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THE DIGITAL SOUSA AND NEW ONLINE RESOURCES FROM THE UNITED STATES MARINE BAND.

ABSTRACT

The oldest continuously operating musical ensemble in the United States, "The President's Own" United States Marine Band, is also home to a significant performing ensemble library and archives. In recent years the band and its library have been working to make their resources--especially those related to their most famous director John Philip Sousa--more readily available to the public. This article outlines the history of the ensemble and Sousa's relationship to it. It then describes the band's two major digital initiatives. The Complete Marches of John Philip Sousa is a multiyear project to edit and record each of Sousa's approximately 130 marches. The Marine Band editions rely on the earliest printed sources, but they differ from other Sousa editions in that they document this ensemble's long history with Sousa's music. In undertaking this project, the Marine Band has also scanned two major primary sources related to Sousa: the Sousa Band encore and press books. This article outlines the ways scholars might use both resources by examining the encore books' value in editing Sousa's music, and the press books' remarkable potential for looking at musical interaction with American social and political history. All of these materials--the press books, encore books, and newly created editions--are freely available on the Marine Band's Web site. Taken together they provide a unique level of access to one of America's most celebrated musicians.

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In the fall of 1906, the composer and bandleader John Philip Sousa (1854-1932) sounded a dire alarm: "sweeping across the country with the speed of a transient fashion in slang or Panama hats, political war cries or popular novels, comes now the mechanical device to sing for us a song or play for us a piano." (1) His mission was to warn Americans of the dangers inherent in a new technology: recorded sound. Sousa feared that piano rolls and cylinders, which bypassed "human skill, intelligence, and soul," would destroy musical culture in the United States: "for when music can be heard in the homes without the labor of study and close application, and without the slow process of acquiring a technic, it will be simply a question of time when the amateur disappears entirely." (2)

Given Sousa's well-documented objection to one transformative technology, it is perhaps surprising to now find him so well represented by another. Over the past several years, "The President's Own" United States Marine Band, which Sousa directed between 1880 and 1892, has undertaken several digital projects that promise to provide scholars, educators, conductors, and the listening public with ever greater access to the March King and his music. This paper describes the band's two most significant contributions to establishing Sousa's online legacy: an ambitious editing and recording project of the composer's complete march output, and the scanning of the Sousa Band encore and press books. The first of these projects makes Sousa's most significant work as a composer widely and freely available in both printed and recorded form, while the second provides scholars with easy access to a major repository of primary sources related not only to Sousa, but to American cultural history more broadly. These initiatives have involved the United States Marine Band as a whole, but they rely particularly on the holdings of the ensemble's library and archives, which act not only as the library for a major working ensemble, but also as a significant repository for the study of military and patriotic music in the United States.

THE UNITED STATES MARINE BAND AND JOHN PHILIP SOUSA

The United States Marine Band is today perhaps the most celebrated military ensemble in the world. Each year it provides music for approximately 200 White House events, supports funerals at Arlington National Cemetery and other ceremonies, gives public concerts, takes part in an active and varied recording schedule, provides educational performances and clinics in schools, and undertakes national concert tours. In short, it manages a remarkable schedule for an organization that traces its history back to a mere thirty-two drums and fifes authorized by the Fifth United States Congress and President John Adams.

For much of their history, military units have relied on musical sounds to regulate camp life and direct troops in the field. Musicians have also played a significant role in recruiting activities. It was for these reasons that the 1798 act that first established a Marine Corps called for drums and fifes: "there shall be raised and organized a corps of marines, which shall consist of one major, four captains, sixteen first lieutenants, twelve second lieutenants, forty-eight sergeants, forty-eight corporals, thirty-two drums and fifes, and seven hundred and twenty privates." (3) Most of these musicians could be found on ships or at shore stations, but a few remained in Philadelphia--then serving as the national capital--to aid in recruitment.

The Marine Corps and its band moved with the federal government to Washington, D.C., in 1800. There, the ensemble provided music for White House events, and its players formed the core of the city's professional musicians. (4) In the 1830s and 1840s it began to undertake public concerts on the White House and Capitol grounds. A particularly interesting recent addition to the Marine Band's archival holdings is a small collection of letters relating to Antonio Pons, who served as the band's leader in the 1840s. While it is clear from press accounts that the band Pons led consisted of far more than drums and fifes, it was not until the start of the American Civil War that congress formally authorized thirty musicians for a band, to be separate and distinct from the ceremonial instruments. (5)

John Philip Sousa's relationship with this ensemble dates back to his childhood. He was born in Washington, D.C., less than half a mile from the Marine Barracks. His father, Antonio, served as a trombonist in the band, and Sousa himself was trained in the ensemble's apprentice program from the age of thirteen. Following his apprenticeship, John Philip Sousa enlisted in the band and served from 1872 to 1875. After several years working as a conductor, arranger, and composer in Philadelphia, Sousa returned to Washington in 1880 to become the Marine Band's youngest and first American-born leader. (6)

The importance of Sousa to the Marine Band's history cannot be overstated. Prior to the mid-1880s it was a modest ensemble, known only regionally. Its performances could be heard only in Washington, D.C., or occasionally at major events on the east coast. During Sousa's time as leader, he worked to increase the quality of the band's players, improve their working conditions, and diversify their repertoire. In the late 1880s he partnered with the Columbia Phonograph Company to record the ensemble, and in 1891 and 1892 he took the band on its first tours. (7)

Prior to Sousa's tenure as leader, the band performed from the private library of its director, but by 1885 Sousa had established a permanent collection for the ensemble. (8) The Marine Band Library itself was formally established in 1898, with Sousa's brother George serving at the helm. The modern library continues to work as a performing ensemble collection with large holdings of notated music, but it is also a place of research with approximately 1,400 artifacts and 300 archival donations. Through the projects described here, several of the library and archive's most important Sousa collections are now available online. (9)

THE COMPLETE MARCHES OF JOHN PHILIP SOUSA

Washington's Columbia Phonograph Company began advertising musical recordings for the entertainment market in November of 1889, and the first artist they advertised by name was Henry Jaeger, "the celebrated flute and piccolo soloist of the Marine Band." (10) Despite Sousa's later objections to recorded music, it was under his leadership that the band began making commercial recordings, likely in the middle of 1890. A Columbia catalog from October of that year listed sixty numbers available from the band, nearly half of which were composed by Sousa." These recordings would prove useful in spreading awareness of the ensemble, leading to its first national tour in 1891, and ultimately to Sousa's decision to resign from the Marine Corps and form his own commercial, touring ensemble in late 1892. The Marine Band--under other leaders--recorded several hundred cylinders for Columbia until that company relocated to New York in 1897. Later Marine Band recordings were made with Berliner, Edison, and Victor.

As Sousa is the most significant composer to have served as Marine Band leader, it is no surprise that his music continued to play an important role in the ensemble's recorded output. As part of its 190th anniversary, the band released a retrospective disc of recordings made between 1890 and 1988. (12) Of the seventeen tracks, four are by Sousa. Similarly, the ensemble's ten-disc bicentennial collection of historic recordings contains nineteen works by Sousa (almost entirely marches). (13) While relatively few of the band's early recordings have been reissued outside of these two collections, the ensemble has made the bulk of its modern recordings freely accessible on its Web site. (14) It is worth noting that in re cent years the band's directors have come to favor more symphonic-style works in both performance and recording.

Several efforts have been made to record Sousa's major works for band. The Marine Band's first attempt came in 1976 when it issued the eighteen-LP set The Heritage of John Philip Sousa under the direction of Lieutenant Colonel Jack T. Kline. This collection appeared as part of Robert Hoe's remarkable 185-LP series, Heritage of the March. The Marine Band's efforts attempted to document the March King's entire output for band, including marches, descriptive works, dances, and suites. Impressive though it is, this set was recorded in haste, and the band often sounds underrehearsed. Furthermore, little attention was paid to correcting errors in the printed music used for these recordings. Portions of Hoe's series, including the Sousa set, have been reissued by Altissimo Recordings, and some are available on streaming services. (15)

The band's current project, The Complete Marches of John Philip Sousa, may be somewhat less ambitious in scope (it focuses only on marches, leaving aside Sousa's many other works for band), but it engages with these some 130 miniature gems with much greater care. The initial volume, covering the seventeen works written prior to 1883, was released in 2015. Volumes two, three, and four are now all available, showcasing the seventy-five marches written through 1916, and volume five is scheduled for release in April 2019. The current plan is to edit and record approximately twenty marches per year, and finish the seventh and final volume in 2021 (see table 1). Two things make the series exceptional: its careful attention to editorial detail and its sheer accessibility. (16)

Editing a Sousa march is no easy task, and as a result modern conductors and scholars have a number of editions from which to choose, each with its own particular vantage. The most significant of these editions are selected marches edited by Frank Byrne (formerly of the United States Marine Band), and a series edited by Loras Schissel and Keith Brion. Each of these editors has attempted to edit Sousa's work and also silently arrange it for performance by modern ensembles. The only scholarly edition that does not attempt to be suitable for modern performance are the six marches edited by Patrick Warfield. (17)

The reason for such a wide range of modern editions is to be found in the primary source material: the first printed edition of each march. As American bandleaders in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries traditionally read from the first cornet part, full scores were never published, and even reduced scores were unusual. Modern editors thus need to combine the individual printed parts to create a full score. In an effort to appeal to the widest cross section of ensembles, however, publishers often included a host of redundant parts. Any score created by simply combining all printed parts thus appears deceptively dense. Furthermore, as these parts were printed on small-size paper--suitable for use on parade--there was little room for detailed expressive markings. A modern editor must therefore turn to manuscript sources for many indications of articulation and dynamic. Finally, during his tenure as a touring bandleader, Sousa's marches were eagerly anticipated by the listening public. In order to satisfy demand, Sousa's publishers often rushed new pieces to market with little concern for editorial detail, often resulting in errors of pitch and rhythm that were rarely corrected in later printings.

An additional problem is less obvious. As Sousa toured with these marches and needed to sell tickets to a public that could easily play the printed editions with their own town bands or at home, he often intentionally neglected to place his signature performance habits into the printed editions. As the flutist Joseph Lefter explained, "I asked him one time why he changed his music when he played it in the marches. When it's marked loud, why he didn't play it loud. He told me, he says, 'Mr. Lefter, if everybody played it the way it's written, then everybody's band would sound like Sousa's Band so we make some changes now and then just to make it a little bit different.'" (18) As a result, an editor hoping to capture the style of the Sousa Band must rely on descriptive accounts by players, especially those of his star cornetist Frank Simon. (19)

In the end, Sousa's marches were published for the general market and purchased by professional and amateur bands across the country (indeed, many marches were also published for theater orchestra, as well as for piano with various combinations of guitar, mandolin, banjo, and zither). But Sousa also led two professional ensembles: the United States Marine Band and his own commercial, touring band. Any editor of Sousa must confront this problem: is the edition meant to provide access to a march as played by Sousa's Marine Band, the commercial ensemble known as Sousa's Band, or the various ensembles that purchased his music? Most recent performance editions attempt to make the marches accessible to modern educational bands, adopting their instrumentation while incorporating Sousa's performance habits. The Marine Band's new editions take a different track by documenting that ensemble's long history with Sousa's music. As we have seen, the Marine Band performed Sousa's marches under his direction--at least those written before he left the ensemble in 1892--but it also continued to perform Sousa marches long after the composer left the band, and indeed it continues to do so today. As a result, the band has developed performance traditions distinct from those of the Sousa Band that are left uncaptured by other editors. "The President's Own" is also the most well-known band in the United States, and the ensemble that many band directors see as authoritative in march and military music interpretation. This new edition, The Complete Marches of John Philip Sousa, is thus an attempt to capture the Marine Band's long history with Sousa's music, including its own unique performance habits and traditions.

To see how this editing plays out, we might examine the official march of the United States Marine Corps, Semper Fidelis, which Sousa wrote in 1888 at the suggestion of President Chester A. Arthur. The editorial report in the Marine Band edition indicates that since the ensemble plays this march "countless times each year," it has "developed a unique performance practice over more than a century of living with this miniature masterpiece." The author continues by honestly noting "this edition strives to meld together the original music from the earliest known sources of the march with the most long-standing stylistic elements practiced by 'The President's Own.'" To take just one example, marches from this period were generally published with cornet, rather than trumpet, parts. When later reprinted, however, publishers would sometimes add parts for trumpet, and these were created in-house and not composed by Sousa. Semper Fidelis is just such a march, and there is no evidence that Sousa's Band ever performed the later trumpet parts. These printings, however, were often used by the Marine Band in the mid-twentieth century. The new edition includes both cornet and trumpet parts, reflecting Sousa and Marine Band performance traditions, respectively. These parts are clearly indicated in the scores, which allow a modern ensemble to select the solution most useful for its needs. The band's editorial notes then discuss the march, section by section, taking care to point out changes that can be traced back to Frank Simon (and reflect Sousa Band practice), and those that find their roots in Marine Band practice (see fig. 1).

It is worth noting that only some of Sousa's marches have remained in regular use, and there is a better-established Marine Band performance practice for Semper Fidelis than there is for less-frequently performed pieces such as 1877's Across the Danube. It is also worth noting that it is often difficult to determine which Marine Band performance changes reflect long-standing traditions and which are choices made by more recent directors.

Despite these limitations, the editions included in The Complete Marches of John Philip Sousa are the most carefully and transparently edited versions available for many of the composer's works. But perhaps the greatest value of this project is its sheer accessibility. The Marine Band has made the full edited scores (complete with historical and editorial notes) and a complete set of parts available for free download on its Web site (see n. 16). Any modern band can thus download the music needed to play these pieces. The band has recorded each of its editions, and these recordings have also been made available online. Finally, they have posted video of each recording synchronized to the score itself. The result is an unprecedented level of accessibility for Sousa's marches, both as printed and sounded. Indeed, prior to this edition, many of Sousa's less familiar marches were available only in their original printed form: without scores, filled with errors, and absent any indications of performance practice. The only complicating factor in this accessibility is American copyright law. While the band hopes to have recorded all of the marches by 2021, the scores and parts for the final pieces will be released as they enter the public domain. Barring changes to the copyright law, everything should be available by 1 January 2027.

THE SOUSA BAND ENCORE BOOKS

Accessibility and fidelity to the original published parts form the cornerstone of the new Marine Band editions, but in preparing any Sousa edition one must confront the question of exactly which parts were actually played. The best source of information on this issue are the Sousa Band encore books.

It is well known that the printed programs of a Sousa Band concert were deceptively brief, and that the March King planned his performances with one, two, or even three encores per programmed piece. While such encores appeared to take place spontaneously, they were in fact carefully planned. Indeed, Sousa's most famous marches might be noticeably absent from a printed program, and it was through encores that his audience experienced the music they most desperately wanted to hear. Encores were often announced to audiences through large placards placed on stage (further suggesting that they were preplanned). As the band headed out on its annual tours, a fairly stable roster of encores was prepared, and these pieces were added to ledger-sized volumes, now known as the encore books. New members of the band would rely on these books in performance, while seasoned veterans would play from memory. As the encore roster changed from season to season, the music in these books was pulled apart and reassembled as required.

The Sousa Band library may well have been the largest, privately owned collection of music in the United States, and its disbursal at the end of Sousa's career is complex. In 1896 Sousa's original manager, the man who had convinced him to leave the Marine Band to form his own commercial ensemble, David Blakely, died unexpectedly. Following Blakely's death, Sousa entered into a protracted legal battle with the Blakely estate, and he was ultimately forced to turn over the bulk of his performance library, which the court found to be Blakely's personal property. With his band still on the road, Sousa then built up a second library of performance materials. It is, therefore, helpful to think of early and late Sousa libraries.

In 1924, the Blakely family sold the earlier library back to Sousa who, of course, had replaced much of the material. In 1931 he gave much of this early library to his colleague Victor J. Grabel, who split up the collection, selling a portion of it to Louis Blaha, the band director of J. Sterling Morton High School in Cicero, Illinois. These materials were donated to the Library of Congress in 1992. Grabel continued to use the remainder of the collection during his tenure as conductor of the Chicago Concert Band, and in 1945 he donated it to Stetson University in Deland, Florida. In 1969 this collection was transferred to the Marine Corps Museum in Virginia, and later to the United States Marine Band. In 1931 Sousa also gave a portion of his later library to Albert Austin Harding, the band director at the University of Illinois. In 1932, his widow added what she believed to be the rest of the band's library--approximately 18,000 pounds of music--to this gift. (20)

These collections were believed to be the entirety of Sousa's surviving performance library, but in 1940, two trunks were discovered in a New York warehouse. As unclaimed property, they were purchased by Sousa's neighbor, Reginald Walker, who left the items to his son Charles Hyde Walker. Included in this material were the final iterations of forty--four encore books, which were donated to the Marine Corps in 1967. (21) A few earlier encore books are in the materials at the University of Illinois, and some additional volumes are in private collections.

The value of these books cannot be overestimated, as they provide hints as to exactly which of the printed parts were used by the Sousa Band. For example, when The Washington Post was published in 1889, saxophones were virtually unheard of in American bands. Sousa's Marine Band did not use them, and so the original publisher (Harry Coleman of Philadelphia) did not print saxophone parts. Years later, however, the Sousa Band did tour with saxophones and, of course, the modern Marine Band includes a full complement of the instruments. For later printings of this and other marches, publishers created saxophone parts in-house, and like the trumpets in Semper Fidelis, these are not by Sousa. The question remains: what did saxophonists in the Sousa Band play prior to the publication of saxophone parts?

The Marine Band's collection of encore books can help provide an answer as it contains five volumes for saxophones: two altos, two tenors, and a single baritone. For The Washington Post, the first alto book contains an E-flat cornet part, while the second has a later Carl Fischer alto saxophone printing. The first tenor book contains a treble-clef baritone part, while the second also has a later Fischer printing. The baritone saxophone book contains a part for basses. By examining the encore books, we can reasonably assign parts in more or less the way Sousa did, and the Marine Band's new editions follow this practice whenever possible. But as Marine Band editors worked, the library staff worried that heavy use of the encore books threatened to damage the original materials, and so they turned to a set of microfilms created in the 1970s. It was fairly straightforward to scan this microfilm and make it available in searchable PDF format. All forty-four encore books are now available online (see table 2).

Scholars will find these books helpful in a number of ways. First, they give a sense of the encores most often used by the Sousa Band, at least during the period when these particular books were in use (see table 3). It should be no surprise that of the more than 100 pieces in the books, the vast majority are Sousa marches. We find here, for example, a number of his World War I-era marches (America First, Anchor and Star, Bullets and Bayonets, Flags of Freedom, Golden Star, Liberty Loan, Naval Reserve, Sabre and Spurs, Solid Men to the Front, U.S. Field Artillery, Volunteers). There are also two arrangements of WW I-period songs by Sousa (We are Coming, When the Boys Come Sailing Home). There are, of course, many of Sousa's most popular marches (El Capitan, The Gladiator, Hands Across the Sea, Liberty Bell, Manhattan Beach, National Fencibles, The Stars and Stripes Forever, Semper Fidelis, The Washington Post). The books also contain a number of patriotic pieces (My Country 'Tis of Thee, The Star-Spangled Banner, 0 Canada, La Marseillaise). There are several dance- and rag-inspired pieces, which one can imagine acting as toe-tapping encores (Ragging the Scale, The Yankee Shuffle, Temptation Rag). There are also a number of surprises, including lesser-known Sousa marches and arrangements from his operettas. It will require further research to determine which of these encores were regularly used and which sat neglected in the books.

A second useful feature of these books is that they contain the complete performance parts to a handful of pieces otherwise difficult to find, including a few manuscript items. Perhaps the most important item to be discovered in the encore books is the unpublished harp part to The Stars and Stripes Forever (see fig. 2).

Finally, in a few cases, the encore books contain handwritten indications that can help determine how Sousa's music was actually played under his own baton. Here, however, one must use caution. Band players, in both Sousa's time and in our own, are well-known for relying on memory rather than marking their scores (indeed, it often seems to be a matter of pride among band musicians to neglect having a pencil during rehearsal). Markings in the encore books are thus quite rare. Furthermore, the uncertain pathway these books took to the Marine Band Library and Archive makes it impossible to be certain that those markings that do exist were not added at a later date.

The Sousa Band encore books serve as an important resource for anyone interested in editing Sousa's marches, but they also provide a robust amount of information about exactly what and how the Sousa Band played while on their annual tours across North America. Given that encores played such an important role in Sousa Band concerts, this information is vital to understanding Sousa and his band. The newly scanned encore books make this important resource available to scholars around the world.

SOUSA BAND PRESS BOOKS

In scanning the encore books, the Marine Band Library and Archive also realized that it had microfilm of the Sousa Band Press Books. Throughout his professional career as a touring bandleader, Sousa engaged a press office that tracked mentions of both himself and his ensemble published in local newspapers. These press clippings were then pasted into large volumes and stored. In 1970, the Sousa family donated the press books to the National Museum of the Marine Corps where they were microfilmed in 1977. In 1980, they were relocated to the Marine Band Library and Archive, which photocopied them onto acid-free paper, and then interleaved the originals with archival tissue to slow the deterioration of the acidic newsprint. (22)

Until recently, examining these books required a trip to Washington, D.C., or to The Sousa Archives and Center for American Music at the University of Illinois (where a second photocopied set resides). Working with the books could be cumbersome: the clippings appear in the order that they arrived at the press agency, which turns out to be only vaguely chronological. It also meant searching article-by-article through eighty-five press books, each about a hundred pages long, with a single page often containing a half dozen or more clippings. As of April 2017, the press books have been scanned (from the microfilm) and placed online in searchable PDF format. Due to their size, the books appear as individual files, so it is not possible to search across them. Furthermore, unlike the major online newspapers, it is not possible to conduct more advanced database searches. Nevertheless, the scanned books now allow scholars to examine the popular press's coverage of Sousa and his band across its entire forty-year existence, from 1892 to 1932.

Such access can be used in a fairly narrow sense: to uncover premiere performances, identify guest soloists, and track the band from city to city. But with careful use, the power of these press books can be substantial. As a celebrity reliant on both relevance and ticket sales, Sousa sought out ways to keep himself constantly in the public eye, but to avoid any hint of controversy. The press books thus allow us to track how Sousa's public statements and gestures mirrored popular opinion.

Take, for example, American reaction to World War I. When war broke out in Europe, German conductors, performers, and teachers played an outsized role in American classical music. Sousa himself was a proponent of Richard Wagner, and often programmed transcriptions of Wagnerian preludes. It comes as little surprise, then, that a search of the 1914 press books reveals no anti-German sentiment; indeed, Sousa often brags about the significant number of German and otherwise foreign-born players he employed: "Americans are the most numerous in the organization ... and next in number come the Germans. We also have French, Austrians, Spaniards, English, Danes, Belgians and Italians. But they have all been naturalized, and none of them have been called to their former colors.'" (23) In several cases, he even worried about how the war would impact the artistic life of German-speaking musicians: "There is Fritz Kreisler, fighting with the Austrian army--rumor even has him dead. Dr. Karl Muck, too, conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, is somewhere in Germany, fighting or helping the fighters." While Kreisler was not dead and Muck's troubles were yet to come, Sousa worried that "the loss of these men would be a great blow to music." (24)

In 1914 and 1915, most Americans continued to believe that international trade and a network of arbitration treaties would bring about a swift, diplomatic solution to the European crisis, and so Woodrow Wilson's policy of neutrality remained the order of the day, a political position for which Sousa voiced his support: "I admire President Wilson for the splendid stand he has taken, and I am following his advice and saying nothing, thus remaining absolutely neutral." (25)

As the political situation began to change in mid-1915, however, Sousa joined the rising chorus of those who hoped to avoid war but advocated for heightened military preparation. At a February 1916 concert he premiered a new work titled Wake Up, America, about the need to increase military preparedness, and the press books reveal a shift in his rhetoric that matched public opinion. "Let America keep out of this fight" he explained, "there is no reason for us to get into it, but we want to be prepared so that at no future time will any nation or nations feel that they can attack us with impunity." (26) In the argument over military spending, Sousa sided with east coast Republicans and stressed that music had an important role to play in the political debate: "Ninety-five percent of the people of this country want peace and not war. The people are waking up already, and they will demand that the politicians stop wrangling and appropriate sufficient money for defense. Men don't clutch their pocketbooks so tightly when their hearts are touched, and that is another reason why such a song as 'Wake Up America' will do much good. In fact, it might not be a bad idea to sing it to Congress!'" (27)

When the United States finally joined the war, Sousa entered the navy to assist with the training of bandsmen, and his public rhetoric shifted sharply toward the jingoistic. In late 1917, the German-born conductor of the Boston Symphony, Karl Muck, declined to play The Star-Spangled Banner prior to a concert featuring the music of Wagner and Beethoven. In the press, Sousa pounced: "If Dr. Karl Muck doesn't like his orchestra to play the Star Spangled Banner, or any other American anthem, he had better get back to Germany, where he belongs." (28) When asked what he would have done if he had been in Berlin and asked to play a German tune, Sousa responded: "What would I do? ... I wouldn't be in Berlin. While my country was at war I wouldn't be making music for her enemies." (29) Just two years earlier the neutral Sousa had worried about Muck's safety; now he had no objection when Boston's conductor was stripped of his job, placed in an internment camp, and exiled from the United States.

Sousa's rhetoric continued to reflect the rising tide of anti-German discourse in the US. In a 1918 article entitled "Leave German Music to Germans," Sousa seemed to have forgotten his own reliance on transcriptions of German art music:
   In this western world of ours it is an undisputed fact that we have
   not one German tradition; we dress our women as the French suggest;
   our laws are based on those of the English; our ideas of chivalry
   are Spanish; our standard of honor is British.... When we enumerate
   our states we find some named for the Spanish; some for the French;
   some for the English; some for the Indian; but not one remotely
   named for the German.... At the present time the bluest blood, the
   brightest brains and the best brawn of our land is in martial array
   against the German.... Therefore, it is the duty of every American
   to suppress anything and everything that in any way brings comfort,
   profit or satisfaction to the Hun. (30)


Other issues of national importance can also be tracked through the press books. The first mention of women's suffrage, for example, came while the band was in Brisbane, Australia, during its 1911 world tour. That year, women gained the franchise in the state of California. It was Mrs. Sousa who was first asked her opinion, and in a response that might seem puzzling today, she voiced opposition: "... in America women have so many rights that they can gain no more. She is always the power behind the throne." (31) Upon returning home, Sousa himself was asked to weigh in. In his first comments he seemed to agree with his wife on the power held by women, but not on policy: "I am glad that California has given women the ballot.... As a matter of history, woman has always ruled from the top of the pedestal, but I am glad that in this state she is to come down from her pedestal and rule in fact." (32) In perhaps his most progressive moment, Sousa noted that: "As women have controlled me ever since I was a baby and I haven't got the worst of it, I can't understand why they shouldn't control the rest of the world. It occurred to me that the proper composer to write militant music for the women's movement should be a woman, and there are a number of excellent women composers in the world, among them Mme. Chaminade, Mrs. H. H. Beach and Edith [sic] Smith." (33)

As the national debate intensified in the mid 1910s, Sousa took a somewhat more circumspect stance, while not wavering from his core point: "Yes, I favor suffrage, but probably for a different reason than you suspect. I believe women should have the ballot because some of the responsibilities of government should be placed on their shoulders. They have looked to the men too long to make and inforce [52c] the laws, and men naturally are cowards." (34) This new stance--that women had a duty to shoulder the responsibilities of self-government--tracked US public sentiment, which was coming to support suffrage, but saw it as an issue of duty rather than as a right.

Just as they do with the world war, the press books allow us to track the ways in which Sousa mirrored such shifts in public sentiment, and to do so in a detail that this article is merely able to hint at. It is the Marine Band's hope now that scholars have access to these press books, they will be used to examine other issues such as prohibition, the influence of jazz, and the role of race and ethnicity, in addition to identifying important performances, Sousa's relationship with other celebrities, and other details about his band. (35)

ADDITIONAL SOURCES AND CONCLUSION

The Marine Band's The Complete Marches of John Philip Sousa and the scanning of the Sousa encore and press books form the bulk of the library and archive's digital projects. There is work also being done to make finding aids and collection descriptions more readily available. Eight finding aids are now available on the Marine Band Web site. These collections include additional Sousa materials, as well as the papers of several Sousa Band members (John J. Heney, Rudolph Becker, and Clyde Hall). The Dale Harpham papers document the career of the Marine Band's twenty-third leader during the 1950s, '60s, and '70s, as well as his research on Sousa and the Sousa Band, while the Winfred Kemp Papers preserve the activities of a Marine Band cornet soloist. In short, the archives of the United States Marine Band are becoming much more accessible through collection descriptions, digital scans, and a massive editorial and recording project. Sousa, of course, was wrong in 1906 when he warned of the dangers posed by recordings, and we have little doubt that the Marine Band's efforts will breathe new life into both the performance and scholarly examination of this bandleader and his onetime ensemble. (36)

Master Gunnery Sergeant Jane Cross joined the United States Marine Band Library and Archive in May 1997 and was appointed chief in September 2008. She holds a master's degree in library science from the University of Maryland and studied with Mark Greene. Patrick Warfield is associate professor of musicology and associate director of the School of Music at the University of Maryland. He has published widely 011 American bands in general and on Sousa in particular.

URLs cited herein accessed 21 November 2018.

(1.) John Philip Sousa, "The Menace of Mechanical Music," Appleton's v Magazine 8 (September 1906): 278.

(2.) Ibid., 278, 280. Sousa's goals in this article were actually much less grand than protecting amateur music making. lie was lobbying the public to support a copyright law then making its way through the US Congress, a law that would--for the first time--provide composers with mechanical rights to their own music. In other words, his objection to recordings had less to do with amateur music making than it did with his own bottom line. See Patrick Warfield. "John Philip Sousa and The Menace of Mechanical Music,' Journal of the Society for American 3 no. 4 (November 2009): 431-63.

(3.) US Congress, Fifth Congress, "An Act for the Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps," 11 July 1798. See Richard Peters, ed., The Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America (Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1845): 594.

(4.) For an overview of the life of a Marine Band musician in the late nineteenth century, see Katherine K. Preston, Music for Hire: A Study of Professional Musicians in Washington, 1S77-1900 (Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon Press, 1992).

(5.) The early transformation of the Marine Band from a ceremonial unit into a concert ensemble required a number of steps and missteps, many of which were never formally authorized in law. The most significant sources to cover the band's early history are Gloria 11. Terwilliger, " The President's Own,' The United States Marine Band, 1798-1964: Chronologically Arranged and Annotated" (MSLS thesis. The Catholic University of America, 1967); Kenneth William Carpenter, "A History of the United States Marine Band" (PhD diss., University of Iowa, 1970); and D. Michael Ressler, Historical Perspective on The President's Chun U.S. Marine band (Washington, DC: Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, 1998).

(6.) The major monographs on Sousa are three works by Paul Edmund Bierley: John Philip Sousa: American Phenomenon (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973; reprint and rev., Westerville, OH: Integrity Press, 1998); The Works of John Philip Sousa (Westerville, OH: Integrity Press, 1984; rev. of John Philip Sousa: A Descriptive Catalog of His Works (Urbana: University of Illinois Press. 1973); and The Incredible Band of John Philip Sousa (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2006). A more recent addition to Sousa scholarship is Patrick Warfield, Making the March King: John Philip Sousa's Washington Years, 1854-1893 (University of Illinois Press, 2013).

(7.) For details on the first Marine Band tour see Dianna Eiland, "The 1891 Tour of John Philip Sousa and the United States Marine Band," in Kongiessherichl Feldkirch/Vorarlberg 1992, ed. Wolfgang Suppan, Alia Musica, 16 (Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1994), 169-80.

(8.) A catalog of Marine Band holdings under Sousa was published as Catalogue of Music, Band, U.S. Marine Corps (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1885). For an earlier example of a leader's private library, see the Francis Maria Scala Collection at the Library of Congress. This collection is described in Paul Joseph LeClair, "The Francis Scala Collection: Music in Washington, D.C.., at the Time of the Civil War" (PhD diss., The Catholic University of America, 1973).

(9.) The United States Marine Band is located at Marine Barracks Washington, 8th & I Streets SE, in Washington, D.C. Research appointments are available by request.

(10.) Columbia brochure, February 1890, quoted in Tim Brooks, "Columbia Records in the 1890s: Founding the Record Industry," Association for Recorded Sound Collections Journal 10 (1978): 7.

(11.) A more or less complete list of early Marine Band recordings is included in James R. Smart, The Sousa Band: A Discography (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1970), 83-85.

(12.) From Fife and Drum: Celebrating the 190th Anniversary of the President's Own United States Marine Hand (United States Marine Band CD1 [1988J, 1 CD; reissued by Naxos Digital Services/Altissimo 75442260902 [2010J, streaming audio.

(13.) The Bicentennial Collection, Celebrating the 200th Anniversary of The President's Own United States Marine Band (United States Marine Band [1998?], 10 CDs); reissued by Naxos Digital Services/Altissimo 75442261012 [2010], streaming audio.

(14.) The President's Own United States Marine Band, audio resources, available at https://www.marineband.marines.mil/Audio-Resources.

(15.) Other complete Sousa sets include the Detroit Concert Band's The Complete Marches of John Philip Sousa (Walking Frog Records, 1999) and Sousa Marches Played by the Sousa Band: The Complete Commercial Recordings (Crystal Records, 2000).

(16.) "The volumes are available for free download exclusively on the Marine Band website, along with scrolling videos and PDFs of the full scores that include historical and editorial notes about each piece." See https://www.marineband.marines.mil/Audio-Resources/The-Coniplete-Marches-of-John-Philip-Sousa/.

(17.) The Byrne editions are available through Wingert-Jones Publications. Those of Schissel and Brion are published by C. L. Barnhouse. The Warfield editions are available in a single volume as John Philip Sousa, Six Marches, ed. Patrick Warfield, Recent Researches in American Music, 69; Music of the United States of America, 21 (Middleton, WI: A-R Editions, 2010).

(18.) Joe Lefter, oral history interview (August 1980), transcribed by Frank Byrne, The Sousa Oral History Project, 65, United States Marine Band Library, Washington, DC.

(19.) In 1962 Simon initiated a project to record Sousa's marches in their original performance style. Two volumes were released by the American School Band Directors Association (ASBDA) as The Sounds of John Philip Sousa, and they contain the composer's most famous marches along with commentary on their performance practice. The first volume was recorded by the Northern Virginia All-ASBDA High School Band in 1965; the second by the US Army Band in 1969. The first volume has since been rerecorded by the US Army Band and released by the ASBDA.

(20.) The Library Congress has made a great deal of Sousa material available online, including early printings of many marches. See The Library of Congress, Digital Collections, "The March King: John Philip Sousa," at https://www.loc.gov/collections/john-philip-sousa. The University of Illinois has also made a number of Sousa-related images available online at "The Sousa Archives," at https://www.library.illinois.edu/sousa.

(21.) For additional details see Amanda Simmons, "Sousa Encore Books Now Available" (28 June 2016), https://www.marineband.marines.mil/News/article/815815/sousa-encore-books-now-available/.

(22.) Amanda Simmons, "Travel Bark in Time with the Sousa Band: Sousa Press Books Archive," http://www.marineband.marines.mil/New5/Article/1209685/ travel-back-in-time-with-the-sousa-band-sousa-press-books-archive.

(23.) Sousa, quoted in "War Benefits None, 'March King' Avers," clipping labeled Mail (Charleston, West Virginia), 2 October 1914, HJ 39, front cover. The press books were once in the possession of Herbert Johnston and labeled by JIJ number. The Marine Band has not yet identified the press books by HJ number online, but this has become the standard citation method.

(24.) Sousa, quoted in "Sousa Deplores War's Effects Upon Music," clipping labeled Sun (Pittsburgh), 17 September 1914, HJ 39, p. 1.

(25.) Sousa. quoted in "Sousa Glad There is No Frontier in Music," clipping labeled Sun (Pittsburgh), 15 September 1914, HJ 39, front cover.

(26.) Sousa, quoted in "John Philip Sousa Praises 'Wake Up, America," New Preparedness Song Introduced at Hippodrome," clipping labeled American, 5 March 1916. HJ 43. p. 15.

(27.) Ibid.

(28.) Sousa, quoted in "Muck Should get out of U.S., Thinks Sousa," clipping labeled Journal (Detroit), 19 November 1917, HJ 47, p. 96 g

(29.) Sousa, quoted in "What Sousa Thinks about Muck," clipping labeled Morning Telegraph (New York), 4 November 1917, HJ 47, p. 44

(30.) Sousa, "Leave German Music to Germans," clipping labeled, Musical Leader (Chicago), 10 October 1918, HJ 49, p. 143. For a more detailed look at Sousa's wartime activities see Patrick Warfield, "Profitable Patriotism: John Philip Sousa and the Great War," in Over Here, Over There, ed. William Brooks, Christina Bashford, and Gayle Magee (Champaign: University of Illinois Press, forthcoming 2019).

(31.) Mrs. Sousa, quoted in "Mrs. Sousa in Brisbane," clipping labeled Courier (Brisbane), 19 July 1911, HJ 34, p. 71

(32.) Sousa, quoted in "Sousa Aids Equal Rights and Makes Plea for Ragtime," clipping labeled Tribune (Los Angeles), 130ctober 1911, HJ 36, p. 102.

(33.) Sousa, quoted in "Sousa's Views 011 Woman," clipping labeled Independent (Berkeley), 4 October 1911, IIJ 36, p. 124.

(34.) Sousa, quoted in "Let 'Em Share Responsibilities," clipping labeled Evening Gazelle (Cedar Rapids, Iowa), 4 May 1915, HJ 41, p. 16.

(35.) A recent book to make heavy use of the press books is A Sousa Reader: Essays, Interviews, and Clippings, ed. Bryan Proksch (Chicago: GIA Publications, 2017).

(36.) Criticism of Sousa's stance on amateur music making can be found in Emily Thompson, "Machines, Music, and the Quest for Fidelity: Marketing the Edison Phonograph in America, 1877-1925," Musical Quarterly 79, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 131-71; Mark Katz, "Making America More Musical Through the Phonograph, 1900-1930," American Music 16, no. 4 (Winter 1998): 448-76; and Lawrence Lessig, Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy (New York: Penguin Press, 2008), 33.

Caption: Fig. 1. First page of the full score. Semper Fidelis, in The Complete Marches of John Philip Sousa

Caption: Fig. 2. First page* of the unpublished harp part to The Stars and Stripes Forever found in the encore books
Table 1. The Complete Marches of John Philip Sousa, United States
Marine Band, plan of volumes

Vol. 1 (1873-1882), 2015

Review
The Honored Dead
Revival
Across the Danube
Esprit de Corps
On the Tramp
Resumption
Globe and Eagle
Our Flirtation
Recognition
Guide Right
President Garfield's Inaug.
In Memoriam
Right Forward
The Wolverine March
Yorktown Centennial
Congress Hall

Vol. 2 (1883-1889), Apr. 2016

Bonnie Annie Laurie
Mother Goose
Pet of the Petticoats
Right-Left
Transit of Venus
The White Plume
Mikado March
Mother Hubbard March
Sound Off
Triumph of Time
The Gladiator
The Rifle Regiment
The Occidental
Ben Bolt
The Crusader
National Fencibles
Semper Fidelis
The Picador

Vol. 3 (1889-1898), Dec. 2016

The Quilting Partv March
The Thunderer
The Washington Post
Corcoran Cadets
The High School Cadets
The Loyal Legion
Homeward Bound
The Belle of Chicago
March of the Royal Trpts.
On Parade
The Triton
The Beau Ideal
The Liberty Bell
Manhattan Beach
The Directorate
King Cotton
El Capitan
Stars and Stripes Forever
The Bride Elect
The Charlatan

Vol.4 (1899-1916), 2018

Hands Across the Sea
The Man Behind the Gun
Hail to the Spirit of Liberty
The Invincible Eagle
The Pride of Pittsburgh
Imperial Edward
Jack Tar
The Diplomat
The Free Lance
Powhatan's Daughter
The Fairest of the Fair
Glory of the Yankee Navy
The Federal
From Maine to Oregon
Columbia's Pride
The Lamb's March
The New York Hippodrome
The Pathfinder of Panama
America First
Boy Scouts of America

Vol. 5 (1917-1921), 2019

Liberty Loan
The Naval Reserve
U.S. Field Artillery
The White Rose
Wisconsin Forward Forever
Anchor and Star
Bullets and Bayonets
The Chantyman's March
Flags of Freedom
Sabre and Spurs
Solid Men to the Front
USAAC March
The Victory Chest
The Volunteers
Wedding March
The Golden Star
Comrades of the Legion
On the Campus
Keeping Step w/ the Union

Vol. 6 (1922-1928), 2020

The Dauntless Battalion
The Gallant Seventh
March of the Mitten Men
Nobles of the Mystic Shrine
Anc. and Hon. Artillery Co.
The Black Horse Troop
Marquette University
The National Game
The Gridiron Club
Old Ironsides
Pride of the Wolverines
Sesquicentennial Exposition
The Atlantic City Pageant
Magna Charta
The Minnesota March
Riders for the Flag
Golden Jubilee
New Mexico
Prince Charming

Vol. 7 (1928-1931), 2021

University of Nebraska
The Daughters of Texas
La Flor de Sevilla
Foshay Tower Wash. Mem.
Royal Welsh Fusiliers (1)
The University of Illinois
George Washington Bicen.
Harmonica Wizard
The Legionnaires
Royal Welch Fusiliers (2)
The Salvation Army
The Aviators
A Century of Progress
Circumnavigator's Club
Kansas Wildcats
Flie Northern Pines
Universal Peace
The Wildcats

Table 2. Sousa Band encore books available at the United
States Marine Band Library

Harp                   Alto Saxophone 1
Flute 1                Alto Saxophone 2
Flute 2                Tenor Saxophone 1
Piccolo                Tenor Saxophone 2
Oboes 1                Baritone Saxophone
Oboes 2                Solo Cornet 1
Clarinet 1, stand 1    Solo Cornet 2
Clarinet 1, stand 2    Cornet 1
Clarinet I, stand 3    Cornets 2 and 3 (Trumpets)
Clarinet 1, stand 4    Horns 1 and 2
Clarinet 1, stand 5    Horns 3 and 4
Clarinet 1, stand 6    Baritone 1
Clarinet 2, stand 1    Baritone 2
Clarinet 2, stand 2    Trombone 1
Clarinet 3, stand 1    Trombone 2
Clarinet 3, stand 2    Trombone 3
Clarinet 3, stand 3    Tuba 1
Alto Clarinet          Tuba 2
Bass Clarinet          Tuba 3
Bassoons 1             Snare Drum
Bassoons 2             Bass Drum
                       Bass Drum (found in tuba book)
                       Timpani

Table 3. Sousa Band encore book contents (based
on the solo cornet book)

Title                      Genre               Composer

America First              March               J. P. Sousa
American Patrol            Patrol              F. W. Meacham
Anchor and Star            March               J. P. Sousa
Anchor's Aweigh            March               C. A. Zimmermann
Ancient & Honorable        March               J. P. Sousa
  Artillery Company
Atlantic City Pageant      March               J. P. Sousa
Beau Ideal                 March               J. P. Sousa
Belle of Chicago           March               J. P. Sousa
Black Horse Troop          March               J. P. Sousa
The Boy and the Birds      Characteristic      F. W. Hager
Boys Scouts of America     March               j. P. Sousa
Bride-Elect                March               J. P. Sousa
Bullets and Bayonets       March               J. P. Sousa
By the Swanee River        Sketch              W. H. Myddleton
Chantvman's March          March               J. P. Sousa
Charlatan                  Marcli              J. P. Sousa
Comrades of the Legion     March               J. P. Sousa
Corcoran Cadets            March               J. P. Sousa
Crusader                   March               J. P. Sousa
Dauntless Battalion        March               J. P. Sousa
Diplomat                   March               J. P. Sousa
Directorate                March               J. P. Sousa
Dixieland                  [March]             C. Haines
Down South                 American Sketch     W. H. Myddleton
El Capitan                 March               J. P. Sousa
Entr'acte Valse            Waltz               J. Helmesberger
Fairest of the Fair        March               J. P. Sousa
Fascination                Intermezzo          M. A. Althouse
Federal                    March               J. P. Sousa
Finnegan's Hornpipe        Polka               F. II. Losey
Flags of Freedom           March               J. P. Sousa
Flor de Sevilla            March               J. P. Sousa
Free Lance                 March               J. P. Sousa
Gallant Seventh            March               J. P. Sousa
Gladiator                  March               J. P. Sousa
Gliding Girl               Tango               J. P. Sousa
Glory of the Yankee Navy   March               J. P. Sousa
Golden Jubilee             March               J. P. Sousa
Golden Star                Memorial March      J. P. Sousa
Gridiron Club              March               J. P. Sousa
Hail to the Spirit         March               J. P. Sousa
  of Liberty
Hands Across the Sea       March               J. P. Sousa
Hearts and Flowers         Flower Song         T. M. Tobani
High School Cadets         March               J. P. Sousa
Imperial Edward            March               J. P. Sousa
Invincible Eagle           March               J. P. Sousa
Ireland Forever!           Sketch              W. H. Myddleton
Jack Tar                   March               J. P. Sousa
Keeping Step with          March               J. P. Sousa
  the Union
King Cotton                March               J. P. Sousa
La Marseillaise            National Song       Rouget de L'lsle
Lambs' March               March               J. P. Sousa
Lasstts Trombone           [Rag]               H. Fillmore
Les Fleches de Cupidon     Waltz               W. L. Cole
Liberty Bell               March               J. P. Sousa
Liberty Loan               March               J. P. Sousa
Loyal Legion               March               J. P. Sousa
Magna Charta               March               J. P. Sousa
Maine to Oregon            March               J. P. Sousa
Man Behind the Gun         March               J. P. Sousa
Manhattan Beach            March               J. P. Sousa
March of the Mitten Men    March               J. P. Sousa
Marquette University       March               J. P. Sousa
Minnesota March            March               J. P. Sousa
Mother Goose               March               J. P. Sousa
My Country 'Tis of Thee    [Patriotic Song]    [T. Arne]
National Fencibles         March               J. P. Sousa
National Game              March               J. P. Sousa
Naval Reserve              March               J. P. Sousa
New Mexico                 March               J. P. Sousa
New York Hippodrome        March               J. P. Sousa
Nobles of the Mystic       March               J. P. Sousa
  Shrine
O Canada                   National Song       Calixa Lavallee
Occidental                 March               J. P. Sousa
Old Timers Waltz           Waltz               M. L. Lake
On the Campus              March               J. P. Sousa
Our Flirtations            March               J. P. Sousa
Pathfinder of Panama       March               J. P. Sousa
Picadore                   March               J. P. Sousa
Piccolo Pic                Humoresque          W. L. Slater
Powhatan's Daughter        March               J. P. Sousa
Pride of the Wolverines    March               J. P. Sousa
Ragging the Scale          Foxtrot             E. Claypool
Retreat                    Bugle call          [No comp.]
Riders for the Flag        March               |. P. Sousa
Rifle Regiment             March               J. P. Sousa
Rondo d'Amour              [Idyll]             N. Van Westerhout
Sabre and Spurs            March               J. P. Sousa
Sally Trombone             [Rag]               H. Fillmore
Semper Fidelis             March               J. P. Sousa
Sesqui-Centennial          March               J. P. Sousa
  Exposition
Sextet from Lucia di       [Arrangement]       [G. Donizetti]
  Lammermoor
Sextet from the Bride      [Arrangement]       J. P. Sousa
  Elect
Social Laws                [Arrangement]       J. P. Sousa
Solid Men to the Front!    March               J. P. Sousa

Sound Off                  March               J. P. Sousa
Star-Spangled Banner       National Song       [J. S. Smith]
Stars and Stripes Forever  March               J. P. Sousa
Temptation Rag             Rag                 H. Lodge
Thunderer                  March               J. P. Sousa
Tone Pictures of the       Fantasia            T. Bendix
  North and South
Toreadora                  Fox Trot            Lewis and Williams
U.S. Field Artillery       March               J. P. Sousa
University of Nebraska     March               J. P. Sousa
Volunteers                 March               J. P. Sousa
Washington Post            March               J. P. Sousa
We Are Coming              March               J. P. Sousa
                             [from song]
When the Boy s Come        March               J. P. Sousa
  Sailing Home               [from song]
"The Whistlers" from       Intermezzo          E. Reiterer
  Fruhlingsluft
Whistling Farmer Boy       Whistling Novelty   H. Fillmore
White Bird                 Novelette           F. W. Hager
White Plume                March               J. P. Sousa
Who's Who in Navy Blue     March               J. P. Sousa
With Pleasure              Dance Hilarious     J. P. Sousa
Yankee Shuffle             March               F. L. Moreland

Title                      Publisher      Date

America First              Harms          1916
American Patrol            Meacham        1912
Anchor and Star            [Fischer]      1918
Anchor's Aweigh            Wurlitzer      1913
Ancient & Honorable        Fox            1924
  Artillery Company
Atlantic City Pageant      Fox            1927
Beau Ideal                 Coleman        1903
Belle of Chicago           Coleman        1892
Black Horse Troop          Fox            1925
The Boy and the Birds      Fischer        1919
Boys Scouts of America     [Harms]        [1916]
Bride-Elect                Church         1897
Bullets and Bayonets       Schirmer       1919
By the Swanee River        [Hawkes]       [1901]
Chantvman's March          [Fischer]      1918
Charlatan                  Church         1898
Comrades of the Legion     Fox            1920
Corcoran Cadets            Coleman        1890
Crusader                   Coleman        1889
Dauntless Battalion        Church         1923
Diplomat                   Church         1904
Directorate                Church         1894
Dixieland                  Warner         1903
Down South                 Hawkes         1902
El Capitan                 Church         1896
Entr'acte Valse            [Ditson]       [1909]
Fairest of the Fair        Church         1908
Fascination                Fischer        1909
Federal                    Church         1911
Finnegan's Hornpipe        Fischer        1901
Flags of Freedom           Fischer        1918
Flor de Sevilla            Church         1929
Free Lance                 Church         1906
Gallant Seventh            Fox            1922
Gladiator                  Coleman        1886
Gliding Girl               Church         1912
Glory of the Yankee Navy   Church         1909
Golden Jubilee             Fox            1928
Golden Star                Chappell       1919
Gridiron Club              Fox            1926
Hail to the Spirit         Church         1900
  of Liberty
Hands Across the Sea       Church         1899
Hearts and Flowers         Fischer        1894
High School Cadets         Coleman        1890
Imperial Edward            Church         1902
Invincible Eagle           Church         1901
Ireland Forever!           Myddleton      1907
Jack Tar                   [Church]       [1903]
Keeping Step with          Presser        1921
  the Union
King Cotton                Church         1895
La Marseillaise            [Coleman]      [1890]
Lambs' March               Church         1914
Lasstts Trombone           Fillmore       1915
Les Fleches de Cupidon     Watts          1907
Liberty Bell               Church         1894
Liberty Loan               Harms          1917
Loyal Legion               [Coleman]      [1890]
Magna Charta               Presser        1928
Maine to Oregon            Church         1913
Man Behind the Gun         Church         1900
Manhattan Beach            Church         1894
March of the Mitten Men    Presser        1923
Marquette University       Church         1924
Minnesota March            Fox            1927
Mother Goose               Pepper         1883
My Country 'Tis of Thee    [Coleman]      [1890]
National Fencibles         Coleman        [1888]
National Game              Fox            1925
Naval Reserve              Harms          1917
New Mexico                 Fox            1928
New York Hippodrome        [Harms]        [1915]
Nobles of the Mystic       Fox            1923
  Shrine
O Canada                   [No pub.]      [n.d.]
Occidental                 Coleman        1891
Old Timers Waltz           Fischer        1917
On the Campus              Fox            1921
Our Flirtations            Fischer        1912
Pathfinder of Panama       Church         1915
Picadore                   Coleman        1889
Piccolo Pic                Fischer        1918
Powhatan's Daughter        Church         1907
Pride of the Wolverines    Fox            1926
Ragging the Scale          Broadway       1915
Retreat                    [Manuscript]   [n.d.]
Riders for the Flag        Fox            1927
Rifle Regiment             Fischer        1886
Rondo d'Amour              [Manuscript]   [n.d.]
Sabre and Spurs            Fox            1918
Sally Trombone             Fillmore       1917
Semper Fidelis             [Coleman]      [1888]
Sesqui-Centennial          Fox            1926
  Exposition
Sextet from Lucia di       [Manuscript]   [1893]
  Lammermoor
Sextet from the Bride      [Manuscript]   [1901]
  Elect
Social Laws                [Manuscript]   [1915]
Solid Men to the Front!    Schirmer       1918
Sound Off                  Fischer        1885
Star-Spangled Banner       [Schirmer]     [1918]
Stars and Stripes Forever  Church         1897
Temptation Rag             Whitmark       1909
Thunderer                  [Coleman]      [1889]
Tone Pictures of the       Ditson         1892
  North and South
Toreadora                  Feist          1920
U.S. Field Artillery       Fischer        1918
University of Nebraska     Fox            1928
Volunteers                 Fischer        1918
Washington Post            Coleman        1889
We Are Coming              Schirmer       1918

When the Boy s Come        Flammer        1918
  Sailing Home
"The Whistlers" from       Fischer        1905
  Fruhlingsluft
Whistling Farmer Boy       Fillmore       1925
White Bird                 Harris         1916
White Plume                Church         1909
Who's Who in Navy Blue     Church         1920
With Pleasure              Church         1912
Yankee Shuffle             Moreland       1906
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Title Annotation:John Philip Sousa
Author:Cross, Jane; Warfield, Patrick
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Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 1, 2019
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