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THE CARTOGRAPHIC MIGRATION OF WESEL(S) EIJLAND.

INTRODUCTION

The Wessel Islands are a chain of islands off the north-eastern coast of Arnhem Land, and the traditional home of the Nango or Nhungu people. The islands extend in a diagonal line from Elcho Island, Buckingham Bay, and Arnhem Bay, to the northeast. Marchinbar Island is the largest of the group. Other islands include Rimbija Island (the most outlying island), Guluwuru, Raragala, Stevens Island, Burgunngura, Djeergaree, Yargara, Drysdale Island, Jirrgari Island, Graham Island, Alger Island, Abbott Island, and Howard Island.

The naming, and indeed the charting, of the Wessel Islands has a rather abstruse history. It is often claimed the island (probably Marchinbar) was named by Pieter Pieterszoon aboard the VOC vessel (Klein/Cleen) Wesel during the exploration expedition of Gerrit Thomaszoon Pool and Pieterszoon in 1636. (1) Wikipedia (2019), for instance states:
   The islands were mapped and named by a Dutch expedition that sailed
   from Banda Neira to explore the coasts of New Guinea and the South
   Land [...]. Besides the Wesel Eilanden, named after the ship,
   Pietersen described the Cobourg Peninsula, Melville Island (Roode
   hoek), and Dundas Strait (which he misidentified as a bay). 170
   years later Matthew Flinders decided to retain the name of the
   islands, though he slightly modified it to Wessel.


Apart from Pieterszoon never having ventured anywhere near the present day Wessel Islands, the Wikipedia entry is also incorrect in using the plural form Eilanden: the Dutch only ever referred to a singular island, and never used the name to refer to the current islands (at least, not until the midnineteenth century). Instead, as will be seen, the name Wesel(s) Eijland was originally bestowed to a small island (Pulau Adi) situated just off the south-eastern coast of the Bomberai Peninsula on the south coast of today's West Papua Province. (2)

Other sources, such as Reed (1974:224) and the EncyclopediaBritannica (1998) web entry for the Wessel Islands, are somewhat more circumspect, refraining from stating who initially named the islands, and simply claim the islands were named after Pieterszoon's ship. The Northern Territory Place Names Register is even hesitant to say the islands were named after the ship; its website states:

The island could have been named after the vessel 'Wesel' which in 1636, under the command of Pieter Pieterszoon with the 'Klein Amsterdam' sailed south from New Guinea to what is known today as Cobourg Peninsula and Melville Island. (NT Place Names Register n.d.)

HISTORICAL BACKDROP

In order to put into context and unravel the convoluted history of the charting and naming of the Wessel Islands, the chronology of the exploration of the northern coastline of Australia is in order. Of the seven expeditions of exploration conducted along the northern coastlines (Janszoon 1606, Carstenszoon & van Coolsteerdt 1623, Pool & Pieterszoon 1636, Tasman 1644, van Delft 1705, Gonzal & van Asschens 1756, Flinders 1803), only five charted parts of the northern coastline of present-day Northern Territory and Arnhem Land before the Wessel Islands were named. A brief outline of these five expeditions is provided here.

van Coolsteerdt (1623)

The first to chart the northern coastline of present-day Northern Territory was Willem Joosten van Coolsteerdt (a.k.a. van Colster), master of the Arnhem, after having abandoned the Jan Carstenszoon expedition off the west coast of Cape York Peninsula between Staaten Rivier and nearby Rivier Nassou to the north. He headed westwards, across what would become known as the Gulf of Carpentaria, in order to return to Ambon via the Aru and Kai islands. Although neither the journal nor original chart of the Arnhem's voyage has survived, a few documents and an anonymous manuscript chart made c.1670 (Anon. 1670) (Fig. 1., see also Tent 2019, Fig.2 later in this issue), representing the discoveries made by van Coolsteerdt, provide evidence that he subsequently came across the eastern coast of Arnhem Land, and charted part of its coastline. The chart shows the label Aernhem on what we now know is the mainland, where the current Arnhem Land is, and Het Eijlandt Spult ['The Island Speult'], named after Herman van Speult the then Governor of Amboyna (Ambon). Because it was not clear whether these features were islands or parts of the mainland, the Council of the VOC in Batavia originally referred to them as islands. For instance, in a missive from the Governor-General and Governors of the VOC, in reference to the 1636 voyage of Gerrit Thomaszoon Pool and Pieter Pieterszoon, reference is made to Arnhems of SpeultsEijlanden ['Arnhems or Speults Islands'] (Leupe 1868:48), and in the sailing instructions for Tasman's 1644 voyage: de grote Eijlanden, Arnhem ende Speult ['the large Islands, Arnhem and Speult'] (Leupe 1868:48). However, the sailing instructions to Marten van Delft (see Leupe 1868:187; Heeres 1899:88; and Robert 1973:137) for his voyage of exploration of the coasts of Melville Island and the Coburg Peninsula in 1705 (then referred to as Van Diemens Land and Marias Landt) refer to the two features as Aarnemsland and Drooge eyland (see below).

It is not clear to which island Het Eylandt Spult/Speult refers. Heeres (1899:vi) believes it could have been Groote Eylandt, which seems [pace] unlikely. In contrast, Robert (1973:26) more reasonably thinks it refers to Marchinbar Island.

Pool & Pieterszoon (1636)

Pool and Pieterszoon, aboard the Klein/Cleen Amsterdam and (Klein/Cleen) Wesel, were instructed to follow the track of Carstenszoon and van Coolsteerdt along the southern coast of what is now known as West Papua, then cross the Arafura Sea to Arnhem Land and survey its northern coastline. After Pool was killed in West Papua, Pieterszoon continued the expedition but only explored the northern coasts of Melville Island and the Coburg Peninsula naming them Van Diemensland and Marias Land respectively. He did not venture as far as what are now known as the Wessel Islands on the north-eastern coast.

Tasman (1644)

Abel Tasman's 1642-43 voyage along the southern coast of Van Diemensland (Tasmania; not Pieterszoon's appellation for Melville Island), the western coast of Staten Land (New Zealand), and through the Tonga archipelago was considered a failure in the eyes of the Council of the VOC. He was subsequently ordered to follow in the tracks of Carstenszoon and Coolsteerdt, and Pieterszoon. The 'Bonaparte Tasman' map (Wieder 1942) (Fig. 9.) shows he followed coastline from the Drooge Bocht ['Shallow/Dry Bight', now Torres Strait] round the shores of the Gulf of Carpentaria, past Arnhemsland and along the north and north-west coast of the South Land as far as the Tropic of Capricorn. He sailed past Het Eylandt Speult which is quite crudely represented and left unnamed on the Bonaparte Tasman map.

van Delft (1705)

Marten van Delft was instructed to make an accurate survey of the coasts of Pieterszoon's Van Diemensland and Marias Land, and spent three months doing so, making detailed charts of the north coasts of Melville Island and Coburg Peninsula. He did not venture any further east, and therefore did not chart any part of the north-east Arnhem Land coast.

Flinders (1803)

During Matthew Flinders' voyage to circumnavigate continent, he made very detailed and accurate charts of the coasts of the Gulf of Carpentaria and Arnhem Land (see Fig. 2.). His journal entries of 19 February and 6 March state the following:

[SATURDAY 19 FEBRUARY 1803]

The Dutch chart contains an island of great extent, lying off this part of the North Coast; it has no name in Thevenot, but in some authors bears that of Wessel's or Wezel's Eylandt, probably from the vessel which discovered Arnhem's Land in 1636; and from the south end of Cotton's Island distant land was seen to the N. W., which I judged to be a part of it; but no bearings could be taken at this time, from the heavy clouds and rain by which it was obscured. (Flinders 1814, 2:234)

[SUNDAY 6 MARCH 1803]

A third chain of islands commences here, which, like Bromby's and the English Company's Islands, extend out north-eastward from the coast. I have frequently observed a great similarity both in the ground plans and elevations of hills, and of islands in the vicinity of each other; but do not recollect another instance of such a likeness in the arrangement of clusters of islands. This third chain is doubtless what is marked in the Dutch chart as one long island, and in some charts is called Wessel's Eylandt; which name I retain with a slight modification, calling them WESSEL'S ISLANDS. They had been seen from the north end of Cotton's Island to reach as far as thirty miles out from the main coast; but this is not more than half their extent, if the Dutch chart be at all correct. (Flinders 1814, 2:246)

EXCURSUS: WHAT IS THE ULTIMATE DENOTATION OF THE SHIP'S NAME?

If the Wessel Islands are ultimately and indirectly named after Pieterszoon's ship, it would be of interest to the toponymist to know whence the ship's name is derived. The answer to this question is not as straightforward as one might first imagine. Some sources (e.g. see Wikipedia 2019) suggest it was ostensibly named after the German town of Wesel, near the Dutch border. During the Eighty Years War with Spain (1568-1648), the town changed hands several times between the Dutch and Spanish. Therefore, the ship may have been named after this town. However, there are also two localities in the Netherlands, within 30 km of Arnhem, named Wessel and Wezel respectively. (Wezel may also refer to a weasel or stoat--see below). It seems unlikely the ship's name derives from Wessel, because the ss would indicate the preceding vowel is pronounced with a short [e]. A single s, as in the German town's name and in most cases the spelling of the ship's name, indicates a long [e:]. The single s would also indicate it is pronounced as [z]. This may account for the occasional spelling of the ship's name as Wezel, as seen on the VOC website's entry for the ship (De VOCsite 2019b). Bearing this in mind, the ship's name could derive from the nearby locality of Wezel.

The VOC website also claims Pool and Pieterszoon's ships were prefabricated, so-called afbreekboten ['breakdown boats/ships'], made in the Dutch Republic and shipped to the East Indies where they were (re)assembled to form part of the exploratory expedition fleet. Because both vessels were prefabricated and transported, they were relatively small, perhaps explaining the premodifier Klein/Cleen ['small'] always associated with the Amsterdam. However, some sources, including Parthesius (2010:82), refer to the Wesel/Wezel as the Klein/Cleen Wezel.

Further evidence for the premodified Wesel comes from the mid-nineteenth century historical geographer, and functionary at the Dutch National Archives in The Hague, Pieter Arend Leupe (Molhuysen et al. 1930: 1037-38), who published a book in 1868, as well as lengthy journal articles, on the voyages of the Dutch to New Guinea and the South Land during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In his book, Leupe refers to the yachts Cleyn Amsterdam and Cleyn Wesel(Leupe 1868:67). He also cites parts of Pieterszoon's journal, in which reference is made to his ship, e.g. the entry of Friday 6 June 1636, "Cleen Wesel' (Leupe 1868:71; 1875:10). Robert (1973:27) also refers to Pieterszoon's vessel as the Cleen Wesel, as does Wichmann (1909:80 & fn.5). However, perhaps more authoritative proof of the Wesel sometimes having the premodifier Cleen comes from the VOC Daily Register at Batavia Castle. This is a register of all incoming and outgoing shipping in the Dutch East Indies. The Register of 1636 records the ship's name as Cleijn/Cleen Wesel (see Colenbrander 1899:11, 216, 226, 230), however it also refers to it as simply the Wesel. It therefore unclear whether Cleijn/Cleen was part of the ship's name.

The spelling of the name with a z--i.e. by Parthesius and the VOC website--may also suggest the name denotes a 'weasel'. Although it was common for VOC ships to be named after towns and cities, it was also extremely common for them to bear the names of animals (at times unflattering ones), e.g. Duyfken ['Little Dove'], Aap ['Monkey'], Zwarte Beer ['Black Bear'], Dolfijn ['Dolphin'], Valk ['Falcon'], Haas ['Hare'], Hazewind ['Greyhound'], Haring ['Herring'], Os ['Ox'], Koe ['Cow'], de Creeft ['the Lobster'] etc. (see De VOCsite 2019a). Major (1859:75) cites the Dutch historian and cartographer Francis Valentijn's short description of Pool and Pieterszoon's voyage, in which the Wesel's name is spelled Weasel. Of course this is an English translation; however, it illustrates the uncertainty of the source for the ship's name. Finally, in connection to this, it must not be forgotten that one of Willem de Vlamingh's vessels was named 't Wezeltje ['The Little Weasel'] which clearly shows the name was probably not derived from a toponym.

DOCUMENTARY & CARTOGRAPHIC SOURCES

There are two possible sources through which the cartographic migration of Wesel(s) Eijland can be deduced: documentary (in the form of entries in journals or sailing instructions) and cartographic.

Documentary

Overall, there are relatively few primary documentary sources that refer to Wesel(s)Eijland. The first are found in the 1678 Dagregister, gehouden bij den opperkoopman Johannes Keyts, op de reis van Banda naar de kust van Nova Guinea enz. ['Journal of the chief merchant Johannes Keyts, on the journey from Banda to the coast of Nova Guinea etc.'] (Leupe 1868:115-157). In it Keyts makes numerous references to Wesel(s) Eyland situated just off the south-east coast of the Bomberai Peninsula. A few citations of his journal entries will suffice to illustrate its existence:

Vrydags. 9's [Julij 1678] Morgens wierd dese hoek van 't land N.O. omtrent 9 mijlen en Wesels eylant N.O. ten O. % O. 5 mijlen van ons gepeylt.

['Friday 9 (July 1678) In the morning this point/peninsula of the land at N.E. about 9 miles and Wesels island N.E. at E. % E. was plotted 5 miles from us.'] (Leupe 1868:148)

Saterdagh 10. Met sonsopgangh peylden 't Wesels eylant O.N.O. 4 mijlen van ons, [...]

['Saturday 10. At sunrise Wesels island was plotted 4 miles E.N.E from us,'] (Leupe 1868:148)

Sondagh 11 [...] Omtrent de middag kregen het Wesels eyland weder in't gezigt N.O. ten O. en de N.O. hoek N.N.O. omtrent 5 mijlen van ons; [...]

['Around noon, Wesels eyland came back into view N.E. by E. and the N.E. point N.N.E. about 5 miles from us;'] (Leupe 1868:149)

Donderdag 22, [...] In consideratie genomen zijnde, hoe dat wij in't oversteken van't Wesels eyland naer Arou, [...]

['Having taken into consideration, how we in the crossing from Wesels island Aru,'] (Leupe 1868:156)

The second primary source I have been able to trace occurs in the sailing instructions issued to van Delft on 20 January 1705, as cited by Leupe (1868:187), Heeres (1899:88) and Robert (1973:137). For his return journey along the west coast of Cape York Peninsula and up along the southern coast of New Guinea, van Delft was directed to:

[...] run along the bogt ['bight'] van Keerweer then following always along the coast in a westerly direction and thus past the Doodslagersrevier ['Manslaughters River'], the Waterplaets ['Watering-place'], till beyond the Goening Apy, Moordenaersrevier ['Murderers River'], and the Weseleijland ['Wesel Island'], and also beyond Speelmansrevier ['Speelmans River'] and Rijkloffsbaijen ['Rijkloffs Bays'] [...]

Various secondary sources are found in Leupe (1875) who provides a report on the Pool/Pieterszoon voyage, and is based on their original journals. (3) Leupe (pp.12-13) notes that on 24 April 1636, Pool and Pieterszoon came across a small island and named it Amsterdam. There are only two maps on which it seems to be recorded (both close to the original Wesel(s) Eijland off Bomberai Peninsula): the first is the so-called 'Bonaparte Tasman' map (Fig. 9. but see Fig. 3.), however, due to the small scale of the map it not clear to which island it refers. The second is Jacob Swart's map of 1859, where it appears as a small island to the west of the unlabelled Wesel(s) Eijland (Pulau Adi). In all likelihood Amsterdam Eylant as depicted on Swart's map refers to the current Pulau Nasaulang; however, it cannot be claimed with any certainty that this was Pool and Pieterszoon's Amsterdam Eylant.

On the following day, 25 April 1636, Pool and Pieterszoon sighted two other islands off the southeastern tip of Bomberai Peninsula and named the first Wesels Eiland (Pulau Adi), and the second, a small neighbouring island, Vogels Eiland ['Bird Island'] (Pulau Tumbutumbu). Van Dijk (1859:28) also provides this information.

Cartographic

Even though no map of the Pool/Pieterszoon expedition has survived, there is nevertheless abundant cartographic evidence of the existence of a Wesel(s) Eijland off Bomberai Peninsula.

Schilder (1976:130, 135 & 138) has unearthed an anonymous and undated manuscript chart in the archives of the VOC on which some discoveries on the south-west coast of New Guinea have been recorded. On the chart, approximately at the location of the current Pulau Adi, is drawn an island labelled Wefels Eij. t (Schilder 1976:135, fig.49) (Fig. 4.). This is perhaps the earliest cartographic evidence of the name and the island. Another early map showing the island at this location is de Graaf's map of c.1690-1743 (map reference #14 in Table 1.).

A catalogue of maps and manuscript charts showing the region of interest can be found in Table 1. It notes the creator of the map, its publication date, its title, and provides a brief description of what appears on the map vis-a-vis Wesel(s) Eijland. The table shows much variability in terms of the location and naming of Wesel(s) Eijland over the 211 year period it covers (1644 to 1855). It will be seen that islands are depicted at four distinct locations (Fig. 5.):

* It first appears just off the south-eastern tip of Bomberai Peninsula (position 1) sometimes accompanied by Vogel(s) Eyland

* It then migrates to various latitudes and longitudes within the Arafura Sea north of Arnhem Land (POSITION 2)

* After Flinders' charting of the north coast of Australia, the name migratsd to the north-eastern tip of Arnhem Land at or close to its current location (POSITION 3). On the vast majority of maps no specific island in this location bears the name Wesel(s) or Wessel(s), rather the whole island group carried this name.

* And, in one case, it appears on the north coast of West Papua (position 4)

The islands depicted at these locations bear the name Wesel(s) (or some form of it), another name, or are displayed without a name.

However, one cartographic anomaly exists, namely on Valentijn's distorted and inaccurate map of 1726 (Fig. 6.). It shows a crudely drawn series of small islands labelled't Wefels Eyl.t roughly in POSITION 1, accompanied by a larger island labelled't Vogel Eyland (which in reality is much smaller than Wesel(s) Eijland). However, there is also a 't Wefels Eyland in POSITION 4, on the north coast of current West Papua. This position also includes a Speelmans Baey and de Moordenaars Rivier ['the Murderers River'], both of which are in reality located on the south coast of Cendrawasih Bay, near't Wefels Eyl.t in POSITION 1. The position 4 Wefels Eyland probably relates to either Ratewo Island (Pulau Utama), or its neighbouring island Rotomorja Island (Pulau Nutorutomorya). Valentijn's map was supposed to depict the discoveries made by Nicolaes Vinck, Secretary of the Council of Justice, during a slave trading voyage to western New Guinea in 1663. Vinck discovered what later became known as the MacCluer Gulf (now Teluk Berau), yet oddly this bight is not shown on Valentijn's map. Wichman (1909:111) has an interesting take on the map, saying that it is so through and through incorrect that one cannot help but wonder whether the distortion was done with malicious intent. It seems strange to distort a map, unless the intent is to misinform, but who? and why? If Wichmann is correct in his proposition, it could explain the existence of Wefels Eyland, Speelmans Baey and de Moordenaars Rivier on the north coast at POSITION 4. (4)

Table 2 summarises the various depictions of Wesel(s) Eijland as catalogued in Table 1. It reveals that only three maps do not show any shape or form of an island where the current Wessel Islands are. Thirty-two maps (53%) show an island or islands without a label at or close to the position of the current Wessel Islands. Four maps do not extend far enough eastwards to cover that region; however, they do show an island with the name further out westwards in the Arafura Sea. In all, 20 maps (33%) have a Wesel Eijland in this location. There are a further nine maps (15%) that show a Wesel(s) Eijland off the coast of Bomberai Peninsula. Eleven maps (18%) show the current Wessel Islands with an alternative name--Het Eijlandt Spult (2x), Crocodils Eyland ['Crocodile Island'] (6x), 't Hoog Land ['The High Land'] (2x, e.g. Fig. 7.), or droog Eijl ['dry Isl.'] (1 x). The first of these is clearly a remnant of van Coolsteerdt's probable naming of the island, and the second is quite clearly due to confusing the Wessel Islands chain with the nearby Crocodile Islands group to the west. This is quite understandable given the poor charting practices of the era. The label 't Hoog Land (on the maps of Valentijn 1724-26 and van Braam 1726) may well be a confusion with the Hoog Land/Eijlandt (originally named by Willem Janszoon in 1606) at the tip of Cape York, but droog Eijl currently defies explanation.

However, the Valentijn map also shows a Riv. van Speult tucked away just south of 't Hoog Land (Fig. 7.). Is this also a mistake, because on other maps (e.g. de Leeuw 1623, Thevenot 1644 & Blaeu 1663) the Rivier van Speult appears at the northern end of the west coast of Cape York Peninsula? Or is this perhaps another example intentional cartographic distortion as suggested by Wichmann?

There are seven maps (12%) that show a Wessel Island at its current location and have been labelled with a like name. With the exception of map #45 (Dalrymple 1788, Fig. 8., who labels it Wefels Eylt), they are all on post-1814 maps, which is self-explanatory given Flinders bestowed the name Wessel Islands in 1803 (Fig. 2.). (6) However, it is not until alter 1830 that maps labelled the island group consistency by this name (see maps #57-60 in Table 1.).

Perhaps the most intriguing charting of Wesel(s) Eijland is its placement in the Arafura Sea where no island exists. Twenty maps show it in this location (position 2, Fig. 5.). De Graaf (1659-1700, map #3) shows a Wessels Eylt in this location, and predates other maps placing it there by at least 50 years (see de Vaugondy 1750, 1756 & 1757-86, maps #26, 28 & 29, and especially subsequent maps after the late 1770s). What motivated these cartographers to place an island in the middle of the Arafura Sea where there is none? Was de Graaf's map the source for this placement on all these subsequent maps? The earliest dating of the de Graaf map, 1659, may be brought into question given all other maps in my survey that position Wesel(s) Eijland in the Arafura Sea are dated from the mid-1700s. This suggests a later dating of the de Graaf map may be more accurate. Nevertheless, if this is correct, it still predates the other maps and still may have served as a model for the later maps.

The erroneous placement of an island is not uncommon on early maps. A similar phenomenon can be seen with the early charting and naming of Christmas Island, where various early maps show two or three islands (each with a different name) in the location where there is only one (see Tent 2016a). (7) Another example closely related to the placement of Wesel(s) Eijland in the Arafura Sea is that of Pool and Pieterszoon's VogelEyland (I. aux Oiseaux on Bonne 1780). Its original location was just off the south-west coast of Wesel(s) Eijland(i.e. Pulau Adi). On some maps, e.g. Valentijn (1724-26, map #21) and Dalrymple (1788, map #45), it is positioned approximately in its correct position, whilst on other maps, e.g. the Bonaparte Tasman map [1644, map #1, see Fig. 9.), Bellin (1753, map #27), and Bonne (1780, map #38, see Fig. 10.) it is out on its own in the Arafura Sea, without its accompanying Wesel(s) Eijland.

The first cartographic evidence showing an island at the location of the current Wessel Islands is on the anonymous manuscript chart published in 1670, (Fig. 1.). The subsequent occasion when this region was charted was during Tasman's voyage of 1644 (Fig. 9.). It was not until 159 years later that the next mariner charted the islands in that region--and that was Matthew Flinders (see Fig. 2.).

DISCUSSION

There are several possible explanations for the cartographic migration of Wesel(s) Eijland. The first may be explained by poor mapping and charting practices during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Although latitude was relatively straightforward to calculate, longitude still needed to be developed through more accurate and reliable time keeping. The second reason may be due to careless or inaccurate copying of maps leading to imprecise and distorted delineation of geographic features, or more significantly, their erroneous placement. The duplication of maps that contained inaccuracies would also lead to the perpetuation of cartographic and toponymic errors. The copying and recopying of maps allows for human error to creep in. A good example of this is the naming of Dinnings Land near the Swan River (WA), and its appearance on various maps as a result of the inaccurate transcription of the topographic descriptor Duynig Land ['Duny Country'] on an earlier manuscript chart (see Tent 2016b).

Another factor perhaps related to the erroneous mapping of Wesel(s) Eijland is the similar dimensions and shapes of Pulau Adi and Marchinbar--long and narrow--Pulau Adi being approximately 44 km in length, with a maximum breadth of nearly 7 km; and Marchinbar Island being roughly 57 km long and 8 km wide. Both islands also lie in a diagonal aspect from their mainlands.

However, an additional noteworthy issue remains, the answer to which perhaps may explain Flinders' bestowal of the name Wessel to the island chain off the northeast Arnhem Land coast. Flinders' journal entries of 19 February and 6 March (see above), call for some closer scrutiny. The first entry states: "The Dutch chart contains an island of great extent, lying off this part of the North Coast; it has no name in Thevenot, but in some authors bears that of Wessel's or Wezel's Eylandt, [...]." Flinders' does not say he derived the name from "the Dutch chart", but refers to "some authors" using the name. We have seen at the very least, that Keyts' journal of 1678 and van Delft's sailing instructions of 1705, mention the existence of a Wesel(s) Eijland, but they refer to the one off Bomberai Peninsula. Unfortunately, Flinders does not expound as to which Dutch chart or texts he was referring. Could he have been referring to Bonne's map of 1780 (Fig. 10.)?

Flinders' second entry does not really enlighten us any further either: "[...] This third chain is doubtless what is marked in the Dutch chart as one long island, and in some charts is called Wessel's Eylandt; [...]." He states that the island is "marked in the Dutch chart as one long island" and does not say that chart had a name attached to it, but states: "in some charts it is called Wessel's Eylandt", not clarifying whether or not those were Dutch charts.

In researching this article, I have not been able to source any seventeenth or eighteenth century Dutch charts that show the current Marchinbar Island or any other neighbouring island bearing the name Wesel(s) Eijland, only Het Eijlandt Spult, Crocodils Eyland, 't Hoog Land or droog Eijl. This, of course does not mean there are not any such charts, as hinted at by Ingleton:

While in the INVESTIGATOR, Flinders apparently lacked the detailed narratives of these Dutch voyages [i.e. Janszoon 1606, Carstenszoon and Coolsteerdt 1623, Pieterszoon 1636, Tasman 1644, and Gonzal 1756]; but Dalrymple8 had supplied him with some data, including a copy of an old Dutch chart of Hollandia Nova by Melschissedec [sic] Thevenot, published in 1663, and possibly other Dutch charts. (Ingleton 1986:207, underlining added).

Ingleton may be correct in his claim that Flinders did not have the journals of Janszoon, Carstenszoon/Coolsteerdt, Pieterszoon, Tasman, and Gonzal. Indeed, the journals of Janszoon and Tasman are no longer extant. Nevertheless, Flinders may have had Keyts' journal and van Delft's sailing instructions. Thevenot's chart, as Flinders points out, shows the island but "it has no name". Thevenot's chart is largely based on the Joan Blaeu's 1663 map Archipelagus Orientalis, sive Asiaticus (Table 1., map #4). The Blaeu map copperplates were created 1659, and were based on published Dutch charting of Australia up until that time. (9) Both Thevenot and Blaeu clearly depict an island where Marchinbar Island is, but it is unnamed.

However, Dalrymple also supplied Flinders with his own chart Plan of the Islands to the Eastward and Southward of Banda with Part of the adjacent Coasts of New Guinea and New Holland [...] (Dalrymple 1788, Fig. 8.). Prescott (2001:12) notes that Flinders also used materials from Cook's charts as well as Dalrymple's versions of the van Keulen charts; but none of the van Keulen maps I have been able to examine show any island labelled Wessel. If Flinders had Dalrymple's chart in his possession, he may have used this as the source for "retaining" the name for the island chain.

The Bonne map of 1780 deserves some comment in relation to Dalrymple's chart. It is a very inaccurate and crudely drawn map, as the relevant section of the map shows (Fig. 10.). Its I. Wesels is out in the Arafura Sea, but is depicted directly north of the location of the current Wessel Islands. Did the Bonne map influence Dalrymple's placement of his Wefels Eyl.t? If not, on which map did he base it? Alternatively, did Flinders and Dalrymple have maps that showed the island in the Arafura Sea, and, knowing that there was no island there, simply draw the conclusion Marchinbar Island was intended, make that "correction" and move it further southeast to its present and actual location?

The title of Dalrymple's manuscript chart may also hint at an alternative source. He dedicates the chart to "the Hon. Archibald Fraser"10 who furnished him with "a Dutch Ms." It is not made clear whether this "Ms." was a map or a text; it could have been the latter. Clearly more research on the source of Flinders' naming of the island chain is merited.

I am not the first to query the charting and naming of the Wessel Islands. Perhaps the first to do so was the nineteenth century Dutch historian, Ludovicus Carolus Desiderius van Dijk, whose book of 1859 contains a map (see Tent 2019 later in this issue) which depicts the east and west coasts of the Gulf of Carpentaria, the northern end of the Northern Territory, Torres Strait, Seram and surrounding islands and part of New Guinea. Apart from questioning various contemporary toponymic labels applied to particular geographic features, van Dijk adds the interrogative Waarom? ['Why?'] after Wezelof Wesseleiland ['Wezel or Wessel Island']. He acknowledges Pieterszoon explored the west and central coast of what is indicated as VANdiemensland on his map, and correctly points out that Pieterszoon did not venture as far to the east as Wezel of Wesseleiland. In addition, on page 28 of his 53-page narrative and commentary, van Dijk refers to the island Adi of Wezelseiland ['Adi or Wezels Island'], named by Pool and Pieterszoon. In a footnote, he proposes:
   On the maps of Bogaerts, Stieler and others there is a
   Wessel-island (on Bogaerts even two), near the socalled Amhems
   Land. Would not this be a mistake? Probably the island discovered
   by Pool is meant.


Van Dijk is incorrect in his assertion that the Bogaerts map (1857) shows two Wessel islands; it actually shows WesselEilanden ['Wessel Islands'], a Kp. Wessel ['Cape Wessel'], off the north-eastern coast of Arnhem Land, and labels either current Raragala Island or Elcho Island as WesselEil. No other Wessel Eil. can be discerned on this map; moreover, Pulau Adi is denoted as Adie, not as Wessel Eil. Stieler's map (1826), on the other hand, inaccurately shows a series of tiny islands approximately at POSITION 3 and labels them with a plural generic Wessel In. (11) The last sentence of van Dijk's footnote refers to the Adi of Wezelseilandon his map. In an oblique way, van Dijk is correct to suggest the Arnhem Land Wessel Eilanden were confused with the Wesel(s) Eiland off the coast of Bomberai Peninsula. Indeed the cartographic evidence over the 211-year period of my survey shows there was considerable confusion as to the location of Wesel(s) Eijland. Van Dijk's footnote seems to imply that Bogaerts and Stieler were also confused and designated the name to the islands at position 3, while on the contrary, they were merely adhering to Flinders' naming and charting. From this standpoint, Flinders' journal entries more than adequately answer van Dijk's question, Waarom? It is likely van Dijk did not have access to Flinders' journal; the only mention he makes of Flinders is via a secondary source to the existence of Torres Strait. If van Dijk had read Flinders' journal he would have understood why this island chain was so named.

By the mid-1800s, all Dutch maps depicting northern Australia recognise the Wessel Islands, e.g. Melvill van Carnbee (1853; 1855 #60) shows them as WezelEil.n or simply as Wezel, whilst the Bomberai Peninsula island is shown as Adie. The topographic migration of Wesel(s) Eijland was complete.

NOTES

(1) Pool, who was in overall charge of the 1636 expedition, was murdered by the inhabitants of the southern coast of New Guinea, close to where Dirk Meliszoon of the Jan Carstenszoon expedition was also murdered in 1623. After Pool's death, Pieterszoon took charge and continued the expedition.

(2) The spelling of the island's name had numerous forms. For the sake of consistency, the default name form Wesel(s) Eijland will be used throughout this article when referring to the island in general. When another source is being cited, the form used in that source will be used. Note, the spelling of the ship's or island's name with medial s, ss, or z is due to a number of factors. Firstly, throughout the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries Dutch spelling had not yet become standardised, and as a result, disparate spellings of names and words were commonplace. Secondly, the pronunciation of a medial /s/ sound (especially between two vowel sounds) was often, and still is, assimilated to /z/ (which is also the case in English, e.g. weasel > /wi:zel/). The Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal (the Dutch dictionary on historical principles) shows that the modern Dutch wezel ['weasel'] had the following historical forms: wesel, wessel, wissel, wiezel, wijzel.

(3) I have not had the luxury of having had access to these journals, so must rely on second-hand reporting. However, given Leupe's impeccable reputation as a researcher, little doubt can be held of the veracity of his reporting.

(4) The southern coast of Bomberai Peninsula was the source of the valuable and much sought after Massoia bark (Massoia aromatica Becc., Lauraceae) which was used to make fragrant oil, ointment, medicines, spice, and tannin.

(5) It will be noted that the numbers in this table add up to more than 60. This is because some maps show two Wesel(s) Eijlands, with varying naming configurations.

(6) Intriguingly though, Dalrymple also records a Wefels I. in POSITION 1.

(7) The history of cartography is replete with depictions of phantom islands, and we are not immune to it even in the 21st century. In 2012 it was discovered, quite by chance, that a certain Sandy Island or Ile de Sable did not actually exist. For more than 100 years it had been charted with specific coordinates (19[degrees] 12' 44" S; 159[degrees] 56' 21" E) in the Coral Sea, between the Chesterfield Islands and Nereus Reef, northeast of Queensland and west of New Caledonia (see Bonnett 2014:11-16; Brooke-Hitching 2016:206-207). Like Sandy Island though, it is unlikely the Arafura Sea Wesel(s) Eijland was made up or imagined. More likely they were simply put in the wrong location due to faulty copying, or to protect trading interests.

(8) Alexander Dalrymple (1737-1808), Scottish geographer and the first Hydrographer of the British Admiralty.

(9) Blaeu was chief cartographer for the VOC when Tasman returned from his 1644 voyage.

(10) Most probably Archibald Campbell Fraser of Lovat (1736-1815), member of Parliament and Fellow of the Royal Society.

(11) The n indicates the German plural, Inseln, all other singular islands on his map are indicated by I.

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--. (1846). Australien nach Krusenstern, Flinders, Freycinet, Oxley, King, Sturt und Mitchell in Mercator's Projection entworfen and gezeichnet. Geograph. Instituts, Weimar. Nat. Lib. of Australia, MAP RM 619.

WHITCHURCH, W. [177-?]. Chart of part of the South Sea, shewing the tracts & discoveries made by His Majestys ships Dolphin, Commodore Byron & Tamer, Capn. Mouat, 1765, Dolphin, Capn. Wallis, & Swallow, Capn. Carteret, 1767, and Endeavour, Lieutenant Cooke, 1769. [W. Whitchurch, Islington]. Nat. Lib. of Australia, MAP RM 561.

WIEDER, F.C. (1942). Tasman's kaart van zijn Australische ontdekkingen 1644 "de Bonaparte-kaart" / gereproduceerd op de ware grootte in goud en kleuren naar het origineel in de Mitchell Library, Sydney (N.S.W.); met toestemming van de autoriteiten door F.C. Wieder. Martinus Nijhoff, 's-Gravenhage. Nat. Lib. of Australia, NLq 994.601 WIE.

ZATTA, A. [1779-85]. Nuove scoperte fatte nel 1765, 67, e 69 nel Mare del Sud ..., [A. Zatta, Venezia]. Nat. Lib. of Australia, MAP RM 559.

Jan Tent (1)

(1) Jan Tent is a retired academic and current Director of the Australian National Placenames Survey. He is also an Honorary Senior Lecturer at the Australian National University, Canberra, and an Honorary Research Fellow at Macquarie University, Sydney. Jan's onomastic research has mainly concentrated on early European place-naming practices in Australasia, as well as the toponymy of Australia in general.

Caption: Figure 1. (Left) Anon. [c.1670]. The discovery of Arnhemsland, Australia, by the Yacht Arnhem, 1623 from the secret atlas of the East India Company, c. 1670. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague [1925-33]. (Nat. Lib. of Australia, MAP Ra 265 Plate 126. Online at https://nla.gov.au/ nla.obj-1066940560)

Caption: Figure 2. (Right) Flinders, M. (1814a). North west side of the Gulf of Carpentaria. G. and W. Nicol, London. (Nat. Lib. of Australia, MAP T 584. Online at https://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-232590528).

Caption: Figure 3. WIEDER, F.C. (1942). Tasman'skaartvanzijnAustralische ontdekkingen 1644 "de Bonaparte-kaart" ... (detail) 's-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff. (Nat. Lib. of Australia, NLq 994.601 WIE. Online at https://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-230600464)

Caption: Figure 4. ANON. [1669-1700] [Kaart van het Eiland Ceram, Bouro, een gedeelte van de Westkust van Nova Guinea, de Arouw Eilanden, Timor-laut, het Oostelykste gedeelte van Tymor en de daartusschen gelegen Eilanden] (detail). (Nationaal Archief, The Hague. Kaartcollectie Buitenland, Leupe, NL-HaNA 4.VEL 485).

Caption: Figure 5. Map summarising the four POSITIONS of the various Wesel(s) Eijland shown on maps catalogued in Table 1.

Caption: Figure 6. Valentin F. [1726]. De Landvoogdy derMoluccos met de aangrenzende Eylanden. (detail). In F. Valentijn, Oud en Nieuw Oost Indien. I. 2. Dordrecht-Amsterdam: F. Valentijn. p.2. (Nat. Lib. of Australia, MAP RM 3951. Online at https://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-232402653)

Caption: Figure 7. VALENTIJN, F. (1724-26). Oud en nieuw Oost-Indien : vervettende een naaukeurige en uitvoerige verhandelinge van Nederlands mogenthyd in die gewestenk, benevens eene wydluftige beschryvinge der Moluccos ... (detail) Joannes van Braam [et al.] , Dordrecht. (Nat. Lib. of Australia, RBf 919.2 VAL. Online at https://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-52673547/view?partId=nla.obj-52673552)

Caption: Figure 8. DALRYMPLE, A. (1788). Plan of the Islands to the Eastward and Southward of Banda with Part of the adjacent Coasts of New Guinea and New Holland from a Dutch Ms. ... (detail). A. Dalrymple, London. In INGLETON (1986) Matthew Flinders: Navigator and chart maker. Genesis Publications, Guildford (Surrey), in association with Hedley Australia. (Nat. Lib. of Australia, MAP RA 29 V. 3, PLATE 137. Online at http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-869248458).

Caption: Figure 9. WIEDER, F.C. (1942). Tasman's kaart van zijn Australische ontdekkingen 1644 "de Bonaparte-kaart".... Martinus Nijhoff,'s-Gravenhage. (Nat. Lib. of Australia, NLq 994.601 WIE. Online at https://nla.gov.au/nla.obj- 230600464)

Caption: Figure 10. Bonne, R. [1780] Carte des isles de la Sonde et des islesMoluques. [Geneve : J.L. Pellet]. Nat. Library of Australia, MAP NK 10182. [https://nla.gov.au/nla.obi-230713492/].
Table 1: Maps showing the existence of a Wesel(s) Eijland

Map No.  Creator                         Date

1        Wieder, F.C.                    [1644]
2        Anon                            [c. 1665]
3        de Graaf, I.                    1659-1700
4        Blaen J.                        1663
5        Tlievenot M.                    1663
6        Duval, P.                       1665
7        Anon                            c.1670
8        Danckerts, J.                   1670-1710
9        deWitF.                         1675?
10       vanKeulen J. & H. van Loon      1680
11       Robijn J.                       1683
12       VanKeulen J.                    1689
13       Goos, P.                        1690
14       de Graaff, I.                   1690-1743
15       Coronelli, V.                   1692 or 1693
16       Anon                            1696?
17       Loots, J.                       c.1700
18       Loots, J. & R. de Hooghe        c. 1707-08
19       vanKeulen, G.                   1720-26
20       vanBraam, J.                    1724-26
21       Valentijn, F.                   1724-26
22       Valentijn, F.                   1726
23       vanBraam, J.                    1726
24       Bowen, E.                       1744
25       de L'lsle, G.                   1745?
26       de Vaugondy, G.R.               1750
27       Beilin, J.N.                    1753
28       de Vaugondy, D.R.               1756
29       de Vaugondy, G.R.               1757-86?
30       de Haan, G.                     1760
31       Delaliaye, G.N.                 1761
32       Callander, J.                   1766
33       de L'Isle, G.                   1770-79?
34       Stockdale, J.                   1770-1814
35       de Vaugondy, G.R.               1778
36       Whitchurch, W.                  1770-79?
37       Zatta, A.                       1779-85
38       Bonne, R.                       1780
39       Jeffreys, T.                    1780
40       Anon                            1780-90?a

41       Anon.                           1780-90?b
42       Bew, J.                         1781
43       Sayer, R.                       1787
44       Jeffreys, T.                    1788
45       Dalrymple, A.                   1788
46       Dunn, S. & T. Kitchin           1794
47       Canzler, F.G.                   1795
48       von Reilly, F.J.J.              1795
49       Weigel, C. & A.G.               1796
         Schneiderschen
50       Laurie, R. & J. Whittle         1797
51       de Fieycinet L.C.D.             1802-03
52       Lapie, M.                       1809
53       de Fieycinet L.C.D.             1811
54       Flinders, M.                    1814 a&b
55       Walch. J.                       1826
56       Stucchi, S                      1830
57       Weiland, C.F.                   1830
58       Weiland, C.F.                   1846
59       Great Britain Hydrographic      1849
         Dept.
60       Melvill van Cambee, P.          1855

         Title                           What appears on the map

1        Tasman's kaart van zijn         Current Wessels Is. crudely
         Australische ontdekkingen       shown but not named
         1644 "de Bonaparte-kaart
2        [Map of the actual trade zone   Current Wessels Is. shown
         (octrooigebied) of the VOC,     but not labelled
         between Cape of Good Hope
         (South Africa) and Japan]
3        Kaart van den Indischen         Current Wessels Is. shown but
         Archipel, tusschen Sumatra en   not labelled + a Wessels
         Nova Guinea, zoomede de         Eylt futher out to the west
         Westkust van Hollandia Nova     in the Arafura Sea than on
         enz                             other charts
4        Archipelagus Orientalis,        Current Wessels Is. shown
         sive Asiaticus                  but not labelled
5        Hollandia Nova detecta 1644;    Current Wessels Is. crudely
         Terre Australe decouuerte       shown but not labelled
         l'an 1644
6        Carte des Indes Orientates ...  Current Wessels Is. crudely
                                         shown but not labelled
7        The discovery of Arnhemsland,   Current Wessels Is. crudely
         Australia, by the Yacht         shown and labelled Het
         Arnhem, 1623--from the secret    Eijlandt Spult
         atlas of the East India
         Company, c. 1670
8        India quae Orientalis deitur    Current Wessels Is. shown
         et Insulce Adiacentes           but not labelled
9        Orientaliora Indiarum           Current Wessels Is. shown
         Orientalium cum insulis         but not labelled
         adjacentibus a promontorio C.
         Comorin ad Japan ...
10       Nieuwe Pascaert                 Current Wessels Is. shown
         van Oost Indien ...             but not labelled
11       Nieuwe wassende graet           Current Wessels Is. shown
         Kaert van Oost Indien van       but not labelled
         d. C. d Bono Esperanca
         tot t'Lant Eso ...
12       Nieuwe Pascaert van             Current Wessels Is. shown
13       Oost lndien ...                 but not labelled
         Oost lndien wassende-           Current Wessels Is. shown
         Grade paskaart, vertoonende     but not labelled
         nevens het Oostelyckste van
         Africa, meede de zeekusten
         van Asia, van C. de Bona
         Esperanca tot Eso,
         boven Iapan
14       Kaart van het Eiland Ceram,     Map restricted to
         Bouro, een gedeelte van de      Ceram Am Kai
         Westkust van Nova Guinea        & Timor-Leste; shows Wesels
                                         Eylt just off the coast of
                                         Bomberai Peninsula, to the
                                         north of the Aru and Kai Is.
15       [Section of world map]          Current Wessels Is. crudely
                                         shown but not labelled
16       Oosterdeel van Oost Indien :    Current Wessels Is. shown
         streckende van Cilon tot Iapon  but not labelled
         en tot de Landrones Ilanden
17       Nieuwe Wassende Graadige        Current Wessels Is. Shown
         Passkaarte van                  but not labelled
         Oost Indien ...
18       [Unfinished wall map of         Current Wessels Is. shown
         the world,                      but not labelled
         eastern hemisphere].
19       De Oost Indische Zee.           Crudely drawn current Wessels
                                         Is. labelled Het Eijland
         Nova Guinea en Nova Hollandia   Spult + a Wesels Eyland just
                                         off the just off the coast of
                                         Bomberai Peninsula to the
                                         north of the Aru and Kai Is.
20       Tabula Indiae orientalis        Current Wessels Is. shown
         et regnorum adjacentium         and labelled Crocodils Eyland
21       Oud en nieuw Oost-Indien ...    Shows am island near current
                                         Wessels Is. which is labelled
                                         't Hoog Land ['The High Land']
                                         + a Wesels Eyland just off
                                         the just off the coast of
                                         Bomberai Peninsula to the
                                         north of the Aru and Kai Is.
22       De Landmogdy der Moluccos       Shows a 't Wesels Eyl. just
         met de aangrenzende Eylanden    off the just off the coast of
                                         Bomberai Peninsula to the
                                         north of the Aru and Kai Is. +
                                         another 't Wesels Eyland
                                         adjacent the north coast
                                         of West Papua
23       Kaart der Revse van Abel        Crudely drawn island near
         Tasman volgens svn              current Wessels Is.
         eygen opstel ...                labelled 't Hoogland
24       A Complete map of the           Current Wessels Is. shown
         Southern Continent ...          but not labelled
25       Hemisphere meridional pour      Current Wessels Is. shown
         voir plus distinctement les     and labelled I. des Crocodils
         Terres Australes ...
26       Archipel des Indes Orientales:  Map does not quite extend to
         qui comprend les Isles de la    current Wessels Is. but an I
         Sonde, Moluques et              Wessels out in the
         Philippines ...                 Arafura Sea
27       Ins kleine gebrachte karte      Current Wessels Is. shown
         von den Sud-Lcendem : zur       and labelled Crocodilen Insel
         Historie der Reisen ...
28       Carte Reduite de 1'             Current Wessels Is. shown but
         Australasie, pour sen'er a la   not labelled + an I. Wessels
         lecture de 1'Histoire des       further out to the west
         Terres Australes ...            in the Arafura Sea
29       Archipel deslndes Orientales:   Map does not quite extend to
         qui comprend les Isles de la    current Wessels Is., but
         Sonde, Moluques et              shows an I. Wessels out in the
         Philippines ...                 Arafura Sea
30       't Zuid Landt                   Part of current Wessels Is.
                                         shown and labelled droog
                                         Eijl ['dry Is.']
31       Hemisphere oriental             Current Wessels Is. shown
         ou de L'ancien monde            but not labelled + an I.
                                         Wesel out in the Arafura Sea
32       Reduced Chart of Australasia    Current Wessels Is. shown but
         for the III Volume of the       not labelled + an I. Wessels
         History of the Southern         further out to the west
         Continent ...                   in the Arafura Sea than on
                                         other charts
33       Hemisphere oriental             Current Wessels Is. not shown
34       A new chart of New Holland on   Current Wessels Is. not shown
         which are delineated New
         South Wales, and a plan for
         Botany Bay
35       Archipel des Indes Orientales,  Map does not quite extend
         qui comprend les Isles de la    to current Wessels Is., but
         Sonde, Moluques et              shows an I Wessels out in the
         Philippines ...                 Arafura Sea
36       Chart of part of the South      Current Wessel Is. shown
         Sea, shewing the tracts &       but not labelled
         discoveries made by
         His Majestys ships ...
37       Nuove scoperte fatte nel        Current Wessel Is. shown but
         1765, 67, e 69 nel Mare         not labelled + an I. Wessels
         del Sud ...                     out in the Arafura Sea
38       Carte des isles de la           A distorted island shown at
         Sonde et des isles Moluques     approx, current Wessels
                                         Is., labelled I. Wessels
39       A chart of the Indian           Shows a distorted island at
         Sea and Eastern Ocean           location of Wessels Is. + a
                                         Wesel I. out in the
                                         Arafura Sea
40       A chart exhibiting the new      Current Wessel Is. labelled
         discoveries in the north        Crocodile I. + an island out
         & south Pacific Ocean           into the Arafura Sea
                                         labelled Wesel
41       A chart exhibiting the new      Shows two distorted islands,
                                         unlabelled, in approx,
         discoveries in the north &      position of current Wessel
         south Pacific Ocean             Is. + one labelled Wesel out
                                         in the Arafura Sea
42       The archipelago of the East:    Map does not quite extend to
         being the Sunda, the Molucca,   current Wessels Is. but an I.
         and Phillipp Islands ...        Wessels out into the Arafura
                                         Sea

43       A new chart of the Indian and   Current Wessel Is. shown and
         Pacific Oceans between the      labelled Crocodile Is. + a
         Cape of Good Hope, New          Wesel I out in the
         Holland and Japan ...           Arafura Sea
44       A chart of the Indian           Current Wessel Is. shown but
         Sea and Eastern Ocean.          not labelled + a Wesel I
                                         out in the Arafura Sea
45       Plan of the Islands to the      Current Wessel Is. shown
         Eastward and Southward of       and trained Wesels Eyl + a
         Banda with Part of the          Wesel I. just off the just
         adjacent Coasts of New          off the coast of Boomberai
         Guinea and New Holland          Peninsula to the north of the
                                         Aru and Kai Is.
46       A General Map                   Current Wessels Is. shown
         of the World, ...               but not labelled + a Wesel
                                         I. out in the Arafura Sea
47       Karte von Funften Erdtheil      Current Wessels Is. shown but
         Polynaesien inselwelt oder      not labelled + a Wesel I.
         Australien od Sudindien         out in the Arafura Sea
48       Karte von des Inselwelt         Current Wessel Is. shown but
         Polynesien odei deim            not labelled + a Wesel I.
         Funften Welttheile              out in the Arafura Sea
49       Karte von Australien            Current Wessel Is. shown but
         oder Polynesien ...             not labelled + a Wesel I.
                                         out in the Arafura Sea
50       Laurie and Whittle's new chart  Current Wessels Is. shown
         of the Indian and Pacific       and labelled Crocodie Is.
         Oceans between the Cape of      + a Wesel I. out into the
         Good Hope, New Holland and      the Arafura Sea
         Japan
51       Carte de la Nouvelle Hollande   Current Wessel Is.
         et des archipels: situes au     shown but not labelled
         nord et a 1'estde cette ile
         ...
52       Oceanique.                      Current Wessels. Is. not
                                         shown, instead an I. Wessel
                                         just off the just off the
                                         coast of Boomberai Peninsula
                                         to the north of the Aru and
                                         Kai Is.
53       Carte generale de la            Current Wessel Is. shown
         Nouvelle Hollande ...           further to the west but
                                         not labelled
54       North west side of the Gulf of  Only south and eastern coasts
         Carpentaria & Chart of Terra    current Wessels Islands shown
         Australis. Sheet II, North      and labelled Wessels Islands
         coast
55       Australien (Sudland) auch       Current Wessels Is. shown
         Polynesien oder Inselwelt,      as a small distorted island
         insgemein der funfte            but not labelled + a Wesel I.
         Welttheil ...                   out into the Arafura Sea

56       Oceanica o quinta               Current Wessels Is. not
         parte del mondo                 shown, but just a few
                                         scattered small islands + a
                                         crude clump of three islands
                                         labelled Wessels just off the
                                         just off the coast of
                                         Boinberai Peninsula to the
                                         north of the Am and Kai Is
57       Australien nach Krusentern,     Current Wessel Is. shown and
         Flinders, Freycinet,            labelled Wessels In + a
         Oxley, Cross ...                Wessels I. just off the just
                                         off the coast of Boomberai
                                         Peninsula to the north
                                         of the Aru and Kai Is.
58       Australien nach Krusenstern,    Current Wessel Is. shown and
         Flinders, Freycinet,            labelled C. Wessel + an I.
         Oxley, King, Sturt              Wessel just off the just off
         und Mitchell ...                the coast of Boomberai
                                         Peninsula to the north of the
                                         Aru and Kai Is.
59       General chart of Terra          Current Wessels Is. shown
         Australis, or Australia ....    and labelled Wezel I.s
60       Algemeene kaart van het         Current Wessels Is. shown
         Gouvernement der                and labelled Wezel
         Moluksche Eilanden, 1855

Table 2. Summary of various depictions of Wesel(s) Eijland
on the 60 maps in Table 1. (5)

Ref. #               What the maps show                # of maps

    1   A Wesel(s) Eijland shown off the                   9
        coast of Bomberai Peninsula
    2   A Wesel(s) Eijland shown out                       20
        in the Arafura Sea
    3   No island shown at location                        3
        of current Wessel Is.
    4   Current Wessel Is. shown but not labelled          32
    5   Current Wessel Is. shown, labelled with            11
        another name (in either Dutch, English,
    6   Current Wessel Is. shown and thus labelled         7
        French or German forms)

Ref. #  Date range

    1   Late-1600s to mid-1800s ~ 160 year period
    2   Mid-1700s to early-1800s ~ 50 year period
    3   Late-1700s to early-1800s ~ 30 year period
    4   Mid-1600s to early-1800s ~ 160 year period
    5   Late 1600s to mid-1700s ~ 60 year period
    6   1780 onwards
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Title Annotation:Wessel Islands, Australia
Author:Tent, Jan
Publication:The Globe
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:8AUST
Date:Jan 1, 2019
Words:11605
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