Printer Friendly

THE HERITABILITY ESTIMATES OF LINEAR TYPE TRAITS IN SAHIWAL COWS.

Byline: M. A. Khan and M.S. Khan

Abstract

The present study was designed to get estimates of heritability for linear type traits of Sahiwal cattle. There were 790 observations on linear type traits of 310 cows scaled and scored at three stages of lactation. The cows were progeny of 53 sires with parity first to fifth. An animal model was fitted for estimation of variance component. Variance parameters were estimated using residual or restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedures.

The univariate animal model heritability estimates and standard errors were for stature 0.810.02, chest width 0.630.03, body depth 0.670.03, angularity 0.510.04, rump angle 0.520.04, rump width 0.780.02, rear legs set 0.720.02, rear legs rear view 0.760.02, foot angle 0.740.02, fore udder attachment 0.790.02, rear udder height 0.530.04, central ligament 0.770.02, udder depth 0.650.03, teat placement rear view 0.830.02, teat length (fore) 0.880.01, rear udder width 0.510.04, thurl width 0.620.03, navel length 0.930.01, dewlap width 0.730.02, dewlap surface area 0.590.03 and dewlap visual score 0.820.02. The heritability estimates obtained for linear type traits were in high range. These should be considered preliminary because of smaller data set. The estimates however indicated that a rapid change in desired direction is possible for most of the traits.

Key words: Sahiwal cattle, type traits, linear score, heritability estimates.

INTRODUCTION

Among the 450 tropical cattle breeds, zebu is the main type particularly in Indian and African subcontinent (Payne and Hodges, 1997). One of the best known Zebu breeds is the Sahiwal cattle in Pakistan (Javed et al., 2000). It is considered to be one of the most productive of the Bos indicus species for tropical environments and has been suggested as model for developing dairy programs in less developed countries (Talbott, 1994). The breed has originated in the Gunji Bar (the area between river Ravi and Satluj) and main concentration of Sahiwal cattle is still in central and southern Districts of Punjab province (GOP, 2006). The main recorded population of Sahiwal cattle is found at Government livestock farms in public sector. The cows are recorded for productive and reproductive performance traits. However data on linear type traits is not recorded or maintained routinely. The selection is based mostly on gross milk yield or on the basis of EBV's for lactation yield.

The bull calves are selected on the basis of milk yield of their dams (Bhatti et al., 2007).

The recording of type traits is not common in Pakistan. The assignment of linear score for primary and secondary type traits for Sahiwal cattle has been demonstrated for the first time in Pakistan by Khan and Khan (2015). Recording a large number of type traits need a lot of financial input. Trained personals are needed to make such records accurately at farmer level. The information on heritability estimates and genetic correlations among linear type traits could help to devise simple selection indices and avoid complexity of including large number of traits.

The heritability estimates reported for different breeds are presented in Table 1 and Table 2. The heritability estimate for stature ranged from 0.270.23 for Sahiwal cattle in India (Dahiya, 2005) to as high as 0.590.07 for US Holstein (Thompson et al., 1981), 0.590.01 for UK Holstein (Pryce et al., 2000). The heritability estimate for chest width/strength ranged from 0.20 for Brown Swiss (Wiggans et al., 2004 to 0.490.22 for Tharparkar cattle in India (Vij et al., 1990). In some other studies the estimates for strength/chest width were 0.480.31 for Indian Sahiwal (Dahiya, 2005), 0.460.21 for Hariana (Dahiya, 2005), 0.410.09 for US Holstein (DeGroot et al., 2002). The heritability estimates for dairy farm/angularity ranged from 0.170.03 for Friesian Holstein in UK (Meyer et al., 1987) to 0.360.19 for Hariana (Dahiya, 2005).

Other estimates for dairy farm/angularity in medium range were 0.360.09 for US Holstein (DeGroot et al., 2002), 0.330.01 for UK Holstein (Pryce et al., 2000). The heritability estimates were reported in low range for foot angle, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, fore udder attachment, rear udder height and rear udder width in many studies. However the estimates were higher for Hariana cows in study by (Dahiya, 2005) for foot angle 0.540.23, rear legs set 0.540.23, fore udder attachment 0.660.26, rear udder height 0.530.23 and rear udder width 0.540.23. Similar heritability estimates in higher range for rear udder height and rear udder width 0.540.36 and 0.630.37 were reported for Sahiwal cows in India (Dahiya, 2005). The heritability estimates for body depth ranged from 0.25 for Brown Swiss in USA (Wiggans et al., 2004) to 0.480.06 for US Holstein (Thompson et al., 1981).

The higher heritability estimates for udder depth 0.600.23 in a smaller data set for Tharparkar cattle (Vij et al., 1990) and 0.650.25 for 307 Hariana cattle (Dahiya, 2005) were reported. The heritability estimates for udder depth 0.40 was reported for Guernsey cows (Wiggans et al., 2004). In more than a few other studies heritability estimates for udder cleft, front teat placement, rump width, rump angle and teat length were reported in low to medium range with a few exceptions. The high heritability estimate 0.650.25 was reported for udder cleft in Hariana cattle (Dahiya, 2005). The heritability estimates in medium range for front teat placement 0.43 for UK Holstein Friesian (Brotherstone, 1994), 0.440.04 for UK Friesian Holstein (Meyer et al., 1987) and a high estimate 0.520.09 for US Holstein were reported (DeGroot et al., 2002).

The heritability estimates for rump width were in low to medium range for most studies except 0.810.29 for Hariana cattle in India for a small animal population (Dahiya, 2005). In a recent study the heritability estimates for linear type traits in low to medium range has been reported for Holstein cows in Brazil (Campos et al. 2012). The heritability for stature has been reported in medium range for Autochthonous Rendena Dual purpose breed of cattle (Mazza and Mantovani, 2012) and for linear type traits in Rendena dual purpose cattle in low to medium range (Mazza et al. 2014). The differences in heritability estimates for linear type traits for different breeds may be attributed to number of observations, the model used for estimation of parameters, the differences in definitions of the traits by different breed organizations and classifiers.

For tropical cattle breeds therefore studies on genetic control of type traits were very limited because such data sets are not available and more importantly, infrastructures to record and genetically select cattle for type traits do not exist especially under developing setups. Same was true for Sahiwal cattle breed in Pakistan. Such type of information is likely to be helpful for designing breeding strategies for genetic improvement programs. The genetic and phenotypic correlations among linear type traits for Sahiwal cattle for this same data set have been reported (Khan et al., 2008). The present study has been designed to get the heritability estimates of linear type traits for Sahiwal cows in Pakistan.

Table 1. Heritability estimates for linear type traits reported for different breeds in different countries

Breed###Country###Number of###Number of animals###Stature###Strength/###Dairy form###Foot angle/###Rear leg set###Rear legs rear view###Fore udder###Rear udder###Rear udder width###References

###observations.###Chest width###Angularity###foot shape###attachment###height

Jersey###USA###34,999###22,354###0.41###0.28###0.26###0.13###0.14###-###0.24###0.33###0.27###Gengler et al. (1997)

Tharparkar###India###-###208###0.550.22###0.490.22###-###0.260.19###-###-###-###-###0.230.19###Vij et al. (1990)

Holsteins###USA###9,594###-###0.590.07###0.390.05###0.280.04###0.190.03###0.240.03###0.110.02###0.280.04###0.270.04###0.280.04###Thompson et al.

###(1981)

Milking###USA###-###-###0.75###0.7###0.19###0.16###0.07###-###0.24###0.11###0.25###Norman et al. (1983)

Shorthorn

Guernsey###USA###-###12,996###0.530.06###0.260.04###0.250.04###0.090.02###0.120.03###-###0.120.03###0.280.04###0.210.04###Harris et al. (1992)

Friesian-###UK###-###13,192###0.550.06###0.340.04###0.170.03###0.190.03###0.160.03###0.120.03###0.270.04###-###0.250.04###Meyer et al. (1987)

Holstein

Ayrshire###USA###-###-###0.54###0.31###0.20###0.15###0.15###-###0.21###0.26###0.19###Wiggans et al. (2004)

Brown###USA###-###-###0.43###0.20###0.18###0.13###0.18###-###0.22###0.22###0.19###Wiggans et al. (2004)

Swiss

Guernsey###USA###-###-###0.49###0.22###0.28###0.10###0.16###-###0.29###0.28###0.28###Wiggans et al. (2004)

Jersey###USA###-###-###0.37###0.21###0.21###0.11###0.07###-###0.19###0.26###0.22###Wiggans et al. (2004)

Milking###USA###-###-###0.44###0.23###0.19###0.09###0.11###-###0.16###0.16###0.11###Wiggans et al. (2004)

Shorthorn

Holsteins###USA###537961###-###0.43###0.25###0.26###0.14###0.17###-###0.22###0.22###0.17###Funk et al. (1991)

Guernsey###USA###12996###-###0.5340.06###0.2640.04###0.250.04###0.090.02###0.120.02###-###0.120.03###0.280.04###0.210.04###Harris et al. (1992)

Canadian###Canada###-###34322###0.480.04###0.230.02###-###-###0.200.02###-###0.180.02###-###-###Klassen et al. (1992)

Holstein

Holstein-###UK###72559###-###0.48###0.27###0.26###-###0.19###-###0.27###-###-###Brotherstone (1994)

Friesian

Holstein###France###-###12729###-###-###-###-###-###-###0.180.04###0.180.02###-###Rupp and Boichard

###(1999)

Holstein###UK###44674###-###0.590.01###0.390.02###0.330.01###0.160.01###0.190.01###-###0.190.01###0.230.01###-###Pryce et al. (2000)

Guernsey###USA###-###18725###0.48###0.30###0.27###0.12###0.13###-###0.19###0.23###0.23###Cruickshank et al.

###(2002)

Holstein###Iran###-###783###-###-###-###-###-###-###0.50###0.20###0.33###Sanjabi et al. (2002)

Friesian

Holstein###USA###-###-###0.470.09###0.410.09###0.360.09###0.040.07###0.110.08###0.120.08###0.370.09###0.320.09###0.300.08###DeGroot et al. (2002)

Hariana###India###-###307###0.540.23###0.460.21###0.360.19###0.540.23###0.540.23###-###0.660.26###0.530.23###0.540.23###Dahiya (2005)

Sahiwal###India###-###208###0.270.23###0.480.31###0.310.23###0.130.31###0.350.28###-###0.330.28###0.540.36###0.630.37###Dahiya (2005)

Swiss-###Switzerland###-###140325###0.490.04###0.250.03###0.280.03###-###0.160.02###-###-###-###-###Neuenschwander et al.

Holstein###(2005)

Table 2. Heritability estimates for linear type traits in different countries.

###Breed###Country###Number of###Number of###Body depth###Udder depth###Udder cleft###Front teat###Rump width###Rump angle###Teat length###References

###observations###animals###suspensory###placement###hip width

###ligament###thurl width

Tharparkar###India###-###208###-###0.600.23###-###-###-###-###-###Vij et al. (1990)

Holsteins###USA###9,594###-###0.480.06###0.270.04###0.200.03###0.190.03###0.250.04###0.27###-###Thompson et al. (1981)

HF###UK###72,559###-###0.35###0.39###0.16###0.43###0.22###0.29###0.44###Brotherstone (1994)

Frisian-Holstein###UK###-###18,939###0.420.04###0.290.03###0.200.03###0.440.04###0.210.03###0.33###0.260.03###Meyer et al. (1987)

Frisian-Holstein###UK###-###13,192###0.420.05###0.370.04###0.110.03###0.360.04###0.280.04###0.430.05###Meyer et al. (1987)

Jersey###Australia###-###-###-###-###0.360.08###0.310.07###-###-###-###Visscher and Goddard

###(1995)

Ayrshire###USA###-###-###0.29###0.31###0.23###0.24###0.35###0.28###0.30###Wiggans et al. (2004)

Brown Swiss###USA###-###-###0.25###0.34###0.22###0.27###0.18###0.27###0.34###Wiggans et al. (2004)

Guernsey###USA###-###-###0.32###0.40###0.21###0.31###0.29###0.41###0.34###Wiggans et al. (2004)

Holsteins###USA###-###-###0.34###0.27###0.14###0.21###0.31###0.30###-###Funk et al. (1991)

Holsteins###USA###-###-###0.340.02###0.250.02###0.130.01###0.220.02###0.240.02###0.290.02###0.260.02###Short et al. (1991)

Holstein###Spain###-###46316###0.32###0.24###0.24###-###-###-###-###Perez-Cabal and Alenda

###(2002)

Iranian Holstein Friesian###-###783###-###-###0.23###0.10###-###-###Sanjabi et al. (2002)

Holstein###USA###-###-###0.360.09###0.230.08###0.290.09###0.520.09###0.300.09###0.360.09###0.290.10###DeGroot et al. (2002)

Hariana###India###-###307###-###0.650.25###0.650.25###0.250.16###0.810.29###0.090.18###-###Dahiya (2005)

Sahiwal###India###-###-###-###0.350.29###0.530.31###0.270.23###0.820.33###0.070.27###-###Dahiya (2005)

Swiss Holstein###Switzerland###-###-###0.360.03###-###-###-###-###0.320.03###-###Neuenschwander et al.

###(2005)

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The Sahiwal cows calved at Livestock Experiment Station, Bahadurnagar, District Okara; Livestock Experiment Station, Jahangirabad, District Khanewal and Livestock Experiment Station, Khizerabad, District Sargodha during September 2005 to April 2006 were selected. The cows from parity first to fifth were scaled and scored for linear type traits on a linear score of 1-9 following the guidelines provided by International Committee on Animal Recording (ICAR, 2002). The fifteen linear type traits included stature, chest width, body depth, angularity, rump angle, rump width, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, foot angle, fore udder attachment, rear udder height, central ligament, udder depth, teat placement rear view and fore teat length. The rear udder width and thurl width are not recommended traits by the International Committee on Animal Recording.

However some breed associations consider these traits. For the reason these were included in current study. The naval length (NL) and dewlap are traits of interest for Sahiwal cow breeders. The dewlap was characterized by measuring dewlap surface area (DSA) by leaf area machine and dewlap visual score (DVS) by observing the folds of dewlap. The assignment of linear score to all the type traits for Sahiwal cows has been described by (Khan and Khan, 2015). Linear scoring was performed at three stages of lactation in the start, at mid and towards end, provided cows remained in milk.

Information on birth and calving records and pedigree was collected from history sheets of cows maintained routinely at farms where a separate page has been allocated for each cow. The pedigree records were traced up to sires and dams of the animals. The final data set consisted of 790 observations for linear type traits on 310 cows, daughters of 53 sires. Distribution of observation is presented in table 3.

Table 3. Distribution of observations on linear type traits.

Effect###Level###Number of cows###Number of Observations

Herd###Bahadurnagar###127###331

###Jahangirabad###88###210

###Khizerabad###95###249

Parity###First parity###107###259

###Second and later parities###203###531

Stages of lactation###1 (15-45 days)###-###310

###2 (90-120 days)###-###262

###3 (165-195 days)###-###218

An animal model was utilized for estimation of variance component. The model included fixed effects of herd (three), parity group (two: 1st and later) and stage of lactation (three: start, mid and end). The linear and quadratic effects of age at classification of cow and interaction effect of parity by stage of lactation were fitted in initial analysis but interaction effects were dropped from the final analyses as they were non-significant. The random animal effect was fitted and the all known relationships were accounted for. Variance parameters were estimated using residual or restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedures developed by Patterson and Thompson (1971). The ASReml (Version 2.0) computer software was used for analysis (Gilmour et al. 2007).

The reduced statistical model fitted for estimation of heritability was as follows:

Yijklm = u + Hi + Pj + Tk + b1(aijkl) + b2 (aijkl )2 + Al+ eijklm

Where

u = overall mean

Hi = effect of ith herd (1-3)

Pj = effect of jth parity group (1-2)

Tk = effect of kth stage of lactation (1-3)

Al = random animal effect

aijklm = age at classification with b1 and b2 were linear and quadratic regression coefficients of trait on age at classification

eijklm = random error

RESULTS

Heritability estimates for primary type traits: The additive genetic variance s2a, environmental variance s2e and univariate animal model heritability estimates and standard errors for linear type traits are presented in Table 4.

Table 4 Univariate animal model heritability (h2) estimates and standard errors for linear type traits scored on a scale of 1-9

###Variances

Traits###2 a###2 e###h2###SE

Stature###2.8865###0.6566###0.81###0.02

Chest Width###1.0351###0.6125###0.63###0.03

Body Depth###1.7463###0.8680###0.67###0.03

Angularity###1.5021###1.4150###0.51###0.04

Rump Angle###1.2619###1.1533###0.52###0.04

Rump Width###1.5386###0.4401###0.78###0.02

Thurl Width###0.8424###0.5192###0.62###0.03

Rear Legs Set###1.9928###0.7666###0.72###0.02

Rear Legs Rear View###2.3058###0.7465###0.76###0.02

Foot Angle###2.4449###0.8597###0.74###0.02

Fore Udder Attachment###2.5065###0.6677###0.79###0.02

Rear Udder Height###1.7208###1.5351###0.53###0.04

Central Ligament###1.6167###0.4953###0.77###0.02

Udder Depth###1.3171###0.6991###0.65###0.03

Teat Placement Rear View###1.7213###0.3415###0.83###0.02

Teat length (Fore)###2.4121###0.3394###0.88###0.01

Rear Udder Width###1.1584###1.1259###0.51###0.04

In general the heritability estimates for most of the traits were in medium to high range. The heritability estimates ranged from 0.510.04 both for angularity and rear udder width to 0.880.01 for fore teat length. The heritability estimates were higher than 0.70 for rump width, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, foot angle, fore udder attachment and central ligament. The heritability estimates in medium to high range were for chest width 0.630.03, body depth 0.670.03, udder depth 0.650.03 and thurl width 0.620.03. The standard errors for linear type traits ranged from 0.02 to 0.04.

Heritability estimates for secondary type traits: The additive genetic variance s2a, environmental variance s2e and univariate animal model heritability estimates and standard errors for secondary type traits are presented in Table 5.

Table 5. Univariate animal model heritability estimates and standard errors for secondary type traits scored on a scale of 1-9.

###Variances

Traits###2 a###2 e###h2###SE

Naval Length###1.92769 0.1413###0.93###0.01

Dewlap Width###1.1482 0.4296###0.73###0.02

Dewlap Surface###1.6968 1.1793###0.59###0.03

Area

Dewlap Visual###0.4194###0.0948###0.82###0.02

Score

The heritability estimates for secondary type traits were in high range. The estimates were 0.930.01, 0.730.02, 0.590.03 and 0.820.02 for naval length, dewlap width, dewlap surface area and dewlap visual score.

DISCUSSION

In general, the heritability estimates obtained in current study were higher than reported in most of the studies for different dairy cattle breeds. One reason could be smaller data set precisely recorded in the selected farms in current study. Another big source of variation is the factor of classifier. Almost all of the breed associations of the world have their classifiers. So different classifiers may become source of variation resulting in increased environmental variance and hence have fewer estimates for additive genetic variance. This might be one of the reasons for low heritability estimates in many of the reported studies. The classifier as a source of variation has been highlighted by Vij et al., (1990), classifiers introduce variation, resulting in increased environmental portion of variation and thus reducing additive variance resulting in poor heritability estimates.

In present study classification was performed by one person that resulted in more uniform appraisal and higher estimates for additive variance.

It is fact that most of the populations have selective breeding programs with emphasis on sire of cow. As a result male genetic variance is smaller as compared to female genetic variance.

Under such circumstances, sire model will underestimate genetic variability resulting in poor estimates for genetic parameters. This concept is supported by studies of Misztal (1990) and Vanraden et al. (1990). They pointed out that sire model ignore female's relationships, resulting in lower heritability estimates as compared to animal model. Even then many of the studies have reported heritability estimates in high range. The heritability estimate of stature 0.590.07 for US Holstein (Thompson et al., 1981) and 0.590.01 for UK Holstein (Pryce et al., 2000) and 0.53 for Autochthonous Rendena Dual purpose breed of cattle (Mazza and Mantovani, 2012), 0.52 for Rendena dual purpose cattle breed (Mazza et al. 2014) although in high range but were less than current study estimates.

The heritability estimates for chest width/strength 0.490.22 for Tharparkar cattle in India (Vij et al., 1990) although slightly less than present study but are in high range with sire model. In some other studies the estimates for strength/chest width were 0.480.31 for Indian Sahiwal (Dahiya, 2005), 0.460.21 for Hariana (Dahiya, 2005) were also in higher range as for this study. Many of the studies have reported heritability estimates in low to medium range for body depth. However the heritability estimate 0.480.06 obtained from a large data set for US Holstein (Thompson et al., 1981) was in high range as for the current study estimate.

The heritability estimates for dairy form/angularity in many of the studies are reported in low to medium range. Dairy form is assigned linear score visually and no subjective measurement is made. Hence portion of non-genetic variance is increased resulting in reduced additive genetic variance and hence reduced heritability estimates. In current study because of one classifier non-genetic variance is less and hence heritability estimates are high. Heritability estimates less than current study but in medium to high range were reported for Hariana cattle 0.360.19 (Dahiya, 2005), US Holstein 0.360.09 (DeGroot et al., 2002) and UK Holstein 0.330.01 (Pryce et al., 2000). The heritability estimates for rump width were in low to medium range for most studies except 0.810.29 for Hariana cattle in India is higher than current study estimate for a small animal population (Dahiya, 2005).

The heritability estimates were reported in low range for foot angle, rear legs set, rear legs rear view, fore udder attachment, rear udder height and rear udder width in many studies. The estimates less than current study but in higher range 0.540.23 both for foot angle and rear legs set, 0.660.26 very close to current study estimates for fore udder attachment, same as for this study 0.530.23 for rear udder width and slightly higher than current study estimate 0.540.23 for rear udder width has been reported for Hariana cows (Dahiya, 2005). Higher than current study estimates for rear udder height and rear udder width 0.540.36 and 0.630.37 were reported for Sahiwal cows in India (Dahiya, 2005). The heritability estimates in high range for udder depth 0.600.23 for 208 Tharparkar cattle (Vij et al., 1990) and 0.650.25 for 307 Hariana cattle (Dahiya, 2005) were not very different from current study estimates.

Although less than current study but in medium range the heritability estimate for udder depth 0.40 was reported for Guernsey cows (Wiggans et al., 2004).

The high heritability estimate 0.650.25 for udder cleft in Hariana cattle (Dahiya, 2005), 0.65 for central ligament (udder cleft) in Turkish Holstein (Tapki and Guzey 2013) were not very different from current study estimates.

Lower than current study the heritability estimates in medium range for front teat placement 0.43 for UK Holstein Friesian (Brotherstone, 1994), 0.440.04 for UK Friesian Holstein (Meyer et al., 1987) and a high estimate 0.520.09 for US Holstein were reported (DeGroot et al., 2002). It is proposed that linear score recording be initiated at Government farms as well as in the field at farmer level to have big data set.

That will help to have even more authentic estimates of genetic parameters. This information could be used for devising genetic improvement programs for Sahiwal cattle.

Conclusions: The heritability estimates obtained for linear type traits were in high range. These should be considered preliminary because of smaller data set. The estimates however indicated that a rapid change in desired direction is possible for most of the traits. Conformation recording in Sahiwal cattle should be started for making more information available on linear type traits and to have more reliable estimates of genetic parameters.

Acknowledgements: The cooperation extended by the farm superintendents of livestock experiment stations Bahadurnagr, Jahangirabad and Khizerabad Livestock and Dairy Development Department Punjab is highly appreciated. The funding for this project by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan is duly acknowledged.

REFERENCES

Bhatti, A.A., M.S. Khan, Z. Rehman, A.U. Hyder, and F. Hassan. (2007). Selection of Sahiwal bulls on pedigree and progeny. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:12-18.

Brotherstone, S. (1994). Genetic and phenotypic correlations between linear type traits and production traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Anim. Prod. 59:183-187.

Campos, R.V., J.A. Cobuci, C.N. Costa, and J.B. Neto. (2012). Genetic parameters for linear type traits in Holstein cows in Brazil. R. Bra. Zootec. 41(10):2150-2160.

Cruickshank, J., K.A. Weigel, M.R. Dentine, and B.W. Kirkpatrick. (2002). Indirect prediction of herd life in Guernsey dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 85:1307-1313.

Dahiya, S.P. (2005). Linear functional type traits for reproductive efficiency in Hariana cows. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 75:524-527.

Dahiya, S.P. (2005a). Appraisal of linear type traits for reproductive efficiency in Sahiwal cows. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 75:945-948.

DeGroot, B.J., J.F. Keown, L.D. Van Vleck, and E.L. Marotz. (2002). Genetic parameters and responses of linear type, yield traits and somatic cell scores to divergent selection for predicted transmitting ability for type in Holsteins. J. Dairy Sci. 85:1578-1585.

Funk, D.C., L.B. Hansen, and D.A. Funk. (1991). Inheritance of cow durability for linear type traits. J. Dairy Sci. 74:1753-1759.

Gengler, N., G.R. Wiggans, J.R. Wright, H.D. Norman, and C.W. Wolfe. (1997). Estimation of (Co) Variance components for Jersey type traits using a repeatability model. J. Dairy Sci. 80:1801-1806.

Gilmour, A.R., B.J. Gogel, B.R. Cullis, S.J. Welham, and R. Thompson. (2007). ASReml User Guide (Version 2.0), VSN International Ltd, Hemel Hempstead, HP11ES, UK.

GOP (Government of Pakistan) Livestock Census (2006). Punjab Province, Statistics Division Agricultural Census Organization.

Harris, B.L, A.E. Freeman, and E. Metzger. (1992). Genetic and phenotypic parameters for type and production in Guernsey dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 75:1147-1153.

ICAR, (2002). International Agreement of Recording Practices, approved on 30 May, 2002.

Javed, K., G. Mohiuddin and M. Abdullah (2000). Environmental factors affecting various productive traits in Sahiwal cattle. Pakistan Vety J., 20 (4): 187-192.

Khan, M.A., M.S. Khan, and A. Iqbal. (2008). Genetic and phenotypic correlations among linear type traits in Sahiwal cows. Pakistan J. Agri. Sci. 45(2):268-274.

Khan, M.A. and M.S. Khan. (2015). Development of linear score system for Sahiwal cows in Pakistan. J. Anim. Health Prod. 3(3):59-63.

Klassen, D.J., H.G. Monardes, L. Jairath, R.I. Cue, and J.F. Hayes. (1992). Genetic correlations between lifetime production and linearized type in Canadian Holsteins. J. Dairy Sci. 75:2272-2282.

Mazza, S., and R. Mantovani. (2012). Heritability of linear type traits in Autochthonous dual purpose breed. Acta Agri. Solvenica 3:161-165.

Mazza, S., N. Guzzo, C. Sartori, D.P. Berry, and R. Mantovani. (2014). Genetic parameters for linear type traits in the Rendena dual purpose breed. J. Anim. Breed. Genet. 131:27-35.

Meyer, K., S. Brotherstone, W.G. Hill, and M.R. Edwards. (1987). Inheritance of linear type traits in dairy cattle and correlations with milk production. Anim. Prod. 44:1-10.

Misztal, I. (1990). Restricted maximum likelihood estimation of variance components in animal model using sparse matrix inversion and a supercomputer. J. Dairy Sci. 73:163-172.

Neuenschwander, T., H.N. Kadarmideen, S. Wegmann, and Y. de Haas. (2005). Genetics of parity dependent production increase and its relationship with health, fertility, longevity and conformation in Swiss Holstein. J. Dairy Sci. 88:1540-1551.

Norman, H.D., B.G. Cassell, and M.L. Dawdy. (1983). Genetic and environmental effects influencing Guernsey type classification scores. J. Dairy Sci. 66:127-139.

Patterson, L.D., and R. Thompson. (1971). Recovery of inter-block information when block sizes are unequal. Biometrika 58:545-554.

Payne, W.J.A., and J. Hodges. (1997). Tropical Cattle. Origins, Breeds and Breeding Policies. Blackwell Science Ltd. The University Press, Cambridge.

Perez-Cabal, M.A., and R. Alenda. (2002). Genetic relationships between lifetime profit and type traits in Spanish Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 85:3480-3491.

Pryce, J.E., M.P. Coffey, and S. Brotherstone. (2000). The genetic relationship between calving interval, body condition score and linear type and management traits in registered Holsteins. J. Dairy Sci. 83:2664-2671.

Rupp, R., and D. Boichard. (1999). Genetic parameters for clinical mastitis, somatic cell score, production, udder type traits and milking ease in first lactation Holsteins. J. Dairy Sci. 82:2198-2204.

Sanjabi, M.R., M.G. Govindaiah, and M.M. Moeini. (2002). Relationships among udder type traits and milk yield of Iranian Holstein Friesian cattle. 7th World Congr. Genetics Appl. Livestock Prod., August 19-23, Montpellier, France.

Short, T.H., T.J. Lawlor JR., and K.L. Lee. (1991). Genetic parameters for three experimental linear type traits. J. Dairy Sci. 74:2020-2025.

Talbott, C.W. (1994). Potential to increase milk yield efficiency in tropical countries. Ph. D. Thesis, Department of Animal Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, USA.

Tapki, I., and Y.Z. Guzey. (2013). Genetic and phenotypic correlations between linear type traits and milk production yields of Turkish Holstein dairy cows. Greener J. Agri.Sci. 3(11):755-761.

Thompson, J.R., A.E. Freeman, D.J. Wilson, C.A. Chapin, P.J. Berger, and A. Kuck. (1981). Evaluation of a linear type program in Holsteins. J. Dairy Sci. 64:1610-1617.

Vanraden, P.M., E.L. Jensen, T.J. Lawlor, and D.A. Funk. (1990). Prediction of transmitting abilities for Holstein type traits. J. Dairy Sci. 73:191-197.

Vij, P.K., D.S. Balain, M. George, and A.K. Vinayak. (1990). Linear type traits and their influence on milk production in Tharparkar cattle. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 60:845-852.

Visscher, P.M., and M. E. Goddard. (1995). Genetic parameters for milk yield, survival, workability and type traits for Australian dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 78:205-220.

Wiggans, G.R., N. Gengler, and J.R. Wright. (2004). Type trait (Co) variance components for five dairy breeds. J. Dairy Sci. 87:2324-2330.
COPYRIGHT 2016 Asianet-Pakistan
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2016 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Publication:Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Feb 29, 2016
Words:5260
Previous Article:PRODUCTIVE RESPONSE AND PROGESTERONE CONCENTRATION IN HOLSTEIN HEIFERS SUPPLEMENTED WITH SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE1077 OR SACCHAROMYCES BOULARDII.
Next Article:THE EFFECTS OF KEFIR RICH IN PROBIOTIC ADMINISTRATION ON SERUM ENZYMES AND PERFORMANCE IN MALE JAPANESE QUAILS.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters