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THE IMPACT OF ELECTRONIC DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS ON CUSTOMER'S ATTITUDINAL AND BEHAVIORAL LOYALTY.

Byline: Alireza Koushki Jahromi and Hesam aldin Setayeshi

ABSTRACT

The study aim is "Impact of electronic distribution channels attitudinal and behavioral loyalty of customers". The methodology used in this study was descriptive and correlational and structural equation modeling. The research included all customers Cosmetics Living Nature products (Extracts) are unlimited number of customers, communities, according to Cochran formula 384 were selected. Standard questionnaire that the professors have confirmed its validity and reliability using Cronbach's alpha = 0.88 was obtained and indicating that the reliability is confirmed. Finally, the data se ts were analyzed using LISREL software. The results showed that the dimensions of electronic distribution channels, customer loyalty, attitudinal and behavioral impact is significant.

Keywords: electronic distribution, loyalty, attitudinal, behavioral loyalty

INTRODUCTION

The current world economy is significantly affected by information technology. The creation of new forms of information technology, sales and distribution of products, new tools and methods of communication in the distribution and sale of goods and services and new forms of social [1] companies should be prepared to adapt their strategies to the rapidly changing business and IT needs of customers, unpredictable behavior of competitors and market pressures in today's global environment, and are able to quickly adapt to these changes. In other words, today requires continuous improvement of e-business strategies, business information technology [2] though most of the commercial use of the World Wide Web in recent years has focused on online sales, larger types of businesses have emerged in recent years.

While some e-business initiatives, the company has helped to support direct interaction with suppliers and customers, key business processes to reduce intermediation [2 and 3] Based on the description provided above are deciding on the choice of distribution channel and one of the most important decisions of managers is to sell their products, and also the creation of customer satisfaction and loyalty is more important than the choice of channel in this study, we seek to influence the impact of electronic distribution channels and attitudinal and behavioral loyalty of customers in the company of living nature (Extracts) measure.

RESEARCH FOUNDATIONS

Theoretical approaches to the distribution channel

Agency theory

According to this theory, the relationship between the parties to the transaction in such a way that one party to carry out its activities related to the cross (Matson, 2008). Seeks provide appropriate mechanisms to resolve these issues and challenges [4]

The theory of transaction cost economics it varies with the position of agency theory sees the field distribution.

This theory is based on a combination of factors and conditions affecting decisions about property distribution channel by the supplier or by outsourcing activities and, some of the problems specific to the area of distribution, such as trade, investment requirements, the sides exchanged behavioral uncertainty, incomplete and inadequate information and solutions have been investigated

Customer Loyalty

Developing customer loyalty is a strategic objective for most companies and organizations today, the main efforts of many companies and organizations today, many companies try to keep the clients and gain greater share of each customer [5]. On the other hand, due to the rapid growth and increasing Internet users and by creating new and diverse business and economic objectives in using this new technology to improve and improve business practices and methods of competition in the market dynamic has changed [6]. Electronic customer loyalty, product distribution and factors affecting it and mail to customer loyalty favorable attitude towards electronic retailers which leads to repeat purchase is, in fact, the concept of e-loyalty, loyalty to the traditional on-line consumer behavior spreads [7].

In 2004, the confidence index of the e-mail content, reliability, ease of use, Datshton Alktronky experience, responsiveness and customization studied [8] factors, reliability, accuracy, electronic experience, responsiveness, and overall satisfaction customize your note Three main factors affecting the quality of electronic stores, E-mail was introduced confidence and satisfaction, and electronic stores for quality factors such as reliability, responsiveness, site design and safety is considered [9] Hypotheses:

1. The product information in the chain of distribution channels online and attitudinal loyalty customers living nature (Extracts) are positive and significant impact.

2. The quality of the product in the chain of distribution channels online and attitudinal loyalty customers living nature (Extracts) are positive and significant impact.

3. The availability of the product in the chain of distribution channels online and attitudinal loyalty customers living nature (Extracts) are positive and significant impact.

4. The service after the sale of the product in the chain of distribution channels online and attitudinal loyalty customers living nature (Extracts) are positive and significant impact.

5. Customize the grade of the product in the chain of distribution channels online and attitudinal loyalty customers living nature (Extracts) are positive and significant impact.

6. The product information in the chain of distribution channels online and behavioral loyalty Living Nature (Extracts) are positive and significant impact.

7. Quality of the product in the chain of distribution channels online and behavioral loyalty customers living nature (Extracts) are positive and significant impact.

8. International Internet access product in the chain of distribution channels and customer behavioral loyalty Living Nature (Extracts) are positive and significant impact.

9. The product after-sales service in the chain of distribution channels online and behavioral loyalty customers living nature (Extracts) are positive and significant impact.

10. Customize the grade of the product in the chain of distribution channels online and behavioral loyalty customers living nature (Extracts) are positive and significant impact and there is a significant positive impact.

Background research

Previous researches and their results with the brief description are listed in table 2.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This is a little research and the practical purpose. The initial questionnaire based on the literature and previous studies has been prepared. The questionnaire consists of 33 questions. Cronbach's alpha was used to check the reliability of the results in table 3 show that all aspects of acceptable reliability (up to 0.7) are present.

Table 1: Advantages of proposed methods

Dimension###Benefit

###1. Improved product information

###2. Improved price

###3. Ability to provide service 24

###hours a day, seven days a week

###4. The cost of communications

###5. Ability to interact and provide

Communication

###information to customers upon

###request

###6. on the same inventory

###7. Technical support on-line

###8. Quick response to customer

###inquiries

###1. Access all Internet users to store

###virtual

###2. Lower transaction costs

###3. Ability to perform partial

###exchanges

Exchange###4. Reduce human error

###5. Procurement Cycle time

###reduction

###6. Reduce inventory levels and

###sales promotion activities tailored

###to each customer

###1. Reduce the waiting time for

###goods purchased services

###2. Low cost of distributing digital

Distribution

###goods and services

###3. Ability to track orders by

###customer

Table 2. Previous researches

###Years###Researcher###Title###Results

###The feasibility of

###Features of Internet-distributed products that include product

###Musharraf Javadi and###using the Internet

###2010###information, the degree of product customization, logistics, size

###Salehnia###as a distribution

###and classification takes the name.

###channel

###Changing###The results showed that factors such as brand-name prices,

###Manand and

###distribution###strengthening the cluster distribution, shorten the planned

###2010###Hapikinson

###structures in###distribution channels and advertising costs affect the distribution of

###Pakistan###goods and thus the efficiency of distribution networks in Pakistan.

###The results of the traditional structure of the distribution network

###in the countries of Central and Eastern European countries are

###New distribution

###taking advantage of the system is the direct distribution of goods

###Lorenter, Wang and###systems in Central

###2007###that factors such as the use of new technologies (such as e-

###Hilmola###and Eastern

###commerce), creating large distribution chains (such as retail and

###Europe

###shops) and advertising tailored to each market segment, variable

###distribution networks to improve performance in these areas

Table 3. Statistics relating to reliability (Cronbach's alpha)

###Variable###Dimension###Cronbach alpha (%)

###Channels of distribution###Product Information###82

###Product quality assurance###79

###Access###91

###After sales service or order###90

###Degree of Order###92

###Behavioral loyalty###....................###83

###Attitudinal loyalty###....................###84

The model assumptions used to measure the overall model of factor analysis in standard mode, table 4. One of the most reliable indicators used to assess the suitability of the model, GFI goodness of fit index or the relative size of the variances and covariance of the model is justified by common sense. The GFI is closer to 1 the model fit the data better. Moreover, if the square root of the estimated variance of the error of approximation (RMSEA) less than 0.05, it is appropriate.

For all latent variables (structural model) used factor analysis and index values obtained indicate the validity of the measurement model in all dimensions is acceptable.

Table 5 summarizes the results of the confirmatory factor analysis is looking, this index is:

CONCLUSION

Research studies show that the electronic distribution of understanding consumer behavior is essential to develop effective marketing programs. Establishing appropriate distribution for the target market is consumers need to understand the preferences and decision-making processes. Also, how can marketers know this by using a mixture of marketing variables, influence on consumers' decisions.

Several consumers are buying behavior of their occurrence. Apart from buying products, consumers may spend a lot of time and effort to find the product information or to purchase study to compare brands, stores and pay the price. Several factors affect the level of involvement of consumers in a position to buy. The following characteristics are considered in decision making, often with high involvement with the product are:

Product of individual perception

Product or the price is relatively expensive

Consumers lack information about the product

Risks associated with the decision to be bad or very bad.

Product potentially bring many benefits to the buyer

At equilibrium, the majority of purchasing decisions are associated with low involvement. This feature applies to low-priced products and goods that are purchased frequently. But research in the supply of products and cosmetic products at lower prices is but in terms of being associated with an individual's health is a high level of customer involvement creates it may be concluded from the results of this study are in line with findings of previous researchers.

Table 4. Factor analysis results confirm the validity of the measurement model

###Indices###Allowance###Model coefficients 1###Model coefficients 2###Result

###GFI###More than 0.9###.98###.96###Good fit

###AGFI###More than 0.9###.96###.93###Good fit

###RMR###Better closer to zero###.08###.11###Good fit

###NFI###More than 0.9###.97###.95###Good fit

###IFI###More than 0.9###.99###.96###Good fit

Table 5. Summary of research hypotheses and test them

###Standard rate###Test result

###Hypothesis###T-Value###Sig

###The product information in the chain of distribution channels online

###and attitudinal loyalty now living nature (Extracts) is positive and###.7###9.9###0.000###Confirmation

###significant impact.

###The product quality assurances in the chain of distribution channels

###online and attitudinal loyalty now living nature (Extracts) are###.75###7.54###0.000###Confirmation

###positive and significant impact.

###The availability of the product in the chain of distribution channels

###online and attitudinal loyalty now living nature (Extracts) is positive###.68###10.52###0.000###Confirmation

###and significant impact.

###The service after the sale of the product in the chain of distribution

###channels online and attitudinal loyalty now living nature (Extracts)###.66###8.34###0.000###Confirmation

###are positive and significant impact.

###The degree of customization of the product in the chain of

###distribution channels online and attitudinal loyalty now living nature###.83###8.79###0.000###Confirmation

###(Extracts) is positive and significant impact.

###The product information in the chain of distribution channels online

###and attitudinal loyalty now living nature (Extracts) is positive and###.63###11.06###0.000###Confirmation

###significant impact.

###The product quality assurance in the chain of distribution channels

###online and attitudinal loyalty now living nature (Extracts) is positive###.77###11.83###0.000###Confirmation

###and significant impact.

###The availability of the product in the chain of distribution channels

###online and loyalty of customers living nature (Extracts) are positive###.72###9.44###0.000###Confirmation

###and significant impact.

###The service after the sale of the product in the chain of distribution

###channels online and behavioral loyalty customers living nature###.54###9.84###0.000###Confirmation

###(Extracts) are positive and significant impact.

###The degree of customization of the product in the chain of

###distribution channels online and behavioral loyalty customers living###.65###8.66###0.000###Confirmation

###nature (Extracts) are positive and significant impact.

REFERENCE

1. Fathi, s. Evaluation, Faction and Selection of Electronic business models" Commercial studies and researches institution publisher, Tehran, 2009.

2. Gellman, R., Disintermediation and the Internet", Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 13, No. 1, PP. 1-8. 1996.

3. Press, L., Commercialization of the Internet", Communications of the ACM, Vol.37, No, 11, PP. 17- 21. 1994.

4. Doney, P.M., Cannon, J.P. An Examination of the Nature of Trust in BuyerSeller Relationships. Journal of Marketing, 61 (2): 35-51. 1997.

5. Duffy,D.L. The evolution of customer loyalty strategy. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 22(5), 284286. 2005.

6. Caruana, A., Ewing, T. MHow corporate reputation, quality and value influence online loyalty. Journal of Business Research, 26, 125-136. 2010

7. Anderson, R. E., and Srinivasan, s. s. E-satisfaction and loyalty: a contingency framework. Psychology and Marketing 20(2): 123-38. 2003.

8. Ribbinik, D., Van Riel, C.R., Liljander, V., and Streukens, SComfort youronline customer: quality, trust and loyalty on internet. Managing Service Quality,14(6), 446-456. 2004.

9. Jiung. K., Byoungho, J., and Jane, L. The role of etail quality, e-satisfaction and e-trust in online loyalty development process. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 16(2), 239-247. 2009.
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Date:Aug 31, 2015
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