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THE COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF SOME INSECTICIDAL SPRAY SCHEDULES AGAINST COTTON JASSID ON FVH-144, COTTON.

Byline: Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, Amjed Ali, Abdul Rehman, Syed Waseem Hassan and Muhammad Usman Bashir

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present investigation was to sort out the comparative effectiveness of some insecticidal spray schedules against Cotton Jassid on FVH-144, cotton. The trial was laid out in a randomized complete block design, with five treatments having three repeats each. The different insecticides were sprayed over the crop in four installments of a fortnight apart. The comparative effectiveness of different test spray schedules against overall spray index, as well as against the individual sprays, was considered to be an indirect reflection of jassid population per leaf. All the insecticidal spray schedules tested were found to be effective against the jassid of cotton. On numerical basis, however, T4 insecticidal spray schedule Sundaphos 60 SL (methamedophos) + Talstar 10 EC (bifenate) + (cypermethrin 10 EC + monocrotophos 40 SWC) + BTM 525 EC (cyflothrin + methamidophos) [500, 250, (250 + 500), 400] (a.i.) ml/acre was found to be most efficient against cotton jassid.

Keywords: Fortnight, Installment, Numerical basis, Spray index.

INTRODUCTION.

Cotton is an important cash crop and plays an important role in agricultural, industrial and economic development of Pakistan. The area under cotton crop in Pakistan during 2010-11 was 2689 thousand hectares with production of 11460 thousand bales and average yield was 725 kg ha-1. It accounts for 6.9 % of value added in agriculture and 1.4 % of GDP, GOP, [1]. In spite of all efforts, per acre yield of cotton in our country is still low. Among various factors responsible for low yield of cotton, insect pests are the most important factors causing losses in yield Asi et al., [2].The sucking insects including jassid are more injurious to cotton and cause damage by sucking the sap from the under surface of leaves. Previous investigations about the scheduling and efficacy of different pesticides to control these pests have been conducted by various researchers (Saleem et al., [3]; Aslam et al., [4]; Khattak et al., [5]; Shah et al., [6]; Faiz et al., [7].

The present study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of spray schedule against cotton.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The trials were at Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and there were five treatments including a control, having three repeats. The spray material was prepared on V/V basis, and sprayed over the crop at an interval of fortnight starting from month of August by means of a Solo-Knapsack Sprayer. The various observations on the population of cotton jassid during the trials were kept on being taken continuously throughtout the test season. The data on the population of jassid, from each plot were recorded early in the morning one, two, three, and seven days after the application of the insecticides, from five plants, selected at random. For this purpose, one leaf each from the upper portion , from the middle portion and from lower portion, were observed for jassid population, till five plants were completed. The population data were, however, finally presented in the form of mean values separately for each repeat of various test treatments.

The comparative effectiveness of different insecticidal spray schedules against the cotton jassid was considered, to be an indirect reflection of its population. The significance of the difference in mean population of jassid was, however, sorted out through Duncan's new multiple range test as described by Duncan [8], after the analysis of variance as given by Steel et al., [9]. The information thus collected was finally presented in the form of multiple comparisons of the various parameters tested and various correlations calculated vis-avis, various BRF statistics.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 1 deals with multiple comparisons of the mean values for the population of cotton jassid after treating with four different sprays of some latest insecticidal spray schedules with that of their overall mean population per spray on FVH-144, cotton employed in the present research investigations. The data in column "A" of this table indicate that the overall effect of some latest insecticidal spray schedules on the cotton jassid, whereas those in column "B" to "E" display the individual effect of those latest insecticidal spray schedules after their application on FVH-144, cotton crop respectively. An overall perusal of the data on the mean values for the population of jassid from one treatment to another reveals a highly significant variation in them after each spray as well as that of their overall estimate.

The mean values for the overall population of cotton jassid [Table 1 (A)] in T1 and T4, where different latest insecticidal spray schedules were applied to the crop, were found to be very significantly lower to those of T5 kept as control. Similarly, the mean values for the individual population of the target pest-insect after different sprays [Table 1 (B to E)] in T1 to T4, where different insecticidal spray schedules were applied to the crop, were also significantly lower to those of T5, kept again as control. A further analysis of such situation, in all cases reveals that almost similar trends are present in the mean values from one treatment to another. On comparing the contour of changes in the overall population of cotton jassid with those in individual sprays there, however, appears to one trend in them.

Since, the comparative effectiveness of different insecticidal spray schedules against the cotton jassid was considered to be an indirect reflection of the pest-insect population per leaf (Materials and Methods), a lower mean value would reflect on a higher effectiveness or a higher (overall) toxicity of different spray schedules and vice versa. Thus the lower mean values in treatments from T1 to T4 compared with those in T5 (Control) would reflect on their killing potential against the cotton jassid. As a clear cut variation between the populations of cotton jassid from T1 to T4 suggests that all of these spray schedules were found to be nearly equi-toxic. On numerical basis, however, lower mean values in T4 which involved an application of the insecticidal spray schedule Sundaphos 60 SL

Table -1. A multiple comparison of the mean values for the population of Cotton Jassid (leaf) after four different sprays and that of their overall mean population on FVH- 144, cotton, treated with some latest insecticidal spray schedules.

Treatments###Spray Schedules of Different Treatments###Dose (a.i.)###Overall (A)###Mean Population of Cotton Jassid

###ml/acre###INDIVIDUAL SPRAY

###IST (B)###2ND (C)###3RD (D)###4TH (E)

T5###Control###000###1.243 a###1.479 a###0.917 a###0.850 a###1.688 a

T1###Azodrin 49 WSC (monocrotophos) + (cypermethrin

###10 EC+ Monocrotophos 40 SWC) + Polytrin-C 440

###EC (Cypermethrin + Profenophos) + Talstar 10 EC

###(bifenate).###500, (250 +###0.385 b###1.017 a###0.338 b###0.054 b###0.129 b

###500), 600, 250

T2###Thiodon 35 EC (endosulfon) + BTM 525 EC

###(cyflothrin + methamedophos) + Talstar 10 EC

###(bifenate) + Polytrin - C 440 EC (Cypermetrhin +

###Profenophos).###700 , 400, 250,###0.239 bc###0.446 b###0.354 b###0.063 b###0.092 b

###600

T3###Aflix 36 EC (endosulfon + dimethoate) + Polytrin -###600, 400, 250,###0.227 bc###0.421 b###0.304 b###0.109 b###0.071 b

###C 440 EC (Cypermethrin + Profenophos) + BTM###600

###525 EC (Cyflothrin + methamedophos) +

###(cypermethrin 10 EC + monocrotophos 40 SWC).###

T4###Sundaphos 60 SL (methamedophos) + Talstar 10###500, 250,###0.112 c###0.054 b###0.267 b###0.075 b###0.051 b

###EC (bifenate) + (cypermethrin 10 EC +###(250+500), 400

###monocrotophos 40 SWC) + BTM 525 EC

###(cyflothrin + methamidophos).

=Significant at 1% level. NB = Any two means not having a common superscript are significantly different from one another.

Table- 2. A correlation matrix between the Cotton Jassid (leaf) after four different sprays and that of their overall mean population of FVH-144, cotton, treated with some latest insecticidal spray schedules.

S. NO.###CHARACTERS###1###2###3###4###5

1###OVERALL###1.00000

2###1ST SPRAY###0.86012###1.00000

3###2ND SPRAY###0.94656###0.68157###1.00000

4###3RD SPRAY###0.95503###0.69041###0.96097###1.00000

5###4TH SPRAY###0.96869###0.72164###096030###0.97215 1.00000

=Significant at 1% level.

(methamedophos) + Talstar 10 EC (bifenate) + (cypermethrin 10 EC + monocrotophos 40 SWC) + BTM 525 EC (cyflothrin + methamidophos) [500, 250, (250 + 500), 400] (a.i.) ml/acre, would suggest this schedules to be most toxic to the pest compared with the other schedules against it. Thus, compare the nature of changes in the population of the pest-insect after different spray with that of its overall situation /spray schedule that appears to be only one trend. To confirm such situation, the correlation of changes, between individual sprayers as well as that of their overall reflection being discussed, was calculated and are presented in Table 2. A critical review of correlation matrix of table 2 revealed only one pattern of the changes in the population of cotton jassid, depending on their significance of the variation in this relationship. Thus, the effect of different spray schedules on the population of cotton jassid after the first, second, third and fourth spray were

REFERENCES

1. GoP. Agricultural statistics of Pakistan 2010-11, Govt. of Pakistan, Ministry of food, Agriculture and livestock, economic wing. Islamabad, Pakistan, 2011..

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4. Aslam, M., M. Razzaq, S. Rana and M. Faheem. Comparative efficacy of different insecticides against sucking pests of cotton. J. Res. Sci., 15(1): 53-58, 2004.

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CONCLUSION

On numerical basis, T4 insecticidal spray schedule Sundaphos 60 SL (methamedophos) + Talstar 10 EC (bifenate) + (cypermethrin 10 EC + monocrotophos 40 SWC) + BTM 525 EC (cyflothrin + methamidophos) [500, 250, (250 + 500), 400] (a.i.) ml/acre was found to be most efficient against cotton jassid on FVH-144, cotton.

8. bigutulla Ishida and Thrips tabaci Lindeman. Pak. J. Zool., 44(1): 277-283, 2012.

9. Duncan, D. B., Multiple ranges and multiple filed tests. Biometrics, 11: 1-42, 1955.

10. Steel, R.G.D., J.H. Torrie and D. A Dickey. Principles and procedures of statistics: A biometerical approach. 3rd ed; Megraw Hill book Co. Inc. New York. 400 p, 1997.

11. Nour-ul Hoda., A. Zidan, B. Jehan, E. Naggar, A. A. Safwat, E. Madeha and E. Dewy. Field evaluation of different pesticides against cotton bollworms and sucking insects and their side effects. J. American Sci., 8 (2): 128-136, 2012.

12. Afzal, M., Z. Ahmad and T Ahmad. The comparative efficacy of some insecticidal spray schedules against the sucking pest insects on FS-628. Pak. J. Agri., 38: 23-24, 2001.

13. Sinha, S. and R. Sharma. Utilization of some novel insecticides schedules in insect pests management of okra. Pesticides Res. J., 20(2): 234-238, 2008.

14. Tufail, M., R. Z. Mahmood and M. Razzaq. The comparative efficacy of some latest insecticidal spray schedules against the sucking pest insects of FH-682, cotton. Pak. Entomol., 17(1-2): 117-119, 1995.

15. Ali, M. R. The comparative efficacy of some insecticidal spray schedules against the sucking pest-insects of FH-682 cotton. Pak. Entomol., 15(1-2): 79-80, 1993. 1993.

University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha., 1 University of Agriculture, Faisalabad., Corresponding author Email: amjedalich@gmail.com
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Author:Zia-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ali, Amjed; Rehman, Abdul; Hassan, Syed Waseem; Bashir, Muhammad Usman
Publication:Science International
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Jun 30, 2012
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