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The Cistercians arrived in Silesia, then part of the Kingdom of Poland, in the mid-twelfth century. Located in the border area of Czech, Polish, and German lands, the region often changed its state belonging and was a territory of confessional wars and disputes. The capital of the region continues to be Wroclaw. In the years 1526-1741, Silesia belonged to the Catholic Habsburg Monarchy. In 1651, a separate Silesian province of Cistercians was formed, which included male monasteries in Lubiaz, Krzeszow, Henrykow, Kamieniec, Rudy, and Jemielnica, and a female convent in Trzebnica (1). Earlier, they belonged to the so-called Czech-Moravian-Silesian-Lusatian Vicariate (2). In the second half of the seventeenth century, after the end of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648), Cistercian monasteries flourished both economically and culturally. Temples and residences were rebuilt in the baroque style. The Cistercian artistic patronage created perfect working conditions for the best artists of this time active in Silesia. Enormous numbers of baroque works of art--the monastery church of Lubiaz alone displayed sixty paintings by Michael Willmann (1630-1706) (3--)transformed the interiors of modest medieval oratories of monastic orders into spaces for religious instruction where the visual art was aimed to complete the substance proclaimed by monks from the pulpit. The music played at liturgy, especially on feast days, was as far removed from the original Cistercian ideals of simplicity as were the interiors of the baroque-styled temples. It was complementary to the latter's splendorous decoration and served the same goal as the fine arts. When in 1741 Silesia found itself under the rule of Protestant Prussia, a gradual regression began taking place in Cistercian monasteries. Nonetheless, music there always remained at a high level. The end of Cistercian activity was brought about by the dissolution of Silesian monasteries in 1810.

The Displacement of Musical Collections and Their State of Preservation

The musical culture of the Cistercians is documented in contemporary times by liturgical books containing Gregorian monody (medieval and modern) and musical manuscripts with vocal-instrumental works used in monasteries during the eighteenth century. After the dissolution of monasteries, musical collections and monastic archives were irreversibly dispersed. The most valuable musical books and manuscripts were first transported from the monasteries to the Silesian Central Library (Schlesische Central-bibliothek) (4) in Wroclaw, while less valued books were left in place for parish use or given out to local schools or libraries. Lists of the musical materials transported from the monasteries have mostly not survived. We only know that eleven musical manuscripts and fifteen old musical prints were transported from Henrykow to Wroclaw (5); almost all survived until today. An unknown number of female Cistercian manuscripts in Trzebnica were left at the monastery for the local choir rector's use (6); today, those manuscripts are no longer in the parish, only the portion transported to Wroclaw having been preserved. Another fate was met by an enormous Cistercian musical collection in Krzeszow; only the most valuable items were transported to Wroclaw, while most musical manuscripts were left in place, where they are still kept (presently a convent of the Benedictine Nuns) (7). The musical materials gathered in Wroclaw from the closed monastic libraries were forwarded in 1814 to the library of the newly created Royal Academic Institute of Church Music (Konigliches Akademisches Institut fur Kirchenmusik) (8). In 1920, the Institute was transformed into a musicological university unit (Musikalisches Institut bei der Universitat Breslau). The effect of concentrated inventory work in the library was a publication by Ernst Kirsch in 1922 (9). It contained a history of the library and a description of the collection. The library was active until 1941, following which the collections were evacuated in fear of air strikes. After World War II, Wroclaw found itself in Polish territory. The musical collections were assumed by the Department of Musicology functioning in the already Polish University of Wroclaw. However, the unit was closed in 1951, and a year later, its collections--by decision of ministerial authorities--were shipped to the University of Warsaw Library (10). Today, monastic manuscripts are kept in the Music Department of the University of Warsaw Library. It is worth noting that non-musical old prints and manuscripts from the Cistercian monasteries of Silesia are still kept at the University of Wroclaw Library, while archival documents, mainly in Wroclaw archives (state and archidiocesan).

The aforementioned pre-World War II publication by Ernst Kirsch is on the one hand a valuable source of knowledge about the old holdings, and on the other hand, a point of departure for research into the collection of Cistercian musical materials conducted in recent years. In post-war studies, only catalogues of musical sources from the Cistercian monastery in Krzeszow have been published: musical manuscripts kept in the old abbey (along with a detailed discussion of the monastery's musical culture in the eighteenth century) (11), and compositions included in the precious collection of lute tablatures from Krzeszow, now kept at the University of Warsaw Library (also with an exhaustive discussion of repertoire) (12). My current research conducted at the University of Warsaw Library seeks to prepare the most exhaustive catalogue of Cistercian manuscripts and prints housed there. Owing to detailed sessions in the storage room (13) and provenance research focused on the respective notes and owners, as well as copyists' names, belongings to monastery holdings have been established for around seventy additional musical manuscripts, which constitutes nearly thirty percent of the Cistercian collection established until now. (See Table 1. Numerical comparison of Cistercian manuscripts.) All manuscripts have been catalogued in the RISM database.

The musical sources' state of preservation is poor; they almost entirely lack from some monasteries. In others, what survives are almost exclusively manuscripts with vocal-instrumental liturgical works, yet music was present in the monastery also outside the liturgy. The picture of Cistercian musical activity in Silesia is completed by archival sources. The order's normative texts preserved inside transmit knowledge about the binding norms and preferred type of liturgical music, as well as persons and offices responsible for them. Archival sources such as parish books and catalogues of monks transmit the forenames and surnames of persons engaged in monastic musical activity, along with temporal indications. Journals documenting the daily life of one monastery and the travels of Silesian abbots to the general chapters in Citeaux transmit information about the circumstances of musical performance and provide a testimony of the wide cultural contacts facilitating the flow of repertoire. In turn, preserved musical manuscripts transmit particular works, but seldom contain information about performance circumstances. The present article is an attempt at combining information from extant sources--both archival and musical--and showing the daily musical practice of Cistercian monasteries in Silesia.

Cistercians and Music

In keeping with the rulings of Cistercian general chapters, liturgical music was for centuries limited to Gregorian chant, as attended to by the cantor. The office remained among the more important ones in the monastery; the cantor was responsible for preparing the liturgy and singing. In documents from the entire period of monastic activity, one finds a number of cantors' names from all Silesian abbeys (14). Monks chosen for this office were as much as possible competent and gifted with a beautiful, sonorous voice, as was the cantor of the monastery in Henrykow, Father Mansuetus Lindner (1755-1825), of whom it has been written: "habuit vocem amoenissimam" (15).

A significant change was brought in the year 1486, when the Cistercian General Chapter gave permission for the use of organs during liturgy (at Mass and selected canonical hours) on Sundays and holidays, except in Lent and Advent. The organ was allowed to be played in the so-called alternatim technique, i.e., in alternation with Gregorian chant, but not to be sounded simultaneously with singing. These norms were still in effect during the second half of the seventeenth century (16). Only in the eighteenth century did the custom of simultaneous accompaniment become widespread in Cistercian monasteries. This practice is testified to by instruction-type books preserved in monasteries. They were owned by the Cistercians in Furstenzell (1724), Salem (1752), and the female Cistercians in Seligenthal (1768) (17). In Silesia, a book titled Organum chori choralis has been preserved in Krzeszow. It was written in 1756 by the proficient organist Father Eustachius Wagner (18). Yet, a permanent practice of organ accompaniment during chant was only introduced in 1770, which was noted in the monastery's chronicle (19).

However, the reception of the organ in the Cistercian Order in Silesia dates from much earlier. In the life of St. Hedwig--founder of the female Cistercian convent in Trzebnica--set down around 1300, we know that the organ was played at liturgy during canonisation solemnities in the convent on 25 August 1267. Scholars believe that it was a rather small, portable instrument (20).

Unfortunately, precise information is lacking about when the first organ was installed in the Cistercian monasteries of Silesia, but we can assume that the instrument's dissemination occurred after the General Chapter's permission for its use in 1486. Rather earlier, in 1474, an organ was built in the monastery of Rudy (21). On the basis of secondary literature (22), we know that all Cistercian monastery churches in the Silesian province (1651-1810) possessed organs. The province's creation occurred at a time of monastery rebuilding after the destruction of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648). Furnishing temples in baroque style necessitated the building of new and larger quality instruments, with prospects correspondent to interior decoration. Cistercians employed renowned organ masters as much as possible, sometimes even turning a blind eye to their different religious beliefs (23).

Archival documents note several organists' names, both monks and laypeople. Beginning in the second half of the seventeenth century, Cistercian monasteries of Silesia employed laypersons in this position. Organists sometimes possessed their own instruments and musical collections. Andreas Heusler (d. 1646), an organist in Lubiaz, transmitted in testament his own regal and positive organs, as well as the complete musical materials (non-extant today) (24). In modern times, partial collections after the following organists have been preserved: Gedeon Riedel (25), employed in Trzebnica as the organist and choir rector, his predecessor Carl Wilhelm Sedlack (26), and Carl Joseph Sedlack from Old Henrykow (27), as well as Friedrich Wagner (28), employed in Henrykow in the years ca. 1767-1795 (29).

Although the Cistercians employed organists, their ranks included many who could play the instrument; in Henrykow those known for their abilities were Father Andreas Alt (1650-1688), originating from Broumov (30), and Father Georg Fischer (ca. 1688-1717) from Ziebice (31), as well as Father Nicolaus Falck (1716-1769), originating from Kamieniec Zabkowicki (32). In Lubiaz, in the second half of the eighteenth century, two monks played on the organ: Father Sigismundus Kraus (ca. 1728-1792) from Kamieniec Zabkowicki (33) and Father Edmundus Schrotter (c. 1713-1785) from Legnica (34). In Jemielnica, Father Vincentius Wieliczka (1759-1821) (35), was distinguished in organ playing, and in Rudy, Father Peter Paulus Opperskalski (1730-1796) (36), as well as Father Emanuel Schirmeisen (1757-1818) (37), who was organist at the Dominicans' in Opawa before joining the monastery. In Krzeszow, an excellent organist was Father Eustachius Wagner (d. 1782) (38). Organ playing was not limited to choir monks; in the seventeenth century, documentation in Kamieniec indicates organist Brother Elias Beckerdt (17th c.) (39), was a lay brother.

Organ-playing monks filled the monastic functions of cantors and regents of the choir. Their abilities would also be used in lower-ranking events held at the monastery. Unfortunately, organ music performed in Silesian Cistercian monasteries has not survived.

The third and latest musical office (after the cantor and organist) introduced by the Cistercians was the function of regens chori figuralis--director of the musical choir performing figural music, i.e., other than Gregorian chant, thus polyphonic, vocal-instrumental, and instrumental music. The positions' institution answered to a long-time musical practice that had already diverged from monastic rule. In the second half of the seventeenth century, the Cistercian General Chapter upheld its prohibition of figural music in liturgy, while indicating Gregorian monody as the sole proper liturgical music (40).

Despite this regulation, figural music played an increasing role in the life of individual monasteries. The only testimony to those transformations in many Cistercian centres in seventeenth-century Silesia, given the lack of surviving musical sources, remain inscriptions of normative nature, prohibiting the introduction of musical "novelties" into liturgy, or allowing them under well-defined circumstances. Already in 1570, the inspector to the Cistercian monastery in Krzeszow set down a total prohibition of instrumental music performance (41). More than half a century later (1628) in Henrykow, figural music was permitted at Eucharist in the most important holidays; conventional Mass would however be necessarily sung in chant (42). But in the late seventeenth century, it was not possible to scrupulously fulfill those rulings. The powerful need for theatralisation and acting on the senses in baroque culture intruded not only into the principles of monastic interiors' modest decoration, but also the liturgy, whose essential mode of expression was music. Gregorian chant, particularly on holidays, gathering the faithful, made way for vocal-instrumental music, more suitable for public ceremonies in the new baroque interiors.

A compromise solution, allowing both to keep the prescriptions of the rule, and perform polyphonic music, was to first hold a Mass with chant, and only then a solemn one, with figural music. Such practice was permitted during an inspection of the Silesian province in 1683 by the Vicar General, Abbot of Krzeszow, Bernard Rosa, who wrote: "Since song other than chant is prohibited by the General Chapter, let there henceforth never be a main Mass with it on holidays, without an earlier Mass chanted by all, so that the responsibility to the rule be fulfilled (43). Abbot Rosa's recommendations on music were aimed at reconciling the Cistercian General Chapter's prohibitions, and the already old practice of figural music in Silesian Cistercian centres.

Musical manuscripts with figural music in seventeenth-century monastic use have not survived, and their inventories have not been found (44). Today, information about collections lost to modern times comes from Lubiaz and Rudy. As remarked above, the monastery in Lubiaz received musical materials after the organist Andreas Heusler, who died in 1646. In turn, a note in Rudy informs us that musical materials and instruments were obtained for the monastery by Father Augustinus Alberti (1650-1736) (45). Information about the musical activity of Silesian Cistercians is found in chronicles, catalogues of monks, and registers of the deceased. Friedrich Lucae mentions in his chronicle that in 1673, he participated in a festival Mass held in Lubiaz by the abbot to the sound of trumpets and timpani (46). In Henrykow, at least two monks excelled on the trumpet: Father Georgius Hocke (d. 1679) and Father Guillelmus Rotter (d. 1680) (47); another fine musician was Father Alanus Vogt (d. 1685) (48), a monk who for several years stayed in the monastery of Krzeszow, returning to Henrykow in 1677. Lay brothers were also occupied with music in Rudy, e.g., Josephus Plaschke (d. 1680) (49), and Melchior Wenger (vows ca. 1683-d. before 1704), who besides being a musician was also a composer (50). The best-known Cistercian from Jemielnica was Abbot and composer Johannes Nucius (1556-1620). Another abbot of this monastery, Father Martin Versius (17th c.) (51), was a singer and instrumentalist; also distinguished in music was Prior Ludwig Bergel (d. 1673) (52). Two musician monks from this monastery added splendour in Gliwice to the First Mass held in 1702 by Canon Josef Jacob Ignaz, Count Paczynski of Tenczyn (53). In Rudy, Father Robert Brzezansky and others were proficient in music; in 1701, the former taught music to the Norbertines of Czarnowasy (54). In some monasteries, mention of lay musicians have been preserved (55). Connected in this capacity with Lubiaz was Michael Damell (d. 1633) (56), and with Henrykow, Joannes Schwartz (d. 1611) (57), an instrumentalist musician. The custom of employing external lay musicians for the more important solemn occasions is testified in the eighteenth century's first quarter in the monastery of Rudy (58).

A testimony of figural music becoming established in practice is the new monastic office connected with polyphonic and vocal-instrumental music. From the second half of the seventeenth century, monks in the Cistercian monasteries of Silesia were designated to lead the chapel ensemble. This function was termed regens chori figuralis; initially, the name cantor figuralis was also used. The first distinction between the two types of ensemble is found in a biographical note on the monk, Father Elias Tschope from Henrykow, who died in 1681: "Father Elias Tschope from Ladek, monk and priest, a very hardworking man, primary musician with a superb voice, tireless cantor both in chant and figural music, and until recently a pious sermoniser, died in his youth" (59). In the remaining monasteries, the first noted regents of chapel ensembles were monks living at the turn of the eighteenth century (60). Rather often in the early eighteenth century, both functions--cantor and regens chori figuralis--were entrusted to one monk. In documents, he was referred to as a director of both choirs--regens utriusque chori or cantor utriusque chori--chant and figural. This double function was filled, for example, by Caspar Raff (1683-1738) (61), Amandus Heinisch (1663-1722) (62), Balthasar Seyler (1680-1720) (63) in Lubiaz, Florianus Mitschke (1716-1760) (64) in Jemielnica, and Augustinus Alberti (1650-1736) (65) in Rudy. Monks filling both functions were responsible for the entirety of music performed in the monastery: chant and vocal-instrumental music, music connected with the Mass, the Liturgy of the Hours, and accompanying important monastic events, such as monks' vows, First Masses, selections of consecutive abbots, funerals of monks, and music accompanying other religious services, recreation, and guest visits.

Musical Practice in the Silesian Cistercian Province in the Eighteenth Century

A unique source allowing a glimpse into the everyday musical practice in the monastery is a journal from the monastery of Rudy in the years 1716-1746 (66). Sadly, no similar source has survived from any other monastery, but the musical manuscripts originating there are convergent with the practice described in the Journal of the Monastery in Rudy. Daily liturgy in the monastery of Rudy was read or chanted with organ. Solemn occasions and holidays featured the performance of figural music; the sole musical testimony of this practice is a manuscript with a vocal-instrumental setting of the ordinarium of the Mass by Joseph Porsch (67). Masses are also found in the collections of remaining monasteries, but only in several cases is the liturgical designation of the work noted on the title page. Compositions survive that are designated for the feast days of St. Bernard of Clairveaux, St. Joseph (patron of brotherhoods active in Cistercian monasteries gathering populous believers), St. Charles Borromeo, Saints Philip and James the Apostles, and Saints Fabian and Sebastian. Furthermore, the Journal of the Monastery in Rudy notes a range of other solemnly celebrated holidays--besides those mentioned above--which used figural music, including St. Matthew's (25 February), St. Benedict's (21 March), St. Stephen Harding's (16 July), St. Mary Magdalene's (22 July), St. Matthias' (4 October), All Saints' (1 November), St. Martin's (12 November), St. Cecilia's (22 November), St. Barbara's (4 December), and St. Thomas' (21 December). Easter and Corpus Christi were celebrated in Rudy with the utmost solemnity. In the monastery of Lubiaz the beautiful music accompanying this occasion enchanted Christian Weiss on his travels through Silesia in 1794 (68). Oftentimes, the pages of the Rudy journal note a figural music performance of the Vespers. This is also how Vespers were celebrated in Trzebnica, as testified by two fully-extant cycles of this service (69), and in Lubiaz as well as Henrykow, where settings of Psalm 110 and the Magnificat are preserved (70). The monastic journal also describes the practice of combining chant singing with figural music performance during a single liturgy (71). In such cases, an opening instrumental work was performed--a so-called intrada with trumpets and timpani--followed by vocal-instrumental singing in the Offertory, after the Elevation and Agnus Dei, while the remaining parts of the Mass were chanted. Musical manuscripts containing offertories and motets performed in the same place, have been preserved in especially large numbers in Lubiaz and Trzebnica. These are various compositions, ranging from single- to multi-sectional works with a cantata architecture. Serving as examples are the oldest manuscripts from Lubiaz copied by Regent Caspar Raff (1683-1738), with offertories by Italian composers such as Nicola Fago (1677-1745), Francesco Feo (1691-1761), Francesco Mancini (1672-1737), and Domenico Natale Sarri (1679-1744) (72). For Trzebnica, a rather large number of offertories by Czech composers were copied, including music by Frantisek Xaver Brixi (1732-1771), and in particular, Joannes Lohelius (1724-1788). Following the Agnus Dei, i.e., during Communion (but also in the place of the Gradual), arias designed for solo voices were performed; in the eighteenth century, these were quite often contrafacta of operatic arias by the most popular composers active in European courts. In the Lubiaz collection, nearly half of the preserved repertoire are such contrafacta, mainly by Johann Adolf Hasse (1699-1783) and Carl Heinrich Graun (1703-1759), as well as other composers.

Yet, no transmissions of instrumental intradas exist today. Perhaps this term concealed instrumental pieces, sonatas, or symphonies; genres which are also not extant from Cistercian collections presently kept at the University of Warsaw Library. A manuscript with the symphony of an unidentified composer by the name of Franz Faber with a provenance note from the monastery of Rudy is found in the Paulines' collection in Czestochowa (73). However, a number of symphonies have been preserved in Krzeszow (74). Instrumental works may also have been performed outside the liturgy, during recreation or guest visits. The inventory of the Cistercians in Osek dated to 1706 lists instrumental works in the group "Taffel-Musik" (75).

At the end of the day, Cistercian monks sung the antiphon Salve regina at the Liturgy of the Hours, the extant musical manuscripts transmitting a number of this antiphon's vocal-instrumental settings from the monasteries of Lubiaz, Jemielnica, Rudy, Trzebnica, and Krzeszow.

Besides at Mass and the Liturgy of the Hours--especially Vespers--vocal-instrumental music was performed at various types of services; musical settings of the Loreto, Sacred Heart of Jesus, and St. John Nepomucene litanies have been preserved in collections from Lubiaz (76), Trzebnica (77), and Kamieniec (78). A catalogue of manuscripts preserved in Krzeszow lists, in addition to the above, litanies to St. Anne, St. Joseph, St. Mary Magdalene, and the Blessed Sacrament (79). They were performed on the liturgical feast day of the given saint, e.g., in Rudy, a vocal-instrumental litany on the feast of St. Cecilia, patron of music, preceded by an instrumental intrada (80). A very solemn litany to St. John Nepomucene was performed in Rudy in 1731; as many as ten violinists participated in the event (81). Moreover, the Journal of the Monastery of Rudy notes litanies performed at wedding ceremonies of the local aristocracy (82) and at burials (83), as well as a visit by the Bishop of Wroclaw (84).

In contrast to the Eucharist and Liturgy of the Hours, where the compulsory language was Latin, other services allowed the use of musical works in vernacular languages, surviving musical sources also transmitting works in German. These were most often arias destined for Advent, Christmas, and Lent. An example is Caspar Raff's Cantus Eucharisticus, an aria composed in Lubiaz, available for performance, e.g., during the exposition of the Holy Sacrament (85). The tradition of performing oratorios at the Tomb of the Lord was linked to the time of Paschal Triduum. An oratorio with a German text has survived in Lubiaz (86), with a Latin text in Jemielnica (87), and in Krzeszow, with both compositional varieties (88). Christmas oratorios were also performed here (89).

Another Christmastime tradition was the singing of carols. The only trace of this practice are inscriptions in the Journal of the Monastery of Rudy, where carolling at the monastery was done to the accompaniment of various instruments, often during mealtime (90). In Lubiaz, a composition with the text of the antiphon Nolite timere has survived (91). The text is drawn directly from the second chapter of the Gospel According to Luke (Shepherds at the Cradle, verses 9-14). The piece is designed for two choirs, while the names of characters--"Angelus 1mi chori", "Angelus altero choro"--suggest there may have been roles performed. Most likely, the music served to dramatise a Nativity play (praesepium). It is the only trace of this practice in musical sources from Lubiaz.

Music also accompanied various moments of monastic life. A ceremony lasting several days after an abbot's death, and the selection of a new one, has been recorded in the Journal of the Monastery of Rudy (92). Several instances of Requiem Masses at this time were solemnly celebrated with figural music. During the vote and elections, a votive Mass to the Holy Spirit was held--as duly written down--"with trumpets and timpani". In Rudy, the anniversary of choosing a new abbot was always festively celebrated with figural music, or with chant and instrumental intradas. The performance of figural music at Requiem Masses is testified by surviving musical sources in Henrykow, Trzebnica, and Krzeszow. This type of Mass was also sung for the departed from outside the monastery, such as benefactors of the order and members of the local aristocracy.

Especially festive celebrations in the monasteries were held yearly on the name days of superiors, in connection with the liturgical memorial of their patron saint. On such occasions, superiors from other monasteries were invited. The celebration began with liturgy, followed by a less formal meeting, with music sometimes composed specially for it. Silesian Cistercians would also receive invitations to the name days of befriended abbots; e.g., in 1768, the abbots of Henrykow and Rudy, present on the name day of the Benedictine monastery abbot in Broumov and Brevnov, Friedrich Grundmann, listened to Frantisek Xaver Brixi's cantata Corona dignitatis senectus (93). A testimony of festively celebrated name days in the Cistercian female convent of Trzebnica are six manuscripts with dedications offered on the occasion of Abbess Bernarda Paczynska's name day (94) (Figure 1). The donors were monastery choir rectors. The musical sources originate in the years 1767-1789, each containing a Mass for St. Bernard's Day.

After the festive liturgy, the guests were treated with a meal, during which music was often performed, usually cantatas in the specific genre of applausus musicus or congratulatory cantata (95). This type of composition was also performed at other occasions. Detailed descriptions survive of celebrations held in Trzebnica in 1803 on the monastery's 600th Jubilee, and in 1805 on the 50th Jubilee of Abbess Dominika von Gillern's monastic vows (96). Music played an important role in both events. German lyrics have survived from a cantata performed in 1803 (97). Two compositions in this genre have been preserved in musical sources of the Silesian Cistercians. The first cantata was probably composed in the monastery of Jemielnica for the abbot's name day; however, the lacking title page prevents a reconstruction of the circumstances of its performance. The Latin text refers directly to the monastery of Jemielnica and its superior. It is a typical congratulatory cantata (98). The second work was composed in Lubiaz in 1744 for Abbot Constantin Beyer (99). Its Latin text is strongly set in the realities of the monastic life, and the humorous plot makes direct reference to the theme of music and the ensemble active in Lubiaz.

After prayer and work, the monks had time for rest. Recreation would be accompanied by music, both instrumental and vocal accompanied by an instrument. Monks in Rudy also made music during free time outdoors, e.g., recreation in the forest (100), accompanied by music on the flute. Even when they spent time farther away, they would bring instruments to their country house (101).

It is not surprising that music was, in addition, a special way of paying respect to guests visiting the monastery. The journal often notes home concerts given on visits by various persons, particularly the local aristocracy, sometimes connected to the monks by common interests (102). Among them, Baron Carl Friedrich von Reiswitz possessed his own chapel ensemble, which he would sometimes bring to the monastery; one time, his organist was invited to play in the monastery when the musician employed by the Cistercians was too inebriated to play (103). A brief mention also exists about Cistercian concerts in Lubiaz (104). Monks in Rudy hosted both laypersons and other monks. Each solemn feast (e.g., St. Joseph's, St. Bernard's, and others) gathered many guests there, when external musicians were employed from several nearby communities. It seems that in the baroque era, each occasion, whether religious or not, was appropraite to celebrate with music; for example, a week after the truce that followed the Austro-Turkish War on 28 July 1718, the Cistercians in Rudy note a "joyful day" expressed by play on trumpets, timpani, and other instruments, due not only to the peace with the Turks, but also the birth of aforementioned Baron Reiswitz's son (105).

The Journal of the Monastery of Rudy is a unique source that shows the monastery as more than a place for contemplation and prayer; it also pictures a centre brimming with life, whose inhabitants--owing to the religious order's community and pastoral work, as well as economic and religious matters--lived in unity with fellow brothers in the Cistercian province and with local communities. The monks were in constant motion, always travelling to other monasteries, subordinated parishes, befriended local residences and homes. The reason for some travels were the musical abilities they possessed; e.g., Father Robert from Rudy was asked to add his forces to Baron Welczek's chapel ensemble in Labedy (106).

The life led by monks in Rudy was similar to monks in other abbeys; all Silesian Cistercian monasteries had large possessions and households, as well as numerous contacts in local communities. All those connections build a map of the monastery's cultural contacts. Musical sources very seldom transmit information, such as that found in a Lubiaz manuscript: "This Mass for the Lubiaz choir was copied by Father Augustinus Bissek, a monk from Jemielnica, subprior, cantor and regens chori there, in the year 1781" (107). Thus, the map of contacts shows, on the one hand, the area of the monastery's influence, and on the other, the potential places for obtaining repertoire for its chapel ensemble.

However, owing to its membership in the European community of religious orders, monasteries of the Silesian province could also seek inspiration in distant and well-known Cistercian monasteries. Occasions for sharing experiences were the abbots' travels to Cistercian chapters in the order's main abbey in Citeaux, France, where the Cistercians traveled nine times during the province's existence (108). Detailed journals have survived from travels undertaken in the year 1699 by Lubiaz Abbot Ludwik Bauch with subprior Martin, the Abbot of Rudy Bernard Czernek with his secretary Jozef Strachwitz, and in 1768 by Abbot Constantin Haschke from Henrykow and his secretary Father Bartolo-maeus Sedlack, as well as Abbot of Rudy Augustin Renner.

The voyage from Rudy to Citeaux took three months (the way back was one month). The itinerary led through important cultural centres (also political and commercial) (109). The monks usually stayed overnight in monasteries. In 1768, the route from Rudy led through Silesian abbeys in Henrykow, Kamieniec, Bardo, and Krzeszow. The delegation there was entertained three days, owing to the installation of a new abbot. On the second day of the celebrations, an opera was staged, while on the third day, the chapter-bound delegation was bid goodbye with another composition (110). It is worth mentioning that the sole surviving "musical" source linked to the installation of a new abbot in Silesia is circumstantial, a printed libretto from the installation of Abbot Lucas Springer in Lubiaz in 1769 (111). I shall further list only the most prominent places to which visits were paid. In Prague, the Cistercians from Rudy met with the Benedictine abbot of Brevnov, where they dined to a musical concert (and on the return trip, musicians were called upon from Prague to perform a concert for them) (112). After touring the Prague Cathedral, in the bishop's residence they partook of a meal with the superiors of the greatest Prague monasteries (Knights of the Cross with the Red Star, Canons Regular of the Lateran, Premostratensians, and Benedictines) where chapels were active. A longer, three-day stop was made in the Cistercian monastery in Plasy. Here, the monks participated in a solemn Palm Sunday liturgy. Easter was spent by the Cistercians of Rudy and Henrykow with the brothers' in Waldsassen. The journal includes a lengthy description of the Triduum Paschal liturgy, indicating which parts were read, which sung, those performed only with the organ, and those with other instruments (113). Similar remarks about music were made on the return trip in the Cistercian monastery in Lucelle; it was noted that vocal-instrumental music was performed there only by the monks (114). However, the biggest impression was made by the Cistercian monastery in Salem, with the journal recognising its monastic discipline and the exceptional musical skills of the monks. The guest meals were accompanied by music on the trumpets, timpani, and other instruments (115). The situation was similar in the Cistercian monastery in Zbraslav (116).

During the long voyage, visits were also made to monasteries of other orders and to major cities, where purchases were made in transit (117). The climax of the trip was of course Citeaux. The visit there usually lasted around two weeks. The time was divided between council and liturgy. Everything was described in great detail in travel journals. The observations served as a point of reference for the home practice of musical liturgy (118).

In travel journals, the Silesian Cistercians always praised the abbots' hospitality in acquainting their guests with monasteries, scriptoriums, and libraries, as well as preparing supper with music that lasted into the night. The hosts also helped in practical matters, such as borrowing horses or purchasing food supplies. This helped to build friendly relations among the abbots. The travels were opportunities for observation of the home musical practice of the hosts', enriching the travellers' knowledge and serving the exchange of information and experiences. The Cistercians returned from travel with various kinds of purchases and gifts, among which we cannot exclude manuscripts and musical prints.

The travels described in the journals are proof of the extended cultural contacts of Silesian Cistercians, while the preserved manuscripts are a direct testimony of the rich musical practice in the monasteries. They were comprised of both the local, nearby Silesian traditions, and the order's musical culture in Europe.

Translated by Maksymilian Kapelanski

English Abstract

In 1651, the Silesian Cistercian province was formed, including six male monasteries (Lubiaz, Krzeszow, Henrykow, Kamieniec Zabkowicki, Rudy, and Jemielnica), and a female one (Trzebnica). Until 1742, the province found itself on the lands of the Catholic Habsburg Monarchy, and subsequently, in Protestant Prussia. Cistercian monasteries were the mainstay of the Catholic Church in disputed lands and during religious wars; under Prussian rule they underwent an economic regression, but until their dissolution in 1810, music was maintained at a high level. This article presents an overview of the extant, but institutionally dispersed collections of Silesian Cistercians. On this basis, and with attention to standard texts of the order and local archival sources, a picture of musical culture in the years 1651-1810 emerges. The people responsible for music in monasteries are presented, especially the office of regens chori figuralis. An overview of musical ensembles in monasteries--whose members were monks or laymen, depending on the condition of the establishment--is given, based on the background of Cistercian ensembles from outside the province.

A short discussion of the extant repertoire will serve to outline everyday musical practice. Music was present not only during the liturgy (everyday, holiday, or linked with important monasterial events, such as name days of abbots), but also at guest visits and recreation, sometimes held outdoors. This article demonstrates how the Silesian province monasteries are viewed as part of the wider European monastic community. The inspiration for the study of Silesian Cistercians, also in the realm of music, were travels to general chapters, during which many monasteries and churches were visited.

French Abstract

En 1651, fut fondee la communaute cistercienne silesienne, comprenant six monasteres masculins (Lubiaz, Krzeszow, Henrykow, Kamieniec Zabkowicki, Rudy et Jemielnica) et un monastere feminin (Trzebnica). Jusqu'en 1742, la province se trouvait sur les terres de la monarchie catholique des Habsbourg, puis par la suite, de la Prusse protestante. Les monasteres cisterciens etaient le pilier de l'Eglise catholique dans des pays en conflit et lors des guerres de religion; sous la domination prussienne, malgre une regression economique, la musique fut maintenue a un niveau eleve, jusqu'a leur dissolution en 1810. Cet article presente un apercu de l'ampleur des collections cisterciennes de Silesie, dispersees dans differentes institutions. Sur cette base, et en etudiant les textes standard de l'ordre et les sources d'archives locales, emerge un tableau de la culture musicale des annees 1651-1810. Les personnalites responsables de la musique dans les monasteres sont mises en avant, en particulier celles de l'office du Regens chori figuralis. Nous dressons un panorama des ensembles musicaux dans les monasteres - dont les membres etaient soit des moines soit des laiques, selon les conditions de l'etablissement--base sur le contexte des ensembles musicaux cisterciens de l'exterieur de la province.

Une breve discussion sur le repertoire existant servira a souligner les pratiques musicales quotidiennes. La musique etait presente non seulement pendant la liturgie (quotidienne, jours saints ou en relation avec les evenements importants des monasteres, tels le jour de la fete des abbes), mais egalement lors de visites d'invites et de loisirs, parfois interpretee en plein air. Cet article montre comment les monasteres de la province silesienne sont consideres comme faisant partie de la communaute monastique europeenne au sens large. Des sejours dans les chapitres generaux, au cours desquels de nombreux monasteres et eglises ont ete visites, ont inspire cette etude des moines cisterciens silesiens, domaine musical compris.

German Abstract

Die schlesische Zisterzienserprovinz, bestehend einem Frauen- und sechs Mannerklostern (Lubiaz, Krzeszow, Henrykow, Kamieniec Zabkowicki, Rudy, und Jemielnica), wurde im Jahr 1651 gegrundet. Bis 1742 gehorte die Provinz zum katholischen Gebiet der Habsburger und ging anschliessend ans protestantische Preussen. Zisterzienserkloster waren die Stutze der katholischen Kirche in umstrittenen Gebieten und wahrend der Religionskriege. Zwar unterlagen diese unter preussischer Herrschaft wirtschaftlichen Einschrankungen, aber trotzdem wurde die Musik auf hohem Niveau gehalten, bis es im Jahr 1810 zur Auflosung der Kloster kam. Der Aufsatz gibt einen Uberblick uber die noch bestehenden, aber uber diverse Institutionen verstreuten Bestande aus den schlesischen Zisterzienserklostern. Auf dieser Grundlage sowie unter Berucksichtigung der Standardtexte des Ordens wie auch lokaler Archivquellen entsteht ein Bild der Musikkultur der Jahre von 1651 bis 1810. Die fur die Musik in den Klostern verantwortlichen Personen, insbesondere das Amt des regens chori figuralis, werden vorgestellt. Vor dem Hintergrund zisterziensischer Ensembles ausserhalb der Provinz gibt der Text einen Uberblick uber die Musikensembles in den Klostern, deren Mitglieder, abhangig von den Bedingungen der jeweiligen Einrichtung, Monche oder Laien waren. Mittels einer kurzen Erorterung des noch vorhandenen Repertoires wird die tagliche Musikpraxis skizziert. Musik war nicht nur wahrend der liturgischen Handlungen gegenwartig (taglich, feiertags oder auch in Verbindung mit wichtigen Ereignissen des Klosters wie z. B. Namenstagen der Abte), sondern auch wenn Besucher kamen oder zur Erholung; sie wurde auch im Freien gespielt. Der Aufsatz stellt dar, wie die Kloster der schlesischen Provinz als Teil einer grosseren, europaischen Klostergemeinschaft betrachtet wurden. Inspiration fur die Untersuchung des Musiklebens der schlesischen Zisterzienser waren Reisen zu den Domkapiteln, die auch Besuche von Klostern und Kirchen beinhalteten.

Ewa Hauptmann-Fischer works in Music Department of the University of Warsaw Library, cataloging early Silesian music documents for the International Inventory of Musical Sources (RISM). She studied musicology at the University of Warsaw and graduated in 2003 with an MA thesis entitled 'Eighteenth-Century Music of the Cistercian abbey in Pelplin: The Catalogue and a Review of the Collection' (published in Studia Pelplinskie 37 [2006]: 13-180). Currently Ms. Hauptmann-Fischer is working on her Ph.D. thesis on the music culture of the Cistercians in Silesia in the eighteenth century. Her main field of interest are studies in sources, particularly monastic collections.

(1.) Anna Galar, W europejskiej wspolnocie cysterskiej: udzial cystersow z historycznych ziem polskich w Kapitulach Generalnych w Citeaux (XII-XVIII w.). Cistercium Mater Nostra, Studia et documenta, 2 (Krakow: Societas Vistulana, 2014), 361.

(2.) Ibid., 360.

(3.) Andrzej Koziel, "Doskonala szkola malarstwa czyli slow kilka o zespole obrazow Michaela Willmanna z dawnego kosciola klasztornego cystersow w Lubiazu", in Opactwo cystersow w Lubiazu i artysci, ed. Andrzej Koziel (Wroclaw: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wroclawskiego, 2008), 243.

(4.) Agnieszka Drozdzewska, Zycie muzyczne na Uniwersytecie Wroclawskim w XIX i w I polowie XX wieku: edukacja muzyczna--dzialalnos c naukowa--ruch koncertowy. Musicologica Wratislaviensia, 7 (Wroclaw: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wroclawskiego, 2012), 49, 273. In 1811, a commission was called for this purpose under the direction of Johann Gustav Gottlieb Busching.

(5.) Johann Gustav Gottlieb Busching, Acta manualia die Uebernahme der Bibliotheken, Kunstsammlungen & Archive in den aufgehobenen Klostern Schlesiens betreffend, PL-WRu, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark IV F 267, vol. 5, 58-59.

(6.) Helena Szwejkowska, Biblioteka klasztoru cystersek w Trzebnicy. Slaskie Prace Bibliograficzne i Bibliotekoznawcze, 1 (Wroclaw: Zaklad Narodowy im. Ossolinskich, 1955), 80.

(7.) Rudolf Walter, Musikgeschichte des Zisterzienserklosters Grussau: von Anfang des 18. Jahrhunderts bis zur Aufhebung im Jahre 1810. Musik des Ostens, 15 (Kassel, New York: Barenreiter, 1996), 72.

(8.) Agnieszka Drozdzewska, Zycie muzyczne na Uniwersytecie Wroclawskim, 49.

(9.) Ernst Kirsch, Die Bibliothek des Musikalischen Instituts bei der Universitat Breslau. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis von dem Anteil Schlesiens an den musikalischen Stromungen des 16.-18. Jahrhunderts, (Breslau: Hunds-felder Stadblatt, 1922).

(10.) Agnieszka Drozdzewska, Zycie muzyczne na Uniwersytecie Wroclawskim, 286.

(11.) Rudolf Walter, Musikgeschichte des Zisterzienserklosters Grussau.

(12.) Grzegorz Joachimiak, "Rekopismienne tabulatury z I polowy XVIII wieku ze zbiorow cystersow z Krzeszowa. Repertuar--praktyka wykonawcza--mecenat artystyczny" (Ph.D. diss., Uniwersytet Wroclawski, 2016).

(13.) The storage session was conducted as part of the project "Dziedzictwo kulturowe po klasztorach skasowanych na ziemiach dawnej Rzeczypospolitej oraz na Slasku w XVIII i XIX w.: losy, znaczenie, inwentaryzacja" [Cultural Legacy of the Monasteries dissolved in the former Polish Commonwealth and in Silesia during the 18th and 19th centuries: the fate, importance, inventory"] (11H 11 021280), realised in the Minister of Science and Higher Education program titled "Narodowy Program Rozwoju Humanistyki" [National Program for the Develop ment of Humanities] in the years 2012-2016.

(14.) Lists of cantors, regents, organists, and other musicians are planned as appendices to the forthcoming catalogue.

(15.) H-Bn, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark Fol Lat 4266, f. 56 r.

(16.) Rituale Cisterciense (Paris, 1689), 26-28. (Chapter XIV De Organis).

(17.) A number of such books have appeared in print, cf. Rudolf Walter, Musikgeschichte des Zisterzienserklosters Grussau, 28.

(18.) Eustachius Wagner, Organum Chori Choralis, 1756, PL-WRu Music Department, shelf mark Akc, 1994/84.

(19.) Rudolf Walter, Musikgeschichte des Zisterzienserklosters Grussau, 26.

(20.) Rudolf Walter, "Zur Geschichte der schlesischen Orgelmusik", in: Geistliche Musik in Schlesien, ed. Lothar Hoffmann-Erbrecht (Dulmen: Laumann-Verlag, 1988), 36-37.

(21.) Ludwig Burgemeister, Der Orgelbau in Schlesien (Frankfurt am Main: Verlag Wolfgang Weidlich, 1973), 19.

(22.) Cf. entries having to do with the particular monasteries in Schlesisches Musiklexikon, ed. Lothar Hoffmann-Erbrecht (Augsburg: Wissner, 2001). See also Ludwig Burgemeister, Der Orgelbau in Schlesien (Frank furt am Main: Verlag Wolfgang Weidlich, 1973); Rudolf Walter, "Zur Geschichte der schlesischen Orgelmusik"; Wilhelm Pfitzner, Versuch einer Geschichte des vormaligen Furstl. Cisterzienser-Stiftes Heinrichau bei Munsterberg in Schlesien (Breslau, 1846), 165; Gregor Fromrich, Kurze Geschichte der ehemaligen Cistercienser Abtey Kamenz in Schlesien (Glatz, 1817), 117; August Potthast, Geschichte der ehemaligen Cistercienserabtei Rauden in Oberschlesien: Festgabe zur sechsten Sacularfeier ihrer Grundung (Lobschutz: Verlag von Rudolf Bauer, 1858), 78.

(23.) For example, the Lutheran Michael Engler the Younger built organs for the Cistercians in Krzeszow, cf. Marcin Zglinski, Nowozytny prospekt organowy i jego tworcy (Warszawa: Instytut Sztuki Polskiej Akademii Nauk, 2012), 341.

(24.) "Item obiit Andreas Heusler organista lubensis ao 1646, qui dedit regale, positivum et omnia sua musicalia", cf. PL-WRu, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark IV F 214, f. 62 v, cf. Rudolf Walter, "Leubus, Zisterzienserkloster", in Schlesisches Musiklexikon, 421. Mind the erroneous death date (1746).

(25.) Nearly all manuscripts obtained from Trzebnica are signed with Riedel's name or his monogram.

(26.) PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 4458. More on this organist and other members of his family employed by the Cistercians may be found in Ewa Hauptman-Fischer, "Regens chori figuralis Caspar Raff (1683-1738)", Muzyka 1 (2018): 48-74, at 52.

(27.) PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 4343, RM 4604.

(28.) PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 4482.

(29.) PL-WRk, shelf mark 80c, Book of Weddings from St. Andrew's Parish in Henrykow, 24; PL-WRk, shelf mark 80c, Book of Baptisms from St. Andrew's Parish in Henrykow, 66, 74, 75, 171; PL-WRk, shelf mark 80d, Book of Baptisms from St. Andrew's Parish in Henrykow [unnumbered page] inscriptions under the following dates (day/month/year): 3.08.1768, 12.11.1771, 10.12.1771, 20.03.1772, 6.03.1774, 29.08.1778, 16.07.1780; PLWRk, shelf mark 80e, Book of Baptisms from St. Andrew's Parish in Henrykow [unnumbered page] inscriptions under the dates 9.08.1781, 21.09.1783, 25.08.1792, 29.03.1794, 8.09.1795.

(30.) H-Bn, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark Fol Lat 4246, f. 3 r, H-Bn, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark Fol Lat 4266, f. 10 r.

(31.) H-Bn, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark Fol Lat 4246, f. 15 v, H-Bn, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark Fol Lat 4266, f. 17 v, Rudolf Walter, "Heinrichau, Zisterzienserstift", in: Schlesisches Musiklexikon, 267.

(32.) H-Bn, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark Fol Lat 4266, f. 23 v; Rudolf Walter, "Heinrichau, Zisterzienserstift", in: Schlesisches Musiklexikon, 267; Kornel Bardos, "Zum Musikleben in Zirz im 18. Jahrhundert", Analecta Cisterciensia 38 (1982), 76-99, at 86.

(33.) Nomina Fratrum Lubensium PL-WRk, shelf mark V 5, [unnumbered page]; Rudolf Walter, "Leubus, Zisterzienserkloster", in: Schlesisches Musiklexikon, 421, name given without birth or death date.

(34.) "Organaeda ritus antiqui", cf. Nomina Fratrum Lubensium, PL-WRk, shelf mark V 5 [unnumbered page]. This phrase refers to the old manner of playing; perhaps the issue is an inability to accompany chant, which was the only significant novelty in the Cistercians' musical practice during Schrotter's lifetime. See also, PL-WRu Manuscript Department, shelf mark IV F 214, f. 52 r, Rudolf Walter, "Leubus, Zisterzienserkloster", in: Schlesisches Musiklexikon, 421.

(35.) PL-WRk, shelf mark V 26 h, f. 81 r; August Weltzel, Das furstliche Cisterzienserstift Himmelwitz, 146, 159.

(36.) "Virtuosus Organista Choro Raudensi multum proficuus erat", cf. PL-WRk, shelf mark V 26 g, f. 22 v.

(37.) PL-WRk, shelf mark V 26 g, f. 30 v.; Heinrich Gruger, "Die schlesischen Ordengeistlichen bei der Sakularisation der Kloster (1810)", in De Ecclesia Silesiae. Festschrift zum 25jahrigen Bestehe der Apostolischen Visitatur Breslau, ed. Hubert Unverricht, Gundolf Keil (Sigmaringen: Jan Thorbecke Verlag, 1997), 228.

(38.) In addition, he was a composer of vocal-instrumental works. Cf. Rudolf Walter, Musikgeschichte des Zisterzienserklosters Grussau, 61-62.

(39.) PL-WRu Manuscript Department, shelf mark IV F 216, f. 22 v.

(40.) "Ubi autem cantatur, de modo cantandi ordinare possunt Superior et Cantor prout et quando viderint expedire: sed it ut antiqua "Forma" cantandi a B. Bernardo tradita, nostrisque Breviariis inserta firmiter teneatur: Sincopationibus, et quocumque cantu figurali seu musicali, penitus interdictis, tam in Missa et Processionibus quam in omnibus Officii partibus", cf. Rituale Cisterciense, 25-26.

(41.) "Musica vero instrumenta nulli Sacerdoti neve non Sacerdoti permittantur", cf. Ernst Kirsch, Die Bibliothek des Musikalischen Instituts bei der Universitat Breslau, 27.

(42.) Cf. Rudolf Walter, Musikgeschichte des Zisterzienserklosters Grussau, 18.

(43.) "Quia cantus figuralis a Capitulo Generali prohibetur, hinc in festivitatibus Missa Major nunquam habeatur, cum musica figurali, nisi prius una choraliter, fuerit decantata, ut tali modo obligationi ordinis satisfiat [...]", cf. PL-WRu OR, shelf mark IV F 209, 116, cf. also Ernst Kirsch, Die Bibliothek des Musikalischen Instituts bei der Universitat Breslau, 33.

(44.) Awaiting detailed preparation studies and cataloguing in the RISM database are approximately twenty-seven musical prints of monastic provenance from Henrykow, Kamieniec Zabkowicki, Krzeszow, and Lubiaz. However, it is unknown to which extent these prints were used by the Cistercians. Moreover, it appears that all Cistercian monasteries in Silesia must have possessed prints with compositions by the Abbot of Jemielnica, Johannes Nucius (1556-1620), but their presence can be confirmed only in Henrykow, see Aleksandra Patalas, Catalogue of Early Music Prints from the Collections of the Former Preussische Staatsbibliothek in Berlin, Kept at the Jagiellonian Library in Cracow (Krakow: Musica Iagellonica, 1999), 254; and Johann Gustav Gottlieb Busching, Acta manualia, PL-WRu, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark IV F 267, vol. 5, f. 58.

(45.) "Cantor et Regens Chori per multos annos existens alios, in cantu chorali praesertim erudiis. Industria sua non solum musicalia, sed et instrumenta multa procuravit". PL-WRk, shelf mark V 26 g, f. 6 r-6v.

(46.) Cf. Friedrich Lucae, Schlesiens curieuser Denckwurdigkeiten oder vollkommener Chronica von Ober und Niederschlesien (Franckfurt am Maeyn: in Verlegung Friedrich Knochen Buchhandler, 1689), 1168.

(47.) Cf. H-Bn, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark Fol Lat 4246, f. 5 v, f. 13 v, H-Bn, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark Fol Lat 4266, f. 8 r.

(48.) H-Bn, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark Fol Lat 4246, f. 23 v; Rudolf Walter, "Heinrichau, Zisterzienserstift", in: Schlesisches Musiklexikon, 267.

(49.) H-Bn, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark Fol Lat 4246, f. 27 v; Rudolf Walter, "Heinrichau, Zister zienserstift", in: Schlesisches Musiklexikon, 267.

(50.) Cf. H-Bn, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark Fol Lat 4246, f. 31 r, H-Bn, OR, shelf mark Fol Lat 4266, f. 12 r.

(51.) Augustin Weltzel, Das furstliche Cisterzienserstift Himmelwitz, 50. Abbot's office in the period 1624-1631.

(52.) Cf. Augustin Weltzel, Das furstliche Cisterzienserstift Himmelwitz, 79.

(53.) Cf. Augustin Weltzel, Das furstliche Cisterzienserstift Himmelwitz, 88.

(54.) August Potthast, Geschichte der ehemaligen Cistercienserabtei Rauden in Oberschlesien, 95.

(55.) Names of musicians in Krzeszow, cf. Rudolf Walter, Musikgeschichte des Zisterzienserklosters Grussau, 62-63.

(56.) PL-WRu, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark IV F 214, f. 61 v.

(57.) PL-WRu, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark IV F 217, f. 8 r.

(58.) Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a [unnumbered page, inscriptions under the dates 20.09.1726 and 20.08.1726].

(59.) ,, P. Elias Tschope Landecensis Monachus et Sacerdos, vir laboriosissimus, Musicus fundamentalis, ob praeclaram vocem Cantor indefesus Choralis, et Figuralis, et Concionator pie adhuc juvenis mortuus", see H-Bn, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark Fol Lat 4246, f. 23 v, Fol Lat 4266, f. 11 r.

(60.) Cf. Ewa Hauptman-Fischer, "Regens chori figuralis Caspar Raff (1683-1738)", 50. The situation was similar in the orchestrally-renowned Cistercian monastery of Osek, Bohemia. Its first noted regents were Father E. J. Janka (1693-1742) and Father F. J. Wenzel (1693-1759), cf. Barbara Ann Renton, The Musical Culture of Eighteenth-Century Bohemia, with Special Emphasis on the Music Inventories of Osek and the Knights of the Cross (New York: City University of New York, 1990), 207. In turn, the Benedictine monastery of Brevnov noted its first choir regent in 1692, cf. Rudolf Klinkhammer, Die Figuralmusik in Brevnov und Braunau zur Zeit des Priors und Abtes Friedrich Grundmann (1730-1772) (Erzabtei St. Ottilien 1993), 412.

(61.) Ewa Hauptman-Fischer, "Regens chori figuralis Caspar Raff (1683-1738)", 56.

(62.) PL-WRu, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark IV F 209, 127, IV F 214, f. 72 r, IV F 215, 141, Nomina Fratrum Lubensium, PL-WRk, shelf mark V 5 [unnumbered page].

(63.) PL-WRu Manuscripts Department, R, shelf mark IV F 214, f. 52 r, IV F 215, 101, Nomina Fratrum Lubensium, PL-WRk shelf mark V 5, [unnumbered page].

(64.) PL-WRk, shelf mark V 26 h, f. 58 r, f. 63 r, f. 64 r, f. 65 r, f. 66 r, f. 67 r, f. 68 r, f. 71 r.

(65.) PL-WRk, shelf mark V 26 g, f. 6 r-6v.

(66.) Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a.

(67.) PL-Wu, Music Department, no shelfmark, see RISM A/II: 300512924.

(68.) Christian Weiss, Wanderungen in Sachsen, Schlesien, Glatz und Bohmen (Leipzig: Sommer, 1796), 1:138.

(69.) PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 4253/2, RM 4254.

(70.) In Lubiaz, np. PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 5488. The oldest manuscript from the monastery in Henrykow, containing a setting of Dixit dominus, is presently found in Berlin, cf. RISM A/II: 469042800.

(71.) E.g., Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 23, January 1717: "fuit missa choralo-figuralis cum Intradis et duobus cantibus, ad offertorium et post Agnus".

(72.) For more on the splendid repertoire from the first half of the eighteenth century in Lubiaz, see Ewa Hauptman-Fischer, "Regens chori figuralis Caspar Raff (1683-1738)", 55-66.

(73.) RISM A/II: 300000307, see Pawel Podejko, Katalog tematyczny rekopisow i drukow muzycznych kapeli wokalno-instrumentalnej na Jasnej Gorze. Studia Studia Claromontana; 12 (Krakow: Wydawnictwo OO. Paulinow, 1992), 172.

(74.) Rudolf Walter, Musikgeschichte des Zisterzienserklosters Grussau, 341-350.

(75.) Barbara Ann Renton, The Musical Culture of Eighteenth-Century Bohemia, 259.

(76.) PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 5521.

(77.) PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 4345, RM 4434, RM 5338, RM 4675, RM 4740.

(78.) PL-Wu, Music Department, no shelf mark, see RISM A/II: 300512923.

(79.) Litanies by various and anonymous authors in Krzeszow, in Rudolf Walter, Musikgeschichte des Zisterzienserklosters Grussau.

(80.) Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 22.11.1730.

(81.) Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 15.05.1731, before the saint's liturgical feast.

(82.) Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 21.08.1719.

(83.) Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 26.04.1723.

(84.) Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 23.09.1719.

(85.) PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 6268.

(86.) PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 5329.

(87.) PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 4186.

(88.) Rudolf Walter, Musikgeschichte des Zisterzienserklosters Grussau, 228-231, 336-339.

(89.) Rudolf Walter, Musikgeschichte des Zisterzienserklosters Grussau, 334.

(90.) Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 29.12.1722; 5.01.1728; 6.01.1729.

(91.) PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 6622.

(92.) Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 3-30.10.1716.

(93.) Rudolf Klinkhammer, Die Figuralmusik in B revnov und Braunau, 473.

(94.) PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 4153, RM 4294/5, RM 4855, RM 4923, RM 4856. RM 4857. More about these manuscripts, see Ewa Hauptman-Fischer, "Musical Gifts with Dedications in Silesian Musical Manuscripts of Monastery Provenance", Polski Rocznik Muzykologiczny 14 (2016): 57-84, at 77-78.

(95.) A definition of the genre and an overview of surviving compositions, mostly in Austrian monasteries, was given by Robert N. Freeman, "The Applausus Musicus, or Singgedicht: A Neglected Genre of Eighteenth-Century Musical Theater", in Music in Eighteenth-century Austria, ed. Dawid Wyn Jones (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1966), 197-209, esp. 203. The article's author also points out the position of researchers who maintain that setting apart a special genre is not necessary here, and count such works in the current of "congratulatory cantatas".

(96.) August Kastner, Geschichte und Beschreibung des furstlichen jungfraulichen Klosterstiftes Cistercienser Ordens in Trebnitz. Archiv fur die Geschichte des Bisthums Breslau, 2 (Neisse, 1852), 234-248, 253-256.

(97.) See Ewa Hauptman-Fischer, "Komedia w klasztorze. Swieckie utwory okolicznosciowe w tradycji slaskich cystersow", in Tradycje slaskiej kultury muzycznej, vol. XIV, part 1, ed. Anna Granat-Janki (Wroclaw: Wydawnictwo Akademii Muzycznej im. Karola Lipinskiego we Wroclawiu 2017), 154.

(98.) PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 5328.

(99.) PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 5340. For more on this composition, see Ewa Hauptman-Fischer, "Komedia w klasztorze. Swieckie utwory okolicznosciowe w tradycji slaskich cystersow", 156-161.

(100.) Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 13.05.1717.

(101.) Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 13.05.1725.

(102.) Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 30.03.1717.

(103.) Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 25.04.1717.

(104.) Christian Weiss, Wanderungen in Sachsen, Schlesien, Glatz und Bohmen, 140.

(105.) Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 28.07.1718.

(106.) Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 29.06.1717.

(107.) "Hanc Missam pro Choro Lubeno descripsit Eximius P. Augustinus Bisseck professus Gemelnicensis p. t. Subprior, Cantor, et Regens Chori Figuralis ibidem Anno 1781", PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 4882.

(108.) Cf. table provided in Anna Galar. W europejskiej wspolnocie cysterskiej, 364-365.

(109.) For detailed descriptions of travels, see: Anna Galar. W europejskiej wspolnocie cysterskiej, 400-408.

(110.) "Ad prandium novo D. Abbati producta fuit opera musica", "Omnes D. Abbates prandium sumpserunt in et producta est D.D. Abbatiubus peregrinatibus Cistercium opera valedictoria vere affectuosa", Diarium itineris Cisterciensis, PL-WRk, shelf mark V 26i, 13-16.03.1768, 2-3.

(111.) PL-WRk, shelf mark V B 4i.

(112.) "Post mensam producta fuit opera praestantissima Pragensibus vitruosis in subsidium vocatis", Diarium itineris Cisterciensis, PL-WRk, shelf mark V 26i, 21.03.1768, 6, 15.06.1768, 81.

(113.) "Matutinum mane habetur a fratribus pridie in choro musicali romano modo a musicis in choro figurali", Diarium itineris Cisterciensis, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26i, 31.03--4.04.1768, 11-12.

(114.) Diarium itineris Cisterciensis, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26i, 21.05.1768, 57.

(115.) Diarium itineris Cisterciensis, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26i, 27-30.05.1768, 64-65.

(116.) Diarium itineris Cisterciensis, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26i, 11.06.1768, 79.

(117.) In 1699, these locations were Nurnberg, Strasburg, Augsburg, and Ratisbon, and in 1768, Nurnberg--where a tour was made of the Town Hall, Imperial Castle, municipal library, two Lutheran churches, and the Knights Templar House--moreover in Stuttgart--with a tour of the Wirtemberg Princes' castles, the theatre, and opera buildings, as well as a porcelain manufacturing plant--and Strasbourg, Basle, Augsburg, and Munich, cf. Anna Galar, W europejskiej wspolnocie cysterskiej, 401-402, 404-407.

(118.) Diarium itineris Cisterciensis, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26i, 1-19.05.1768, 41-55, remarks on music esp. 50-51.
Table 1. Quantitative comparison of sources that came down from the
Cistercians (according to Ernst Kirsch's 1922 work, and showing their
present state).

No.  Monastery             Manuscripts    Manuscripts  Old prints
                             in 1922       presently    in 1922

1.   Lubiaz                142                180          1
2.   Jemielnica             14                 18          0
3.   Henrykow                7                 12          6
4.   Kamieniec               1                  5          5
5.   Rudy                    0                  2          0
6.   Trzebnica              41                 51          0
     (female Cistercians)
7.   Krzeszow              Tablatures          11          3
                           of quantity
8.   Total                 209                279         15

No.  Old prints

1.       1
2.       0
3.      17
4.       7
5.       0
6.       0
7.       2
8.      27
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Author:Hauptmann-Fischer, Ewa
Publication:Fontes Artis Musicae
Date:Apr 1, 2019

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