THE ETHICS OF ENVY ON FACEBOOK.
Envy is essentially a social emotion driving individuals to react to status threat. As benign/malicious envy, it stimulates conduct in the quest of status (Magrini, 2016) contingent on reputation/ascendancy. Envy may stimulate individuals to annoy and take the initiative against superior individuals, strengthening endeavor for advanced performance (Androniceanu and Ohanyan, 2016) in manners that are organized at enhancing one's own end result without unfriendliness. Benign and malicious envy are essential responses to status threat. To grasp envy, it is imperative to examine how individuals handle circumstances in which increasing social comparisons have reservations about their social status. (Crusius and Lange, 2017) Individuals who use Facebook laboriously have superior levels of envy as they are exposed to countless personal information (Buber-Ennser, 2015) from individuals in their networks, i.e. favorable outcomes, material products, beneficial connections, etc. Exposure to such positive information concerning other individuals may bring about feelings of envy, because information users can feel subordinated to other individuals (Becerra et al., 2016) who give the impression of posting positive experiences constantly. Users hardly ever publish negative experiences, which may dispute the goal of positive self-presentation. When users feel envious ceaselessly, they may advance depression symptoms in time. Employing Facebook for surveillance make individuals less discouraged and brings about depression when users begin feeling resentful of other individuals. (Tandoc Jr. et al., 2015)
2. Literature Review
Variables influencing subjective assessments of personal control and merit throughout intimidating social comparisons should impact whether benign or malicious envy shapes conduct. Such evaluations and their subsequent emotional responses should be associated with how individuals parse status dissimilarities (Brown, 2016) and the manners in which they intend to accomplish status. The aspects that clarify whether maintaining status through esteem or ascendancy (Petcu, 2016) is more advantageous are comparable to benign and malicious envy's factional assessment patterns. Benign and malicious envy are instrumental emotional mechanisms in the handling of social status contingent on esteem versus ascendancy. Broad motivational predispositions in addition to domain-specific motivational propensities (Popescu, 2016a, b) produce the proclivity to undergo benign or malicious envy. Conceptualizing envy as a reaction to status threat enables recognizing dispositional mediators of benign and malicious envy. (Crusius and Lange, 2017) Support networks can assist substantially individuals handle depression equipped with the information that a potential intrinsic reason is the feeling of subservience. Schemes such as confirmation or providing encouragement (Life, 2016) can function to alleviate feelings of subordination that trigger depression. The social medium (White et al., 2016) should not be held responsible for depression but the reactions that it activates, especially Facebook envy, and that cannot be comprehensively required of all Facebook users. (Tandoc Jr. et al., 2015)
Our empirical data are gathered from replicated surveys regarding technology use and awareness of stressful events in others' lives (close friends and more distant acquaintances). Even though they are predisposed to use the availability heuristic, recurrent Facebook users have more achievable instances from Facebook (Lazaroiu, 2016), being more exposed to an inaccurate perception. When examining other individuals' happy images posted on Facebook, users may infer that others are content, while paying no attention to the contexts (Ramcharan, 2016) that made others delighted. (Chou and Edge, 2012)
Examining other individuals' positively presented material on Facebook can have detrimental consequences. The material collected in this research offers a substantial and diverse setting for grasping that increasing comparisons on Facebook can generate feelings of envy, the latter being a significant process (Machan, 2016) determining the effect of growing social comparison (Anderson and Kantarelis, 2016) on psychological well-being. (Vogel and Rose, 2016) (Figures 1-4)
Figure 1 Technology use and awareness of stressful events in others' lives CLOSE FRIENDS User of this technology 3 8 Internet Non-user 2.4 4.0 Facebook 2.5 4.3 Twitter 3.3 4.6 Instagram 3.3 4.6 Pinterest 3.2 4.3 Linkedln 3.3 Photo 4.3 sharing 2.6 Text 3.9 message 2.5 MORE DISTANT ACQUAINTANCES User of this technology 5.2 Internet Non-user 3.3 5.3 Facebook 3.8 5.8 Twitter 4.3 5.8 Instagram 4.3 6.0 Pinterest 4.2 5.9 Linkedln 4.5 Photo 5.7 sharing 4.0 Text 5.3 message 3.5 Source: Pew Research Center. Our March 2017 survey. N=1,600 adults. Note: The average number of stressful events that people knew occurred in the lives of their friends/acquaintances in the past year. Note: Table made from bar graph. Figure 2 Most teens think social media allows individuals to be less authentic and show a different side of their personality (% of social media-using teens) NET AGREE 72% NET DISAGREE 28% People are less 50% 22 25 3 authentic and real on social media than they are offline STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE NET AGREE 83% NET DISAGREE 17% People get to show different sides of 61% 22 12 5 themselves on social media that they can't show offline Source: Pew Research Center. Our March 2017 survey. N=1,420 adults. Note: Due to rounding, net values may not add up to 100%. Note: Table made from bar graph. Figure 3 Some teens face pressure to post popular or flattering content (% of social media-using teens) Yes, a lot Yes, a little No Net Yes Pressure to post content that will be popular & get 8 30 62 38 likes/comments Pressure to only post content that makes you 9 32 59 41 look good to others Source: Pew Research Center. Our March 2017 survey. N=1,350 adults. Note: Table made from bar graph. Figure 4 The wide range of actions on social media (% of social media-using teens) FREQUENTLY OCCASIONALLY NET People stirring up drama 24 49 73% People supporting you through challenges/tough times 20 48 68 People posting about things you weren't invited to 14 39 53 People posting things about you 11 28 39 that you can't change/control Source: Pew Research Center. Our March 2017 survey. N=1,380 adults. Note: Table made from bar graph.
Enviers either attempt to achieve or outperform the status of the superior other, or strive to moderate it (Mihaila, 2016), either by imposing concrete harm (Bauder, 2016) on the envied individual or by denigrating the other. Benign and malicious envy are related to noticeably distinct assessment patterns. A significant dissimilarity refers to personal control (Fujiwara and Lawton, 2016), i.e., the perceived capacity to enhance one's own undertakings (Zavala and Golden, 2016) compared with the other individual eventually. A significant position in the social ranking (Nica, 2016) is related to esteem and pressure from observers (Flegar, 2016), generating significant evolutionary advantages. (Crusius and Lange, 2017) Employing Facebook influences individuals' perceptions of others. For people that have employed Facebook for a long time, it is more unproblematic to recollect positive material and happy images posted on Facebook. The issues of counting on an availability heuristic (Eriksson and Lind, 2016) and having correspondence bias (Popescu and Ciurlau, 2016) are mitigated by having more unbiased material, which can be acquired via more profound interplays with other individuals. (Chou and Edge, 2012)
Benign envy assists in reaching comparable status eventually, whereas malicious envy assists in undermining the status of opponents. As envy is a social-functional reaction to status dissimilarities (Malott, 2016), any emotional exhibition of high status or social variable specifically influencing the emotional implications of status rankings (Tulloch, 2016) should bring to mind and shape envy more intensely than the simple knowledge of having a worse end result (Gloukhov, 2016) than another individual has. As status is provided only by observers (Olssen and Peters, 2015), benignly envious conduct is unsuccessful in improving the envier's status in the near future. Thus, benign envy boosts status especially in the long run, when indications of esteem (Ionescu, 2016) become concrete and noticeable (Cimatti, 2016) but for the immediate emotional setting. (Crusius and Lange, 2017) Facebook may be enjoyable, being instrumental in easing tediousness or forlornness (Agostinone-Wilson, 2016), but heavy Facebook users may have superior levels of Facebook envy in comparison to light ones. The more people employ Facebook, the more expected they are to take part in particular conducts (Vecsey, 2015) that direct them to assimilate (Schor, 2016) other individuals' personal information. (Tandoc Jr. et al., 2015)
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NELA MIRCICA firstname.lastname@example.org Spiru Haret University
How to cite: Mircica, Nela (2017). "The Ethics of Envy on Facebook," Analysis and Metaphysics 16: 124-130.
Received 21 May 2017 * Received in revised form 22 September 2017
Accepted 24 September 2017 * Available online 21 November 2017
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|Publication:||Analysis and Metaphysics|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2017|
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