, Teplicky & Turner, 2015; Shogren & Shaw, 2016).
Youth is understood here as the evolutionary period in which key aspects of a person's life are defined at social, emotional, intellectual and physical levels (Moscoso, Sanchez R, Martin & Pedrajas, 2015). The path towards an adult future begins in this period, which relies on an exaltation of the present reality by constructing (or acquiring) a specific identity, that of a young person. Yet, it is worth remembering that youth is not a homogeneous group (Lazcano & Caballo, 2016).
Disability is understood as a personal circumstance and social event resulting from the interaction between a person who is different from the standard and an unsuitable environment (designed for the standard person). That environment thus becomes inappropriate and limiting (CERMI, 2012). The differences displayed by some people are indicators of human diversity. They are to be welcomed by an inclusive and open society, as they contribute to enriching and expanding society, as well as adding more humane values to it.
For young people with disabilities leisure time has acquired a hitherto unknown importance, since today it is considered to be a fundamental parameter of life quality-as it is for the rest of society (Cuenca, 2014). All these changes have generated a new mentality that perceives leisure as a right for all. Consequently, efforts are being made by different agents to achieve equality of opportunities (Madariaga & Lazcano, 2014), including legislation which has a more inclusive underlying philosophy and an awareness of the need to satisfy the demands of young people in this area.
The life experiences of young people give rise to distinctive youth lifestyles, marked to a large extent by the practices and experiences linked to their free time (Moscoso et al., 2015). They are constructs that encompass the ways of thinking, feeling and behaving of a specific group, belonging to a specific environment. But it is also a set of habits, features and activities that serve to differentiate one social group from another. In short, they are shared practices that also have the capacity to structure and organise most of the daily life of a specific group of individuals (Rodriguez & Agullo, 1999). In the 1980s the World Health Organisation noted that leisure experiences are closely related to health and quality of life, and that they are associated with behaviour patterns such as physical activity, eating habits, stress levels and stress-combating strategies, and the consumption of substances such as alcohol or tobacco. Ultimately, leisure experiences become behavioural patterns that structure the social system, time organisation and leisure activities, that is, a type of leisure understood as a differentiated itinerary supported by specific personal and social characteristics.
Leisure studies view leisure as a human experience that is free, satisfactory and an end in itself; it is voluntary and separate from needs, understood as primary needs. A differential feature of leisure experiences is the personal satisfaction they provide, and that they produce affective and emotional outcomes. Leisure, as a satisfactory experience, has an impact that goes beyond the personal and the individual, and extends to community and social levels. Leisure experiences are generators of experiences (Cuenca, 2014) that tend to be repeated and improve the satisfaction they provide, and they are sources of individual and social human development. An experience is optimal (Csikszentmihaly, 1997) when the individual perceives what they want and must do something (perception of challenge) that they are capable of doing (that they have the skills to do). The interest of leisure experiences lies not so much in the type of activity, but in the 'challenges' that it provides for the individual and in the enjoyment involved.
A leisure experience can be studied from three points of view. It can be analysed from the point of view of the background that makes it possible, from the perspective of the consequences or benefits that it brings and, finally, from the viewpoint of the attributes that characterise it.
The study of the background refers to the study of the prerequisites that are necessary for a leisure experience to exist. This analytical perspective suggests the question: What leads an individual to perceive an experience as leisure? The study of consequences refers to the benefits derived from the leisure experience. Each of the perspectives proposed involves different starting points for research questions.
This paper uses the perspective that focuses on the attributes of the leisure experience, and considers what characterises a leisure experience. In other words, it seeks to identify what individuals do, think and feel when they engage in the practice of leisure(Ortega, Lazcano & Manuel, 2015). The question that arises is the following: What constitutes a leisure experience? What is required for a given practice to be a leisure experience? Given the subjective definition of it, is it possible to consider the existence of some elements or attributes? Do all participants experience a leisure experience in the same way?
Tinsley and Tinsley (1986) provided some answers to these unknowns by identifying six cognitive and affective attributes that shape the leisure experience. Their definition of the leisure experience was framed within psychology-based leisure studies. It relies on the subjective definition of the person who has the experience, giving prominence to individual or personal aspects that notably include emotions. This study is consistent with these authors' points, and with the contribution made by Goytia (2008), in which the individual point of view, and more specifically, emotions are a very important component of the leisure experience. But are emotions the only essential component? This paper considers that it is not at all clear that emotions are the only attributes of leisure experiences, even though research on leisure experiences has frequently been operationalised in this way.
From a psychological perspective, a leisure experience is understood as a subjective mental state, resulting from free choice and carried out for intrinsic reasons, which seems to depend exclusively on the person who experiences it (Iso-Ahola,1980).However, in addition to the cognitive and affective elements, it is necessary to consider that human beings are inherently political and as such, their experiences are influenced by society and by the environment in which they live. This includes leisure experiences. Without diminishing the importance of the personal or individual constraints that allow, foster or facilitate the experience of leisure (Neulinger, 1980), it refers to a mental state derived from the inter relation between participants and their environment; an environment also affected by social and/ or situational variables. Therefore, a fundamental characteristic of the leisure experience is that it is dynamic, as well as being subjectively defined.
As other researchers have proposed (Goytia, 2008), the analysis of the leisure experience used in this study is not only psychological, but also psychosocial in nature. The studies by Iso-Ahola (1980) are especially interesting, as they include both personal and situational variables or, in our terms, social and cultural variables. Iso-Ahola relied on a personal definition of leisure, while also adding the importance of social and situational factors to the psycho-sociological analysis. A more psychosocial stance is thus adopted, aptly including the influence that both social situations and personal experiences have on the subjective definition of the leisure experience. Social situations play an important role in shaping the leisure experience, since they allow each person to provide a subjective definition of what leisure is for him/her.
This article describes the leisure experiences of different groups of young people with disabilities (auditory, physical, intellectual and visual). The study's objectives are: (a) to characterise and typologise the most significant leisure practices that take place among young people with disabilities as a population group in different leisure areas (culture, tourism, sports, recreation and others), and (b) to describe the leisure experiences of young people with disabilities, based on their opinions, preferences, motivations, and values.
It was decided to use a stratified random sampling design, applied to the young population of the Basque Country who belonged to a disabled people's association (aged 15-29 years old). It was considered that sample size should be 400 young people, and this resulted in a level of confidence of 95% and a margin of error of 5%. In order to distribute the sample equitably, it was stratified according to type of disability, sex and age. The proportion of young people with disabilities was equally distributed (between auditory, physical, intellectual and visual disability (25% of each). Among the participants, 51.3% were men, 34% had had completed their secondary education (9% had university education) and 49% were employed.
All associations with disabilities registered in the Basque Country were approached to form the young people's sample. The people in charge of the organisations were contacted and informed of the aim of the study and the confidentiality of the data. Voluntary participation by young people was requested to answer a questionnaire in paper format. Parents' authorizations were also requested in those cases where the participants were minors.
An instrument was designed ad hoc for the 'Leisure for young people with disabilities' study carried out by the Institute of Leisure Studies of the University of Deusto and funded by the Basque Youth Observatory. It was used to investigate the leisure experience and practice of young people with disabilities in the Basque Country. In addition to the variables related to the identification and description of the sample, others were selected that related to the leisure practices carried out:
--Leisure activities engaged in: 29 activities grouped into 5 areas (sports, culture, tourism, recreation and others) were presented to the young people in the sample. The activities in the area of sport included 'individual sport', 'walking' and 'attending sporting events', among others. 'Listening to music', going to museums' and 'making crafts' were some of the activities in the cultural area. 'Having holidays' with tourism. 'Watching TV', 'playing board games' and/or 'being with friends' referred to recreation and, finally, 'collaborating with the association' and 'hobbies' were grouped in the 'others' category.
--Organisation of activities: This variable is categorised with the following response options: 'the indivual', 'family' 'friends' and the association'.
--Participants in the leisure activity: The response Options were: 'alone', 'family' 'friends with disabilities', 'friends without disabilities' and 'support', the latter referring to the young person's support staff.
--Frequency: '1 day a week', '2-3 days a week', '1 or 2 times a month', 'holiday periods' and 'others' were taken into account.
--Location: In order to know where they carried out their main leisure activities, the categories 'house', 'association' and 'community' were included, the latter referring to the public environment or space in the areas where they reside.
This article deals with the leisure experiences of young people with disabilities, and it should be noted that no single activity or sum of activities constitutes an experience. The descriptive approach was based on the assumption that each individual subjectively defines the activities they practice. Hence, other aspects need to be added in order to complete the behavioural approach. This study is completed by a cognitive approach, focused on the analysis of the opinions and preferences that a person has regarding a given practice for it to become a leisure experience. The motivational dimension will be addressed later, as it is understood that emotions have a motivational effect, in addition to organising cognition and action. Motivation is therefore considered because it is the element with the greatest intrapsychic component of the concept of experience. Finally, the cultural dimension is also studied, including a sociological or socio-cultural analysis, which analyses the consumption of leisure as a social act and a cultural event. The analysis of values is important in the cultural dimension, since values are a reflection of the influence of the culture in which the person lives, so they affect their life path and, consequently, their leisure experiences.
It was decided to adapt the tool used by Goytia (2008), which was specifically related to the culture dimension, as it ensured reliability of the results. The reason was the difficulty involved in devising and administering a scale that was suitable to the particularities of the sample group. The study analysed four dimensions (behavioural, cognitive, motivational and cultural).
1. Behavioural dimension. It was considered important to identify the behaviours of young people with disabilities during their leisure activities. Preference for certain activities was analysed.
2. Cognitive dimension. This included a psychographic perspective focused on the analysis of an individual's opinions and preferences regarding a particular practice that lead to it being considered a leisure experience.
3. Motivational dimension. Emotions, in addition to organising cognition and action, have a motivational effect. This accounts for the inclusion of the element with the greatest intrapsychic component: motivations related to leisure.
4. Cultural dimension. This includes a sociological or socio-cultural analysis of the consumption of leisure as a social act and a cultural event. This analysis also discusses values, as they reflect the influence of the culture in which the person lives, and are considered to have an impact on an individual's life path and choices, and on their leisure experience.
These are the main results from the administration of the questionnaire, focusing on the variables presented to describe leisure practices and experiences, and their relationship with the opinions, preferences, motivations and values held by the participants in connection with leisure.
The main leisure practice engaged in by the young people with disabilities who took part in the study was sport (71.8%). The second most widespread leisure practice was cultural activities.
Looking at the main leisure practice engaged in by the young people surveyed, practically in half of the cases it was the young people themselves who organised leisure activities. In 84% of cases, young people engaged in their main leisure activity alone. Regarding the frequency of the activity, 43% practised it 2-3 days a week, while 23% dedicated 1 day a week to the leisure activity. Only 5% of the young people interviewed engaged in their leisure activity during holiday periods. Lastly, the young participants usually carried out their leisure activity within the community (57.7%), that is, in the environment where they found themselves.
It should be noted that young people as a whole value leisure activities very highly, and find them a suitable life space or area to forge new friendships. Therefore, they do not consider leisure to be a waste of time or money, but as something essential to them.
The views obtained (in parallel with the underlying factors) showed that there were six different general opinions about leisure, one of which was negative. Leisure was perceived as and identified with socialisation, solidarity, relax, personal development and recreation. The most valued aspects of leisure were reported to be socialisation and relax. A large number of opinions were also found (although to a lesser extent) to the effect that leisure is a space for solidarity, personal development and a time for recreation.
Preferences refer to what the individual considers to be their ideal leisure activity. The main preferences for young people with disabilities were mainly going out and visiting different places; in other words, they preferred to move and discover new spaces.
Two major factors emerged after gathering the answers in groups, which underlie the preferences indicated above. On the one hand, there were young people with disabilities who preferred novelty and emotion in their leisure experiences, as opposed to having quiet, safe experiences. On the other hand, there was a group of participants who preferred authenticity and independence to high quality in leisure activities. In general terms, the participants tended to prefer leisure practices and experiences full of novelty and emotion, to quiet, safe experiences in their leisure time.
This motivational dimension is consistent with the conception that emotions, in addition to organising cognition and action, have a motivational effect. The first table shows the opinions organised by the scores obtained (scale from 1 to 3, 1 being the lowest score). As a group, the participants reported that they had different motivations for leisure activities. It is worth noting the positive assessment they made of sharing time with other people, as well as the motivation to learn new things.
When the motivations were grouped according to their underlying factors, they revealed three types of motivations that could encourage the practice of leisure activities. Leisure can be a space and a time for an individual to make contact with other people, a time for personal development, and an opportunity to relax. The socialisation factor was the most essential for the young people with disabilities who participated in the study, but all three motivational factors were important to them.
The importance that young people give to having certain values and, in other words, the influence of the sociocultural environment on leisure practices and experiences, was the last element in the analysis (a scale from 1 to 3 was used, where 1 was the lowest score). It should be noted that young people as a whole reported that they give importance to various different values in life.
By grouping the values according to their components, two major factors emerged that could determine to a greater or lesser extent the experience of each person in their practice of leisure activities. Both factors were important for the group under study, although self-esteem was a few percentage points higher.
4. Discussion and conclusions
One of the areas where young people's values become apparent are free time and leisure (Moscoso et al., 2015, Freixas & Porcio, 2004). Leisure time is a very important sphere in their lives and is increasingly becoming more important, both in terms of quantity and quality. Young people are concerned about quantitative and qualitative aspects linked to their leisure activities.
The role played by leisure has evolved in the last decade. Currently it is an area of vital importance for the full development of the individual (Madariaga & Lazcano, 2014). The ability to have access to ordinary and extraordinary leisure activities is considered essential for people with disabilities.
Although the main leisure practice of the young people with disabilities analysed is sport, experiences were described differently in terms of the leisure activity under study.
In sports, leisure is autonomous, activities are organised and practised by the young person involved. Sports practices are held once a week in the community environment in which the participants live or interact.
Culture is also an autonomous leisure practice, although it is engaged in less often and takes place to a greater extent in the participants' homes.
Focusing on tourism, there are more social activities organised and carried out with friends during holiday periods. The same happens in the recreational field, although this differs from tourism in that it is more active, since the young participants stated that they practise recreational activities 2-3 times a week.
Finally, the experiences encompassed under 'others' are the most dependent of all, since this is a heterogeneous space where leisure practices are organised and managed by the disabled people's association in question. Therefore, these are practised with friends who also have a disability. Organised activities are practised 2-3 times a week.
Young people with disabilities have a network of associations that provide leisure services (cultural, tourism-related, recreational or sports-related) depending on the demands of their members, so it could be said that there are sufficient activities available for this population segment.
Leisure for a person with disabilities provides opportunities for participation and enjoyment in environments similar to their peers (Echeverria, 2012), develops skills, fosters choice and participation in community activities (Gorbena, Madariaga & Rodriguez, 2002), and promotes personal dignity through empowerment (Delgado, and Humm-Delgado, 2017).
But it should be added that there are leisure options in the community environment that are neither accessible nor inclusive (Alexander, 2015). Therefore, the study also proposes the need to develop work strategies to promote inclusion in leisure.
By way of conclusion, the demands identified in relation to the field of leisure and its environment (equipment, services, programmes and activities) are based on the leisure needs of the different groups of people with disabilities. All of them focus on two aspects, namely participation (King, Rigby & Batorowicz, 2013) and equal opportunities (Madariaga, 2011). In order to guarantee the right to leisure of young people with disabilities, it is essential to: enable interaction and socialisation opportunities between people in different leisure spaces; develop individual accompaniment services; liaise between associations and community leisure programmes to organise the provision of services (CERMI, 2011); encourage participation in leisure activities within the community environment; guarantee equal participation; ensure adapted access to new leisure experiences; and develop projects that cater for each person's individual needs (CERMI, 2013).
The main limitation of this study is that it provides a general overview of the leisure practices and experiences of young people with disabilities. Living with a disability presents very heterogeneous challenges, particularly considering that each type of disability describes very different situations and needs that can determine the practices, opinions, preferences, motivations and values in the field of leisure.
Future lines of research include the applicability of the questionnaire to other groups of young people and other segments of the population of a different age group. It is also necessary to consider the development of sectoral leisure and youth projects focused on disability subgroups (auditory, physical, intellectual and visual). Finally, studies should also be conducted on the professional profiles of the leisure and disability sector and on the elements that need to be incorporated to implement more inclusive strategies in leisure projects.
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Idurre Lazcano Quintana. Instituto de Estudios de Ocio, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas, Universidad de Deusto . Avda. Universidades 24. 48007 Bilbao. Bizkaia. Mail: ilazkano@ deusto.es
Aurora Madariaga Ortuzar. Instituto de Estudios de Ocio, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas, Universidad de Deusto . Avda. Universidades 24. 48007 Bilbao. Bizkaia. Mail: email@example.com
Idurre Lazcano Quintana. Doctora en Ocio. Master en Gestion de Ocio Cultural. Pedagoga. Ha sido subdirectora de investigacion de Estudios de ocio. Directora del Master Universitario en Direccion de Proyectos de Ocio. Miembro del equipo oficial de investigacion. Docente de grado y posgrado. Ha publicado articulos y libros en el campo del ocio y la cultura, y asistido a congresos. Su linea investigacion se centra en ocio cultural, asociacionismo, gobernanza y juventud.
Aurora Madariaga Ortuzar. Doctora en Ocio. Master en Educacion Especial. Experto en Pedagogia Terapeutica. Psicologa. Investigadora Principal del equipo A "El ocio como factor de desarrollo personal" (Gobierno Vasco, IT984-16). Directora de la Catedra Ocio y Discapacidad. Docente de grado y posgrado. Ha impartido multitud de cursos y ponencias. Ademas de articulos en revistas cientificas de impacto, es coautora de varios libros sobre inclusion, accesibilidad, ocio y discapacidad. Ha dirigido varias tesis doctorales.
Idurre LAZCANO QUINTANA & Aurora MADARIAGA ORTUZAR
Universidad de Deusto
Received date: 10.VI.2016
Reviewed date: 12.XII.2016
Accepted date: 17.1.2017
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR'S ADDRESS: Idurre Lazcano Quintana. Instituto de Estudios de Ocio, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas, Universidad de Deusto. Avda. Universidades 24, 48007 Bilbao, Bizkaia. Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Caption: Figure 1. Focuses for the study of the leisure experience
Caption: Figure 2. Subjective definition of leisure
Table 1: Main leisure practices carried out Main leisure Secondary T practice leisure practice N % n % Deporte 287 71.8 148 39.2% -48.4% Cultura 72 18.0 161 42.6% 123.6% Turismo 14 3.5 22 5.8% 57.14% Recreacion 22 5.5 43 11.4% 95.4% Otros 5 1.3 4 1.1% -20.0% T= Relative variation rate Table 2. Relational variables with the main leisure practice carried out Organisation of activities N % Young people on their own 172 45.9 Family 46 12.3 Friends 90 24.0 Association 67 17.9 Company activities N % Young people on their own 123 83.7 Family 11 2.8 Friends with disabilities 12 3.0 Friends without disabilities 1 0.3 Leisure Activity frequency N % 1 day a week 90 23.0 2-3 days a week 168 43.0 1-2 times a month 37 9.5 Holiday periods 19 4.9 Others: 77 19.7 Leisure activity location N % Home 87 23.1 Association 72 19.1 Community 217 57.7 Table 3. Opinion on the leisure of youth with disabilities Opinions Average Standard deviation An important element in my life 2,86 0,37 A way to make friends 2,85 0,39 An opportunity to gather strength 2,81 0,43 A time to enjoy the outdoors 2,80 0,51 An opportunity to progress personally 2,80 0,43 A time to learn new things 2,79 0,46 A time to rest 2,78 0,54 A time for enjoyment 2,76 0,47 A time to be in nature 2,73 0,54 A way to disconnect from daily obligations 2,72 0,54 A time to help others 2,62 0,59 A time to do sports 2,54 0,74 An occasion to be useful, help 2,53 0,61 A time to do intellectual activities 2,50 0,68 A time to be with my family 2,43 0,76 A time to buy things 2,39 0,76 A time to read, go to museums, exhibitions 2,35 0,76 A way of spending money 1,28 0,50 A waste of time 1,25 0,52 Table 4. Factors underlying opinions about leisure Leisure as socialisation A time to be with my family A way to make friends Solidarity leisure A time to help others An occasion to be useful, help A time to rest Leisure as rest A way to disconnect from daily obligations An opportunity to gather strength A time to learn new things An opportunity to progress personally Leisure as development A time to read, go to museums, exhibitions A time to do intellectual activities A time to do sports A time to enjoy the outdoors Leisure as recreation A time for enjoyment A time to buy things A time to be in nature Negative leisure A way of spending money A waste of time Table 5. Leisure preferences of youth with disabilities Average Std. Dev. I don't like to go out 2.8 .5 I really like to go out I prefer to go somewhere 2.6 .7 I prefer to go to and stay there different places I prefer to be with my 2.3 .7 I prefer to meet new family people I prefer to be in the 2.2 .8 I prefer to be in nature city (field, beach ...) I prefer to go as a 1.9 .8 I like to organise my group, with organised free time on my own plans In my spare time I like 2.3 .8 In my free time I look to be calm, do nothing for new adventures In my free time I 2.0 .8 In my free time I try to especially watch TV, exercise, move read, listen to music I prefer to go to places 2.2 .8 I prefer to go to a where there are many quiet place, with few people people I usually spend my free 2.3 .8 I try to go to different time almost always in places the same place I prefer to go to places 2.4 .8 I like to try new things I know I usually go to places 1.9 .9 I prefer to go to places where there are where there are no shops shops to buy things Table 6. Factors underlying opinions about leisure Emotions and I really like to go out novelty vs peace I prefer to meet new people and security In my free time I look for new adventures In my free time I try to exercise, move I prefer to go to a quiet place, with few people I like to try new things Authenticity I prefer to be in the city and Independence I prefer to go as a group, with organised plans vs Quality I usually go to places where there are shops to buy things I prefer to go somewhere and stay there I usually spend my free time almost always in the same place Table 7. Leisure motivations among youth with disabilities Average Std. Dev. Learn things 2.9 .4 Make friends 2.9 .3 Be with other people 2.9 .4 Have a good time with my friends 2.9 .2 Test my skills 2.8 .5 Relax physically 2.8 .5 Discover places and things 2.8 .5 Relax mentally 2.8 .5 Use my imagination 2.7 .5 Have a feeling of belonging 2.7 .5 Be in a quiet place 2.7 .6 Avoid the daily hustle and bustle 2.4 .7 Table 8. Factors underlying leisure motivations Socialisation Make friends Be with other people Have a good time with my friends Have a feeling of belonging Competition Learn things Test my skills Use my imagination Discover places and things Relax Avoid the daily hustle and bustle Relax physically Relax mentally Be in a quiet place Table 9. Values of youth with disabilities Average Std. Dev. Enjoy life, have fun, feel pleasure 3.0 .1 Feel satisfaction with the things I do well 3.0 .2 Take my life with enthusiasm 2.9 .3 Feel safe 2.9 .3 Feel comfortable with myself 2.9 .3 Have a good concept of myself 2.9 .4 Maintain affectionate relationships 2.9 .3 with others Feel integrated 2.8 .4 Table 10. Factors underlying the values Feel integrated Integration Maintain affectionate relationships with others Live with enthusiasm Feel safe Self-esteem Feel comfortable with myself Enjoy life, have fun, feel pleasure Have a good feeling about myself Feel satisfaction with the things I do well
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|Author:||Quintana, Idurre Lazcano; Ortuzar, Aurora Madariaga|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2018|
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