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COMMENTATORS ON THE MUSIC of Bernard Rands have spoken of a "continuous line" or "continuous thread," the development of which makes a section or whole piece coherent. [1] In Rands's choral song cycle Canti d'Amor, based on selections from James Joyce's Chamber Music, a pedal point often serves as the basis for such a continuity. This article will consider three songs in the cycle that grow out of and back into pedal points: No. 11, "Silently She's Combing," No. 12, "Gentle Lady, Do Not Sing Sad Songs," and No. 15, "All Day I Hear the Noise of Waters Making Moan." Although these songs take their pedals as starting points and continually return to them, it is sometimes difficult to hear the songs as functionally tonal. Rands organizes the harmony in several different ways: functional harmonic progressions that point toward the pedal as tonic exist alongside passages that emphasize the pedal contextually through repetition or accent and use familiar diatonic chords, yet without functional harmony. Other passage s consist of successions of symmetrical chords built around the pedal that do not direct the listener's attention toward it in any systematic way. (If the pitch class of the pedal is emphasized in this third kind of passage, it is mainly through contextual means.) Still other passages are most fruitfully characterized as atonal; when they ultimately return to the pedal it comes as a surprise. To sum up, sometimes these songs can be construed as "tonal," sometimes "centric" (and sometimes neither).

In addition to the tonal and centric ways of spinning out a continuous line from the pedal, Rands organizes the musical elements according to text-painting of two different kinds: the "structural" and "semantic" text-painting named in this article's tide. "Structural" text-painting refers to making the music parallel and highlight features of the text's structure. For example, when setting a poem in which the same word or phrase returns at different places in the line in different stanzas, the composer could highlight this feature by setting the word or phrase with identical or similar material each time it appears. In this way, the musical structure parallels that of the text, bringing back the same motive in different contexts. Or the composer could imitate the rhyme scheme of a stanza or whole poem by setting rhyming words with identical or similar sonorities. Numerous other parallels could be drawn between the stress patterns and meter of the poem and the accent patterns and meter of the piece.

"Semantic" text-painting reflects the meaning of the words. Rands uses (and often combines) two interrelated techniques of semantic text-painting in these songs: either subjecting musical elements to a process that parallels the action being described in the text, or associating certain sonorities, motives or rhythmic elements with certain topics. I will call these depictive text-painting and associative text-painting respectively--both are prevalent in the songs and vocal music of earlier twentieth-century composers. Depictive text painting is typical of Arnold Schoenberg's songs, and he describes it clearly in a lecture he wrote for a radio broadcast of his op. 22 Orchester-Lieder.

My music, however, took representational words into account in the same way as abstract ones: it furthered the immediate, vivid rendering of the whole and of its parts, according to the measure of their meaning within the whole. Now, if a performer speaks of a passionate sea in a different tone of voice than he might use for a calm sea, my music does nothing else than to provide him with the opportunity to do so, and to support him. The music will not be as agitated as the sea, but it will be differently so, as, indeed, the performer will be. Even a painting does not reproduce its whole subject matter; it merely states a motionless condition. Likewise, a word describes an object and its state; a film reproduces it without color, and a color film would reproduce it without organic life. Only music, however, can bestow this last gift, and that is why music may impose a limit on its capacity to imitate--by placing the object and its being before the mind's eye, through performance. [2]

Schoenberg is describing a technique whereby musical processes, for his music particularly in the motivic realm, mirror the processes described by the text. His op. 22 songs are full of this kind of mirroring, if we associate motive-forms remote from the original motive with confusion and forms closer to the original with peace. Text that describes being "tempest-tossed on life's passionate sea," for instance, is set by motives that quickly become more remote from the original. Text referring to the "serenity" of a beloved's "hiding place" is given motives that return to forms close to the original, different from the original only in that their intervals are expanded. [3]

The second kind of semantic text-painting, associating particular motives, sonorities, or families of such that are subsets of a larger collection with particular topics, can be a component of depictive text-painting. Sometimes it is not obvious that such associations are parts of definite processes, though, and in these situations we can speak of "associative" text-painting. This approach is exemplified by Stravinsky's Firebird, where the composer associates the diatonic scale with human characters and the octatonic scale with supernatural characters, or by Alban Berg's Wozzeck, which carries the leitmotivic approach of Richard Wagner over into atonal music in that Berg associates certain set classes with the principal characters in the drama and other set classes with certain topics. [4]

Locating and describing instances of associative text-painting can create certain pitfalls for the analyst. Probably the main one involves small motives and sonorities that can be included in more than one referential collection. As a hypothetical example, we might want to claim that the appearance of set class 4-3 (0134) in one of these Rands songs signifies a supernatural topic, because 4-3 is a contiguous subset of the octatonic scale, and Rands, like Stravinsky, associates the octatonic with the supernatural. But our claim could easily be refuted by the fact that 4-3 also belongs to the harmonic minor scale; thus, without further evidence referring the subset to either the octatonic or harmonic minor collections, it would be unclear whether it signifies something supernatural or human. Clearly, we need some sort of criteria to help us determine to what collection a subset should be attributed when it can belong to more than one. I will be using two such criteria in my analyses of the Rands songs: (1) Pre fer the collection that is most clearly projected by the immediate context of the motive or sonority in question. In our hypothetical example above, the question to ask would be: do the measures before and/or after the motive complete either the octatonic or the harmonic minor collection implied by the subset? (2) If larger subsets unambiguous with respect to their parent collection appear in close proximity to the ambiguous, smaller subset, prefer the collection determined by those larger subsets, particularly if the larger subsets happen to contain the smaller subset in question. (This second criterion can be helpful in situations where a referential collection does not complete itself but is unambiguously determined by the larger subsets, and it can also serve-- minus the final clause--in situations where different transpositions of a collection are implied by the larger and smaller subsets.)

We will now consider the above-mentioned songs from Canti d'Amor showing how Rands projects pedal points into "continuous lines" tonally and symmetrically, as well as how he motivates and organizes chords through structural and semantic text-painting.

The text of No. 11, "Silently She's Combing," is provided in Example 1 and a copy of the score with certain set classes labeled in Example 2.

In "Silently She's Combing," Rands extends a basic structure out from the pedal point, F, which is tonal and symmetrical at the same time--the F Dorian scale. (See Example 3.) His strategy for most of the song's eight lines is to begin with F Dorian, then gradually introduce tones foreign to Dorian on key words of the text, first forming transpositions or inversions of subsets of the diatonic collection, then eventually producing collections that cannot refer to the diatonic collection as a parent. At the end of the line, he returns to the pitch classes of the referential scale, sometimes combining them in ways that suggest functional progressions leading back toward F as tonic.

I propose that this progression from diatonic/symmetrical towards chromatic in individual lines portrays the poem's central image--a beautiful woman combing her long hair, who bewitches her admirer, throwing him off the track. The main support for my proposal is Rands's habit of setting the chromatic pitch classes on words associated with the woman's hair or her attractive singing, such as "long hair" or "pretty air." Let us take a closer look at how this works out in the first two lines of the song.

Example 4 provides a voice-leading graph for the first line, "Silently she's combing, combing her long hair." [5] Rands stays with the F Dorian scale through measure 8, beginning with A[flat] and E[flat] as diminutions of the pedal on "Silently she's combing" (a two-voice, almost heterophonic texture parallels the image of the silent woman here). In measure 7 (last eighth) and measure 8, with the words "combing her," he brings in three more members of Example 3's symmetrical structure, D, C, and G. But with the onset of "long" in measure 9, the gradual expansion out from F through the Dorian scale is interrupted by a foreign A[natural], and at "hair," two more foreign pitch classes intrude, B[natural] and D[flat]. The A[natural] in measure 9 forms set class 4-27 (0258) with its accompanying pitch classes, E[flat], F, and C--this dominant seventh chord is a transposition of B[flat] D F A[flat] and a transposed inversion of D F A[flat] C, both subsets of the referential collection. In addition, the three notes that accompany A[natural] (C, E[flat], and F) are a transposed inversion of the opening motive of the line, F-E[flat] - A[flat]. All these transpositions and inversions make the downbeat of measure 9 sound like familiar material, even though a foreign pitch class is introduced. The chord in measure 10 on "hair," which brings in the second foreign pitch class, sounds much less familiar in the F Dorian context. B[natural] together with E[flat], F, and G yields 4-24 (0248), a set that has no transpositions or inversions within the diatonic collection. Thus we can hear a gradual move first toward pitch classes and then interval collections unfamiliar in the initial context. After the onset of 4-24 in measure 10, Rands returns to the Dorian scale (excepting D[flat] on the third eighth note of the measure), also returning to the tonic F through contrary motion.

In line 2, "Silently and graciously, with many a pretty air," Rands again establishes F Dorian initially, then derails it through foreign pitch classes on and before the key words at line's end. (See Example 5.) The beginning of the line returns to F, E[flat], and A[flat], the original 3-7 (025), paralleling Joyce's return to the word "silently" that had initiated the first line, and portraying again the meaning of this word (through the reduction in texture). But this time a pitch class outside of F Dorian butts in a little sooner than in the previous line-this is G[flat] on the downbeat of measure 13, which enters on the last syllable of "graciously" (i.e., before the caesura in line 2). The G[flat], with the F and A[flat] that accompany it, forms set class 3-2 (013), a subset that occurs multiply in the diatonic collection. As Example 5 shows, the next two foreign pitch classes, A[natural] and F[sharp], also form transpositions of diatonic subsets with the pitch classes that surround them, 5-24 (01357) an d 4-14 (0237). But with the word "air" on the second dotted quarter of measure 14, the foreign E[natural] together with C, G[sharp], and D yields 4-24 (0248), which, as we have seen already, is not a subset of the diatonic collection. In line 2, then, we can hear the same gradual progression from foreign pitch classes to foreign interval collections that characterized line 1; and not only that, both progressions culminate in foreign interval collections that belong to the same set class, 4-24 (which is Rands's way of paralleling the end rhyme). The only difference is that line 2's progression through foreign pitch classes to foreign set classes starts sooner and comes to pass more gradually.

At the end of line 2, Rands again gradually weeds out the foreign pitch classes and approaches the tonic from opposite directions (as Example 5 shows, he never does get all the way to the tonic sung alone, but ends on E[flat] and F together). One of the sonorities in the succession during measures 15 and 16 is noteworthy. The 4-27 (0258) on the downbeat of measure 15 has the right pitch classes to serve as a [[V.sup.4].sub.2] in F major or minor. Rands never does resolve this chord to [I.sup.6], but its occurrence in an accented position near the line's cadence hints strongly at functional tonality, a suggestion that the composer will reinforce in later lines.

In the musical setting of line 3, "The sun is in the willow leaves and on the dappled grass," there are two features that deserve consideration. These are the shift to a different pedal point (E) and referential scale (Locrian), and the introduction of set class 3-3 (014) as a foreign interval collection. This parallels a shift in image in the poem's third line from the woman combing her hair to a morning scene outside her window. As Example 6 illustrates, E Locrian is not symmetrical around its keynote, nor can the composer define the tonic in E Locrian easily through functional chord progressions (owing to the notorious diminished fifth above the tonic).

The main clues to the central role of E in this line are repetition and the retention of the upper minor third and lower whole step diminutions that had helped to tonicize F in the previous lines. Though Rinds changes pedal point and referential scale, his strategy in line 3 is a microcosm of that of the other two-in this case, he derails E Locrian by introducing one foreign pitch class and one foreign interval collection. The foreign pitch class is C [sharp], and the set class that arises from it both horizontally and vertically is 3-3 (014). See Example 7 for a segmentation of measures 17-19. Set-class 3-3 is formed as C C[sharp] E four times within these measures, twice as part of a symmetrical melodic pattern around E, and twice between the solo and accompanimental voice. This set class is not a subset of the diatonic collection, so Rands is bringing in the foreign pitch class and the foreign interval collection simultaneously in this brief line. As had occurred in the previous lines, line 3 returns to th e prevailing scale in measure 19; but at the very end of the line, the accompanying voice introduces another foreign pitch class, an accented E[flat], which brings about C E E[flat] with the surrounding notes. This set is a transposed inversion of the C C[sharp] E in the previous measures. [6] The E[flat] in measure 19 can at the same time be heard as initiating the accompaniment to line 4, so that there is an overlap between the two lines.

Since line 4, "And still she's combing her long hair before the looking-glass," returns to the image of the woman combing, it is given music that returns to F as pedal point and the Dorian scale. Two other features of the line are worth mentioning: first, Rands continues to generate sets belonging to 3-3, the foreign interval collection of the previous line; second, he gives "long hair" in the middle of this line exactly the same music those words had when they occurred at the end of line 1. The resulting effect of both features is that F Dorian falls by the wayside more quickly than it did in the first two lines. The first 3-3, F F[sharp] A, occurs in conjunction with the line's first foreign pitch class (F[sharp]) in measures 20-21. This motive projects the same ordered pitch intervals, (+1,+3), as the first melodic 3-3 in measures 17-18. Because of this motivic similarity, one gets the clear impression that ideas from the previous line are carrying over into line 4, even though the pedal and scale have ch anged. This apparentiy is meant to depict a text image; the woman going back to comb her hair again (or the poet refocusing on the image of her combing her hair) while the sun continues to shine on the leaves and grass outside. Set class 3-3 is heard again at measure 22 in the bass, this time at the same pitch-class level found at measures 17-18.

Between these two instances of set class 3-3, in measure 21 and the first eighth of measure 22, Rands provides an illustration of the kind of structural text-painting that sets words that recur in different contexts in the poem to the same music--in this case, "long hair." Comparing measures 21-22 with measure 9 and the first eighth note of measure 10, we find identical pitches and rhythms. As before, A[natural] gives rise to set class 4-27 and B[natural] in the bass produces 4-24, projecting the same motion from foreign pitch class to foreign interval collection. But in line 4, the words "long hair" come in the middle of the line, before the caesura, so that the progression from F Dorian towards chromatic music speeds up considerably in comparison with the first two lines. This trend was already evident in line 2, and will continue for the rest of the song. I interpret it as still another approach to depictive text-painting: it is Rands's way to portray the poet progressively losing his head over the beauti ful woman combing her long hair.

Line 4 ends in measure 23, second dotted quarter, with a [[V.sup.4].sub.2], as had line 2 (The chord in measure 23 confirms the identification of the one on the downbeat of measure 15 as [[V.sup.4].sub.2], because it adds a clear, unimpeded resolution to tonic to other factors such as metrical accent which had made the first chord sound cadential). The resolution of this dominant to a tonic pitch on the downbeat of measure 24 leads into a recap of the repeated F with E[flat] and A[flat] diminutions that had begun the song. This material has a formal function, dividing the song into two sections of four lines each. The fifth line, "I pray you, cease to comb out, comb out your long hair," illustrates the same basic strategy as line 1--expanding out from F through the Dorian structure of Example 3--but adds a few new twists. As had been the case in lines 3 and 4, the first foreign pitch class, G[flat] in measure 28, forms set class 3-3 with its immediate neighbors G and E[flat]. A measure later, the same pc enh armonically spelled as F[sharp] returns on "your," forming the same set class again with F and A. The prominence of 3-3 here, particularly the forms including a half step and minor third as adjacent intervals, forms a motivic link back from line 5 to lines 3 and 4, signifying the continued presence of the sun on the leaves and grass. (It also forms a link to the final song in the cycle, much of which is based on symmetrical structures that alternate half steps and minor thirds.)

Line 5 ends like line 1 with the words "long hair," and Rands repeats the musical setting from measures 9-10 (and measures 21-22) to parallel the returning words. This time, though, some things have changed, starting with the second quarter note of measure 30, where the solo's D is given an accompaniment different from the corresponding spot in line 1 (measure 9, second quarter), on account of the bass dropping a half-step to B. B E[flat] F D belongs to set class 4-12 (0236), and is not a transposition or inversion of a diatonic subset. In comparison with line 1, Rands has sped up the movement toward foreign interval collections by one-half measure-not accelerating the process as much as line 4's early declaration of "long hair," but still continuing the trend toward bringing in foreign pitch classes and set classes earlier as the song progresses.

Line 6, "For I have heard of witchery under a pretty air," is the second place in the song where Rands shifts both the pedal and referential scale. The pedal becomes G (the first long note and last note in the alto in this line, and root of the repeated triad in the latter half of measure 31), and the referential scale becomes G harmonic minor. Despite the shift in pedal and scale, Rands's overarching strategy of gradually introducing chromatic pitch classes holds steady. In this line, the first three foreign pitch classes, B[natural] in the soprano, A[flat] in the bass and F[natural] in the alto, occur at the word "witchery" on the downbeat of measure 32. (This correspondence strongly supports the parallel I have been suggesting between foreign pitch classes and the notion of the poet being bewitched by the woman's long hair.) Together with the D in the tenor, B[natural], A[flat], and F form a fully-diminished seventh chord, 4-28 (0369), which transposes a subset of the harmonic minor collection (set class 7-32 (0134689)). Rands continues to introduce pitch classes foreign to G harmonic minor in measures 32-34, but just like the B[natural], A[flat], and F in measure 32, they form sets whose transpositions or inversions can be found within set class 7-32. As Example 2 shows, these include set classes 4-27, 4-24, 3-12 (048), and 4-19 (0148). So in line 6, the "witchery" does not seem to be depicted by a quick move to foreign interval collections, but rather merely through the introduction of chromatic pitches, as well as the change of pedal and referential scale.

One other remarkable (but also predictable) feature of line 6 is Rands's setting of the final words "pretty air" with a repetition of the music from the earlier occurrence of those words in line 2 at measures 14-15. Only two pitches are different in measures 33-34; the D in the tenor replaces what had been an F, and the bass adds A[flat]. The new notes create a 4-27 (0258) on the downbeat of measure 33, a subset of the harmonic minor collection. Even though the rest of Rands's setting of "pretty air" is identical to the earlier version, the context has changed, so that sets like 4-27, 4-24 and 3-12 (048) that had been foreign to the prevailing scale are now transpositions of subsets of the harmonic minor collection. The last of these transpositions, C E G B[flat] on the downbeat of measure 34, serves as a transition back from G minor to F, resolving to tonic (though both active tones lead in the direction opposite to the norm) at the beginning of line 7.

The seventh line is marked by a return to F Dorian and also by a dramatic thinning of the texture. Rands scales down to two voices and begins the solo with a single pitch class in octaves, C, portraying the unitary aspect of the lover's ambivalence in this line-"that makes as one thing to the lover, staying and going hence." As in line 3, Rands creates a foreign interval collection with the first foreign pitch class, F[sharp] (though not the first time the F[sharp] occurs). This F[sharp] gives rise to F F[sharp] C in measure 36, a member of set class 3-5 (016) which transposes a diatonic subset. In measure 37, F[sharp] returns again, this time as part of the ascent C D E[flat] F[sharp] G, which recalls the G minor of line 6. Taken together with the accompaniment, though, the notes immediately surrounding the F[sharp] in measure 37, D, E[flat], G, and F, produce set class 5-3 (01245), which is not contained within the diatonic collection. At what we would consider to be the end of line 7's sentence, the last two eighth notes of measure 37 and downbeat of measure 38 (Joyce's text enjambs the sentence so that the words "all fair" carry over into line 8), Rands reverts to F Dorian pitch classes, emphasizing the tonic by resolving the foreign pitch class (now spelled as G[flat]) as a phrygian [flat][hat{2}] down to it.

In the final line, Joyce shifts the words "pretty air" as far forward in the line as they have yet been: "All fair, with many a pretty air and many a negligence." Since Rands again repeats the musical setting from prior occurrences of "pretty air," pitches foreign to F Dorian occur as close to the beginning of the line as they have yet in the song. The A[natural] in measure 38 yields a member of 4-21 (0246), a diatonic subset, and the F[sharp] in the alto at measure 39 creates 4-14 (0237), another diatonic subset. On the second quarter of measure 39, E[natural] and G[sharp] introduce 4-24 (0248), which is the same foreign interval collection that consummated the motion in lines 1 and 2, but now in line S it happens before the caesura.

The remainder of line 8 returns toward and establishes the home key of F Dorian. Foreign notes D[flat] and B[natural] in the bass of measure 40 help to form 4-21 and 4-27, diatonic subsets, and, as part of a descending chromatic scale, sound like passing tones. E[natural] in the soprano and alto on the downbeat of measure 41 forms with C and A[flat] an augmented triad, 3-12 (048), which is not a diatonic subset. The notes following this E[natural], however, help us to understand it as a leading tone to the tonic F (i.e., the music steps out of its referential collection only to emphasize its tonic). Rands reinforces F's function by returning once more to the A[flat] consonant skip and E[flat] lower neighbor that had embellished F at the piece's beginning. But something happens right at the final cadence to blur the F Dorian interpretation. The alto sings a segment of the prevailing scale, and the tenor sings a mirror of the alto with three alterations, creating the interval succession (+1, +1, +2, -1, -2, -1 ) rather than the exact mirror (+1, +2, +2, -2, -2, +2). Because of the adjustments, not only are there foreign pitch classes (an exact mirror around E[flat] would have yielded these also) but the ascending and descending tetrachords 4-2 (0124) and 4-3 (0134) in the tenor are foreign interval collections with respect to the diatonic collection. Thus the final measures serve as a reminder of the song's overall strategy.

In summary, we can see that many and varied organizational principles influence Song 11, including symmetrical ordering of pitch classes around F, the Dorian scale, and functional progressions that suggest F major or minor at certain crucial points (namely, the ends of lines 2, 4, 6, and 8). Structural text painting is illustrated by the use of similar sonorities to set rhyming words (e.g., "hair" and "air" at the ends of lines 1 and 2) and also by Rands's habit of repeating, or nearly repeating, the musical settings of words that repeat in different contexts, such as "long hair" and "pretty air." [7] Finally, depictive text-painting shapes this song on a number of levels. The general, overarching motion from diatonic[rightarrow]chromatic, from familiar[rightarrow]unfamiliar, that characterizes each line parallels the whole poem's central topic--the bewitching effect of the lovely woman combing her long hair. But depictive parallels influence the song locally as well, such as the use of thinner textures and set-class 3-7 at the beginning to represent the woman silently combing. [8]

The next song in the cycle, "Gentle Lady, Do Not Sing Sad Songs," No. 12, adopts a similar approach to projecting a continuous line out of the song's pedal point, B[nature]. (As before, Example 8 provides Song 12's text, while Example 9 reproduces the score.)

In Song 12, consonant/triadic sonorities that establish a note as central functionally or contextually are set against dissonant/symmetrical sonorities, in the same way that diatonic and chromatic were set against each other in Song 11. Joyce's poem seems to put forward two opposing complexes of topics, introduced by the commands "Do not sing" and "Sing." On the one side there are love and the sadness one feels at the end of love, and on the other side sleep and its more final relative, death, which temporarily or permanently quiet love as well as the sadness that comes with love's end. Rands depicts the death of love and sadness within most lines (and some half-lines) of the setting by moving from consonant intervals and triads at the beginning to dissonant, symmetrical structures at the end. Each line or half-line (except the last half of line 4) begins by establishing the pedal B as tonic or as G[sharp] submediant, sometimes through chord progressions hinting at functional harmony, sometimes by surrounding B and G[sharp] with consonant intervals, in addition to contextual means (repeating B or G[sharp] or placing them on the downbeat, for example). But by the end of the half-line or line, a dissonant subset of a symmetrical structure around B (or a transposition of such a subset) takes over. In the last half of line 4, the dissonant subsets obliterate whatever traces of centric or functional harmony are left. The symmetrical structure from which these subsets arise is shown in Example 10. Only two chords in Song 12 derive from it, the minor-major seventh C E[flat] G B and the minor seventh C E[flat] G B[flat], comprising only five notes of the structure, but more of it appears three songs later in No. 15, a song that portrays the emotional numbness of the poet when his love has been taken away.

The question arises whether a listener can hear C E[flat] G B and C E[flat] G B[flat] as part of a larger referential symmetrical pattern, when the rest of the pattern does not appear until later in the song cycle. (As we will see, Example 10 does not occur as a whole even in Song 15, but is suggested more strongly there as a referential collection by the use of more of its subsets.) As I hear it, the complete process involving the minor-major seventh as an agent in the destruction of functional tonality in Songs 12 and 15 (the minor seventh chord plays a parallel but less significant role) becomes clear once we have reached the end of Song 15. Repeated hearings of the two songs with or without the intervening songs are necessary to understand how C E[flat] G B is "symmetrical." After repeated hearings, one grasps C E[flat] G B and its transpositions in Song 12 as the beginning of a procedure spanning both songs that first introduces the minor-major seventh chord as a tonality-disrupting influence, then make s it the most salient chord in the music, and finally presents it in a larger number of different transpositions, which together form the referential structure shown in Example 10 (and also another structure that is symmetrical around B and alternates minor thirds and half-steps). By means of this procedure, symmetry around the pedal point gradually takes over the organizing role functional tonality had played, effectively depicting the story line in Songs 12 and 15, the gradual death of the poet's love (tonality = love, symmetry = death of love).

I have portrayed each line or half-line of Song 12 in a layered format, constructed to show the gradual introduction of dissonant, symmetrical chords and structures. The graph of line lA (plus the words "sad songs" from line 1B) can be found in Example 11. The example shows that the pedal B in tenor and bass is decorated from beginning to end of the half-line with neighbor notes, intervals, and sonorities, and that these neighbors become progressively more dissonant. In measures 1-2, B is emphasized contextually by its placement on consecutive downbeats, and it also sustains as a pedal point through measure 3. It alternates with its lower neighbor B[flat], set as a single pitch. In measures 4-6, since B[flat] combines with D in the alto melody, while B[natural] underlies F[sharp], the alto harmonizes both the pedal and its neighbor with consonant intervals; a perfect consonance for the pedal and an imperfect one for the neighbor. Finally, the bass's first B[flat] in measure 6 combines with C[sharp], F, and A in the upper voices, forming the most dissonant sonority yet in the first half-line, an enharmonically spelled minor-major seventh chord (B[flat] D[flat] F A) that belongs to set class 4-19 (0148). As suggested above, this chord serves as a premonition of the way in which Rands will eventually break up tonality in Song 12. It is a transposition of C E[flat] G B, the subset of Example 10's symmetrical structure that will become conspicuous later in the song and will draw the listener's attention away from B as tonal center. But the specific transposition of this chord in measure 6 has three pitches that are half-step neighbors to members of the B minor triad (and resolve as such), so that its tonality-destroying power is still only latent.

Line 1B, graphed in Example 12, projects the motion from tonality to dissonance inspired by symmetry in a more obvious way. Measure 7 and the first half of measure 8 sustain the B pedal and decorate it with lower neighbor B[flat]s--notice that the B[natural]s in measures 7-8 are combined with pitches creating consonant intervals (F[sharp] and D) while the B[flat]s combine with other pitches to form dissonant intervals (A[natural], F[sharp]), which reinforces the perception of the B[natural] as central. However, if we understand certain segments of this passage (the three-note sets in dotted lines) in another way, as interval collections, we recognize that Rands is preparing for another half-line-ending 4-19 (0148) by presenting transpositions and inversions of its subset 3-3 (014). It should be mentioned here that set class 4-19 is not foreign to the tonality as were some of the line-ending set classes in Song 11--it can be formed as a subset of the B minor scale (B D F[sharp] A[sharp]). But the specific tra nsposition given in measure 8, the minor-major seventh chord C E[natural] G B, cannot function in B except as a subset of a symmetrical interval pattern around the tonic, and thus it looks forward to later passages in which B's centrality is obscured by such subsets.

Line 2, "lay aside sadness and sing how love that passes is enough," is given a musical parallel when the composer lays aside the set class 4-19 (0148) that had intruded into lines 1A and 1B. Faint traces of it can be heard in the transpositions B D F[sharp] B[flat] that are indicated on Example 13 with dotted enclosures. But these sets are probably better understood as a tonic triad with B[flat] passing tone and an enharmonically-spelled sub-mediant seventh chord (A[flat] for G[sharp]) with B[flat] passing tone. The overall context that motivates the latter interpretation is a shift in emphasis from the tonic in B minor to chords that are enharmonic equivalents to the submediant seventh chords [vi.sup.[phi]7] and [vi.sup.[phi]7].

Rands first establishes B as tonic on the words "lay aside sadness and sing" by placing it on relatively accented beats (consecutive third beats) and by accompanying the second B (third beat of measure 10) with a D and F[sharp] that have longer durations than the surrounding notes. Then the line moves to a chord on the downbeat of measure 11 that appears to arise through passing down to A[flat] against the retained B minor triad, but it can also be heard within the key of B minor as a [vi.sup.[phi]7]. The third beat of measure 11 returns to the B minor triad, only to progress to a chord in measure 12 (A [flat] D F E) that can be heard (if we again substitute G[sharp] for A [flat]) as a submediant seventh with diminished seventh and added sixth, a close relative of the common-tone diminished seventh chord. These motions away from the tonic to a dissonant chord on the submediant seem to depict the notion of love passing--after measure 11, the complete tonic of B minor never returns, and the home key consequen tly becomes more ambiguous.

At the beginning of line 3, measures 13-14, Rands further emphasizes the G[sharp] submediant by briefly giving it an applied dominant on the first two beats of measure 14 before reminding the listener that it is a diminished triad on the downbeat of measure 15. (See Example 14 for a graph of line 3.)

Immediately afterward, he begins to introduce pitch-symmetrical and pitch-class symmetrical structures around B and subsets of those structures, in addition to interval collections that belong to the set classes of those subsets, all of which have the effect of weakening the tonality and the emphasis on vi. Some of these elements are not related to the mirror I presented above as Example 10; others derive from it. The first symmetrical structure is presented melodically: Example 15 shows that the soprano line in measures 15-16 is a mirror around B of the bass line, transposed an octave higher.

The C[natural] and E[flat] created by this pitch-class mirror begin to work against the prolongation of the vi chord in B minor. Measures 16 and 17 follow this initial move with a series of three chords on "long," "deep," "sleep," and "lovers," which are either symmetrical themselves or are subsets of referential symmetrical structures that will become more recognizable in Song 15. "Long" on measure 16's downbeat and second beat is 5-33 (02468), a subset of the whole-tone scale, and the particular instantiation of it here (F[sharp] A[flat] B[flat] C D) is pitch-class-symmetrical around B[flat], not B. Set-class 5-33 is only mentioned once in Song 12, but it will play an important role in Song 15 in a form that is pitch-symmetrical around B: [G.sub.3] [A.sub.3] [B.sub.3] [C[sharp].sub.4] [D[sharp].sub.4]. The latter set is associated with the text image of turbulent waters in measures 2, 6, and 15 of Song 15; in Song 12, 5-33 seems to depict the loss of purpose or direction caused by the lovers' death. On the third beat of measure 16, the subset of Example 10's structure that ends line 2 of Song 12, B-C-E[flat]-G, returns on the word "sleep" ("deep" in the accompanying voices). These four pitch classes will return at the final cadence, signifying death's neutralizing of love and sadness. On measure 17's downbeat, Rands sets the first syllable of "lovers" ("sleep" in the accompaniment) with the minor-major seventh F A[flat] C E, a pitch-class transposition of the preceding chord. All three of these chords weaken the hold of G[sharp] as submediant and the B minor tonality as a whole. At the same time, they serve as premonitions of the symmetrical subsets that will end this song and provide much of the harmonic vocabulary of Song 15.

In measures 18 and 19, Rands pulls the music back towards G[sharp], finishing the bass's echo of "that are dead" with the equivalent of a [[V.sup.6].sub.5]/vi chord in measure 19 and B-A[flat] in measure 20, comprising (enharmonically) the root and third of the vi chord itself. With the beginning of line 4, however, we move into a zone where symmetrical chords and subsets again come to the fore, dissipating whatever sense of tonality has been recaptured. (A graph of line 4 A can be found in Example 16.)

Almost immediately, Rinds introduces a chromatic tetrachord on the word "grave," which is pitch-symmetrical around [C.sub.4] and [D[flat].sup.4]. This 4-19 (0123), in a way similar to the 5-33 in line 3 and the 4-19 minor-major seventh chords throughout the song, looks forward to the contiguous chromatic scale segments that fan out from the pedal B in lines 3 and 4 of Song 15, where they denote crying and the gray, cold wind. The next stressed word in the line, "love," is set by a five-note collection on the first two beats of measure 23 that is pitch-class symmetrical around B, bringing the music back to its original center of symmetry (see Example 17). The first half of this complex, the chord on the downbeat of measure 23 (G B[natural] E[flat] D) is yet another member of set class 4-19, this time an augmented-major seventh, a pitch-class inversion around G of the C E[flat] G B[natural] minor-major sevenths that are so prevalent in this song. Finally, the third stressed word "sleep" is given a diminished seventh c hord on B, which could be heard as pitch-class symmetrical around that note (or, for that matter, around any of the notes in the chord--for a representation of the chord as symmetrical around B see Example 17).

In line 4A, A[flat]/G[sharp] sounds less like a point of departure or goal tone than it has at any prior point in the song. This is partially due to its involvement with some of the symmetrical chords described in the previous paragraph--the chromatic tetrachord on the downbeat of measure 22 confuses the root quality of the A[flat] two quarter notes before, and the diminished seventh on the downbeat of measure 24 turns A[flat]/G[sharp] into an active tone. But the metrical placement of the A[flat] plays a crucial role as well. In line 4, A[flat] never comes on the downbeat (at least not as a bass note), while it had invariably come on the downbeat in the bass in line 2. This metrical shift is a large part of the reason I hear the diminished seventh (with E[natural]) in measure 12 as a [vi.sup.[phi]7] chord and the diminished seventh in measure 24 as a sonority leading us away from G[sharp] as a stable chord root.

In the last half of line 4, the motions from tonality to symmetry that characterized lines 1, 3, and 4A reach their end point. Line 4B does not establish a tonality but begins and ends with C E[flat] G B, that subset of Example 10's symmetrical structure that was stated twice before in the song--so that we can hear this half-line as a culmination of harmonic trends manifested earlier. Other chords in line 4B are also subsets of the structure of Example 10; in fact, it seems that this structure becomes more prevalent as the half-line progresses. Just before the final chord of line 4B, we find two instances of a C minor seventh chord, a different subset of Example 10's structure, at measure 28 fourth beat and measure 29 fourth beat.

Rands uses another method to dissipate tonality in line 4B in addition to letting subsets of the symmetrical structure come to the fore. He continues the process of changing the function of G[sharp]/A[flat] from a stable chord root to a dissonant note, which had begun in the middle of line 3 and was continued in line 4A. He first makes G[sharp]/A[flat] a consonant note within the chord but not the root (the F minor seventh on the downbeat of measure 28 is a good example--see the first asterisk in Example 18). Then at the end he turns it into a dissonant passing tone within the C minor seventh (second asterisk in Example 18). This process works together with the metrical recontextualization of the note that was mentioned above. By the time we reach line 4B, A[flat] is beginning to appear on downbeats again, but no longer seems to function as central in any way, because of its preceding and surrounding harmonic context. Finally, A[flat] is supplanted by the original tonic B on the downbeat of measure 30, but t hat note does not seem to serve as center of the tonality either. Like love swallowed up by death, the A[flat]/G[sharp] and B have lost their power to influence, to draw other tones toward themselves.

The foregoing analysis of Song 12 illustrates quite well several of Rinds's approaches to drawing a "continuous line" out from the central B--B serves as a starting point and goal for chord and interval progressions in the tonal and centric senses, and B is also the center of symmetrical pitch and pitch-class structures that ultimately seem to invalidate the tonality. In addition, we have seen the two kinds of semantic text-painting working in tandem in this song. Rands depicts the death of love by moving from tonal and centric progressions to symmetrical chords, and many of the symmetrical chords that come to the fore gradually in Song 12 are the same ones he associates with the soul bereft of love in Song 15: the whole-tone segment 5-33, the chromatic tetrachord 4-I, and, above all, the minor-major seventh 4-19, in the specific transposition C E[flat] G B, as well as others. As suggested above, these text-painting devices form part of a larger process that spans Songs 12 and 15 and can be fully appreciated only after repeated hearings. According to this process, the composer uses a few minor-major seventh chords and symmetrical chords to disrupt the B tonality in Song 12. Then in Song 15 he presents a greater number and wider variety of symmetrical chords around the same pedal, B, as well as a greater number of minor-major seventh chords, without establishing a tonality. (If anything, the repeated B in No. 15 sounds like a dominant or reciting tone, but even that attribution is not valid for the entire song.) The minor-major sevenths in Songs 12 and 15 all turn out to be subsets of two symmetrical structures around B. These structures are never heard as wholes in either song, yet they serve as referential in the same sense that a referential scale might: they can be used to explain why the various minor-major seventh chords in the two songs seem to form a unity among themselves and why they seem to combine naturally with the more obvious pitch-symmetrical structures of Song 15.

Even though symmetry wins out completely over tonality in "All Day I Hear the Noise of Waters," paralleling the notion that the poet's love has been taken away, Rands does continue to distinguish in Song 15 between the type of chord relations in force at the beginning of the line and the type in force at the end of the line. The text of Song 15 is supplied in Example 19 and the score (with certain pitch-class sets marked) in Example 20. In a few words, the beginning and middle of each of the six lines use complete formations that are pitch-symmetrical around the pedal point B, while the cadences of all the lines employ subsets of either of two referential structures that are pitch-symmetrical around B (the two structures are given in Example 21--note that the second one duplicates the pitches of Example 10). [9] These cadential subsets are all minor-major seventh chords, transpositionally equivalent members of set class 4-19. The cadential chords for each line are given and labeled with letters and the corres ponding text word in Example 22.

Structural text-painting seems to motivate not only Rands's general decision to use transpositions of the minor-major seventh chord at line endings but also his choices of particular chords for each line. Among the most salient aspects of Joyce's poem are the rhymes including the vowel "o" at the ends of the lines ("making moan," "forth alone," "monotone," "where I go," "far below," "to and fro"). Rands's decision to put transpositions of the minor-major seventh chord at the cadence of each line parallels this rhyme scheme, enabling the chorus to sing their "o's" to a sonority that sounds well with that vowel (and lends itself well to concepts of desolation with its minor triad and dissonant outer interval). Moreover, his choice of a specific succession of minor-major seventh chords is also motivated by a parallel with the text's structure. Joyce's poem resembles the tonal form musicians recognize as "rounded binary" (see Example 19): its first stanza holds together as a syntactical unit (one sentence); line 4, which begins Stanza 2, elaborates an idea presented in the first stanza but takes the poem in a different direction (focusing on the winds rather than the noise of waters); and finally lines 5 and 6 bring back the topic and many of the individual words and phrases of the first stanza, in a reduced form. In other words, lines 1 through 3 can be thought of as A, line 4 as B, and lines 5 and 6 as an abbreviated A.

Rands first projects the poem's structure by creating a cumulative process that organizes the cadences in Stanza 1 (refer to Example 22). Line 1 cadences on sonority A, line 2 on B, and then line 3's cadence gives us A and B again, followed by a new transposition, C. Making all these cadences play parts in a single process serves to close off the first three lines as a unit, in the same way that a period closes off the first stanza of Joyce's poem. Line 4's cadence, the cadence to the B section, brings a new sonority, D--the cumulative process is broken with a new cadential chord at the end of this contrasting section. (This chord is new to Song 15, but not to the cycle as a whole--remember that the final chord of Song 12 also included pitch classes B, C, E[flat] and G.) Line 5's cadence, sonority E, is a chordal inversion of sonority D (which also fits within the second symmetrical structure of Example 21). Then the cadence at the end of line 6, the final cadence, brings back A, B, and C as a summary of the cadential vocabulary of the first section--but this time in a new order: A, then C, then B. Presenting the entire cadential vocabulary of section A (originally five chords, counting the repetitions) as three chords ending the second line of the return (line 6) projects harmonically the idea of abbreviated return characteristic of rounded binary form.

Another way that Rands's setting reflects the poem's structure is his use of note clusters to reinforce stressed words in each line of text, while the unstressed words are sung to the central B alone (and often attacked at different times in the individual voices). A clear example is provided by the first line of text: see again measures 1-4 of Example 20. The first line has the proper number of syllables and most of the correct accent patterns for an iambic hexameter, and yet the accent patterns that would be given to the line by most English speakers are a little different from those called for by that meter. Example 23 compares the two accent patterns. Rands has organized the tone clusters to fall on the accented syllables in the lower pattern of Example 23 (with one exception: no tone cluster accompanies the tonic accent on the first syllable of "making"). His settings of the other lines demonstrate a similar concern for simulating natural speech, hardly ever following the iambic hexameter slavishly.

Earlier I mentioned that the beginning and middle of each line of text in Song 15 features complete pitch-symmetrical structures around the central B, as opposed to subsets, and I have just discussed how these symmetrical chords coincide with stressed syllables in the text. We should also consider the intervallic make-up of these sonorities, for Rands's choices of particular interval collections seem to be motivated by associative text-painting. In general, he uses contiguous segments of the whole-tone scale to represent the flowing of waters, and contiguous segments of the chromatic scale to portray coldness, crying, and the wind. An example of whole-tone subsets can be found in the setting of line 1. The cluster that Rands gives to "hear" is a contiguous segment of the whole-tone scale, 3-6 (024). But it is also a contiguous subset of the major and minor scales, so its attribution to the whole-tone family is in doubt until we hear the chord two eighth notes later. The sonority on "noise" is a 5-33 (02468) which contains the previous cluster as a subset, and unambiguously belongs to the whole-tone scale. This recognition of whole-tone as the referential scale in line 1 encourages us to associate whole-tone music with the noise of flowing waters for the remainder of the song. A quick glance at measures 8, 14-16, and 18 confirms this association.

The association between coldness, crying, and/or the wind on one hand and the chromatic scale on the other also comes about in stages, forming a shape that contracts and then expands around the pedal. Measure 8 introduces B[flat]-B-C on "cry," a short segment of the chromatic scale that belongs to set class 3-1 (012). In Line 4 (the B section of the song's rounded binary), "grey" on the downbeat of measure 11 is set by a half-step B-C, "cold" on the downbeat of measure 12 is set to B[flat]-B-C again, and the first syllable of "blowing" on the downbeat of measure 13 yields 5-1 (01234) as A-B[flat]B-C-D[flat], which clinches the chromatic attribution and the association of the chromatic scale with the grey, cold wind.

The connection of the "o" rhyme of Joyce's poem with the cadential chords of each line in Rands's setting has already been discussed; it remains to mention that most of the "o" words Joyce chooses (moan, alone, monotone, below) call up pictures of bleakness and desolation when considered by themselves or as part of their immediate contexts, and in the last case ("to and fro") there is a sense of aimless movement. [10] Rands associates the minor-major seventh with bleakness and desolation when he sets the "o" words at line endings with transpositions of that chord. But in a more general and far-reaching way, he seems to be associating symmetrical chords built around B and their subsets, the harmonic vocabulary of this song, with aimless motion. Remember that in the eleventh song of Canti d'Amor, a living, healthy love between the woman combing her hair and the poet was set to music sometimes modal, sometimes functionally tonal, but always pointing back toward its tonic. The twelfth song portrayed the process of death winning out over love by allowing symmetrical chords around B and subsets of symmetrical referential structures to gradually supplant chord progressions that pulled toward B as i or G[sharp] as vi. Physical death or the death of love is often associated with rest and the termination of goal-oriented movement, while a healthy life or love is often thought of as striving and goal-oriented. Since love has died in Song 15, the symmetrical chords around B and subsets of symmetrical referential structures (including one of the same ones--C E[flat] G B--that destroyed functional tonality in Song 12) take over, signifying the motion of waters toward no discernible goal. As I have suggested above, Rands creates text-music associations that operate between movements as well as within them.

Thus "All Day I Hear the Noise of Waters" projects a continuous stream of symmetrical sonorities out from and back to B, a procedure which is itself motivated by a text association; and in addition Rands's individual decisions about which sonorities or subsets of larger symmetrical formations to use at certain points seem to be motivated by different kinds of structural and semantic text-painting. These include using tone clusters for syllables in the line that would be stressed by a speaker, associating certain referential collections with certain topics in the text (e.g., flowing waters with whole-tone subsets), using transpositions of the same minor-major seventh sonority to accompany the "o" rhyme at line endings, and making the specific order of the minor-major seventh chords at line endings parallel the rounded-binary-like structure of the text.

This brief study of three songs in Rands's Canti d'Amor has revealed the composer's concern for continuity and carefully controlled diversity. The pedals provide continuity, as do Rands's practices of limiting himself to one developmental strategy in each song (diatonic[rightarrow]chromatic in 11, tonal or centric[rightarrow]symmetrical in 12, symmetrical sonority[rightarrow]subset of (different) symmetrical referential structure in 15) and linking the three songs together into a single motion from tonality to symmetry. Diversity results from the different motives and sonorities that grow out of the pedals, which, however, are always subject to structural and semantic text painting as well as to the courses of development. The study has also revealed, despite my practice of giving every motive and sonority a set-class label, that in some contexts other kinds of labels are just as or more appropriate than set-class numbers. In some passages of these songs, the transpositional/inversional equivalence implied by a set-class label plays a significant role in the developmental processes underlying the music. For example, we cannot claim that the instances of 3-3 (014) in lines 4 and 5 of Song 11 (measures 20-22, 28, 29-30 of Example 2) continue the influence of that motive from the third line (measures 17-18 and 19), portraying the woman continuing to comb her hair at the same time that the sun is beginning to play on the leaves and grass, unless we admit that transpositions of {0, 1, 4} are equivalent to transpositions of {0, 3, 4}. Both halves of set class 3-3 are represented in that passage. But at the same time, Rands is just as likely to draw related pitch-class sets from only the transpositionally equivalent sets within a set class; for example, remember that the sonorities at the line endings in Song 15 were all transpositions (no inversions) of {0, 1, 4, 8}. In a situation like the latter one, it seems more appropriate to call these sonorities transpositions of the minor-major seventh chord, rather than to inv oke the set-class label 4-19. In different parts of these songs, different equivalences come to the fore; sometimes transpositional, sometimes transpositional/inversional. Because of this, in my analyses of these songs I always give the set-class label (for consistency's sake); but I also acknowledge passages in which narrower equivalences are in force, representing these equivalences with a different label (such as "minor-major seventh chord"). This seems like a good approach to use for Rands's music in general.

In conclusion, this study has revealed that Rands's Canti d'Amor communicates clearly and beautifully the structure and meaning of Joyce's poetry. The songs in this work are certainly worthy of further analytic attention, perhaps including a more detailed investigation of the ways rhythm and meter, as well as other parameters, project the text.

JACK BOSS is Assistant Professor of Music Theory and Composition at the University of Oregon. He received B.Mus. and M.Mus. degrees in composition from Ohio State University in 1979 and 1981, and the Ph.D. in music theory from Yale University in 1991. His doctoral dissertation was titled "An Analogue to Developing Variation in a Late Atonal Song of Arnold Schoenberg." Boss's publications in the journal of Music Theory and Music Theory Spectrum, like his dissertation, deal with the motivic structure of Schoenberg's music and associated topics. He was invited to lecture on Bernard Rands's choral music as part of the Rands Symposium held at Brigham Young University in November 1994.


This article is a revised version of a lecture given at "Among the Voices... ," the Bernard Rands Symposium held in November 1994 at Brigham Young University, organized by Stephen Jones and attended by Rands. It was subsequently presented at the 1996 meeting of the West Coast Conference of Music Theory and Analysis in Davis, California. Steve Larson's assistance in the revision process is gratefully acknowledged.

(1.) R. L. Harris, "Bernard Rands at Fifty," Musical Times 126/1711 (Sept. 1985): 532-34; Brian Fennelly, review of Rands, Le Tambourin, Suites 1 and 2, Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 46, no. 4 (June 1990): 1067-68.

(2.) Arnold Schoenberg, "Analysis of the Four Orchestral Songs op. 22," trans. Claudio Spies, Perspectives of New Music 3, no. 2 (Spring-Summer 1965): 8.

(3.) In "Schoenberg's op. 22 Radio Talk and Developing Variation in Atonal Music," Music Theory Spectrum 14, no. 2 (Fall 1992): 125-- 49, I give detailed descriptions of a number of passages in "Seraphita" (op. 22, no. 1) that illustrate Schoenberg's approach to semantic text-painting.

(4.) For a detailed report of Stravinsky's octatonic/supernatural and diatonic/human associations in The Firebird, see Pieter van den Toorn, The Music of Igor Stravinsky (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983), 1-30. Janet Schmalfeldt has thoroughly described Berg's leitmotivic technique in Berg's Wozzeck: Harmonic Language and Dramatic Design (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983).

(5.) The individual sonorities and chord successions in Line 1 do not adhere completely to the norms of functional-tonal harmony, though at times they approximate it closely. Thus the question of what motivates the stems and slurs in Example 4's graph is a valid one. The criteria I use here for choosing structural and ornamental notes are similar to those I suggested for Schoenberg's music in "Schoenberg on Ornamentation and Structural Levels," Journal of Music Theory 38, no. 2 (Fall 1994): 187-216. (1) Prefer as structural those notes that are emphasized contextually (the stemmed F in measures 1--8 serves an example; it is repeated and returned to and often occurs on downbeats); (2) Prefer as structural those patterns of notes that either are generally recognized as structural in tonal music or have motivic significance (e.g., the descending passing tone A[natural]-G-F in measures 9-10); (3) Designate as ornamental notes that are given less emphasis contextually and form recognizable ornament patterns such a s neighbor, passing tone, or consonant skip around the structural notes.

(6.) In the case of the two 3-3s in line 3, using the set-class label to signify the sets' identity seems appropriate, but there are other places in the songs where Rands limits himself to transpositions of a given set, making set-class designations a less accurate descriptor. At the end of this article, I will discuss the appropriateness of set terminology for these pieces.

(7.) It is significant that Rinds picks up Joyce's stylistic trait of repeating words and groups of words in different contexts and creates a musical parallel to it. Commentators on Joyce's Chamber Music sometimes point out his tendency to bring rhyming words from earlier lines back in later lines, and they identify this tendency as one way that Joyce's poetry imitates Elizabethan song lyrics. (See, for example, Myra Russel, "The Elizabethan Connection: The Missing Score of James Joyce's Chamber Music," James Joyce Quarterly 18, no. 2 (Winter 1981): 133-45.) The rhyme scheme of Song 11 is aa bb aa cc, and the returns of the a rhyme at the ends of the first, second, fifth, and sixth lines, as well as at the middle of lines 4 and 8, result from the repeating word pairs "long hair" and "pretty air" that I have discussed. Thus Rands's repeating motives parallel a structural aspect of Joyce's poem that marks it as a particular style of lyric, comparable to those of Dowland, Campion, and Wyatt, among others.

(8.) The association that Rands creates between 3-7 (025) and the image of the woman silently combing calls to mind the opening measures of Stravinsky's Les Noces, where a passage portraying the bridesmaids combing and braiding the bride's hair stems from the same trichord. For a detailed description of the Stravinsky passage, see Pieter van den Toorn, The Music of Igor Stravinsky, 158-77.

(9.) The reader may wonder why I include pitches in the structures of Example 21 that do not actually occur in a cadential chord of Song 15, such as [C.sub.3] and [D[sharp].sub.3] in Structure I, or [F[sharp].sub.3], [A[sharp].sub.3], and [E.sub.4] in Structure II. The "extra" pitches have roughly the same function that an A would have in a piece that defines C as tonic and uses the collection {C, D, E, F, G, B}. They enable me to suggest a regular, recognizable pattern that, as a reference, explains the coherence of the elements that do occur. In Rands's case, the coherence seems to be strengthened further by the fact that the two symmetrical referential patterns in Example 21 are similar to one another; they both alternate half-steps and minor thirds, but Structure I starts with the minor third as it grows outward from B and Structure II with the half-step.

(10.) I could even suggest that Joyce's "o" rhyme constitutes a stylized version of a sustained moan ("Ohhhhhhhh...").

Line XXIV Rhyme scheme

1 Silently she's combing, a

Combing her long hair,

2 Silently and graciously, a

With many a pretty air.

3 The sun is in the willow leaves

And on the dappled grass, b

4 And still she's combing her long hair (a)

Before the looking-glass. b

5 I pray you, cease to comb out,

Comb out your long hair, a

6 For I have heard of witchery

Under a pretty air, a

7 That makes as one thing to the lover

Staying and going hence, c

8 All fair, with many a pretty air (a)

And many a negligenc. c

Chamber Music XXXV, "All Day I Hear the Noise of..."; Chamber Music XXVIII, "Gentle Lady, Do Not Sing"; Chamber Music XXIV, "Silently She's Combing"; from Collected Poems, by James Joyce, copyright 1918 by B. W. Huebsch, Inc.; 1927, 1936 by James Joyce; 1946 by Nora Joyce. Used by permission of Viking Penguin, a division of Penguin Putnam, Inc.



1 (A) Gentle lady, do not sing

(B) Sad songs about the end of lover;

2 Lay aside sadness and sing

How love that passes is enough.

3 Sing about the long deep sleep

Of lovers that are dead, and how

4 (A) In the grave all love shall sleep:

(B) Love is aweary now.



1 All day I hear the noise of waters "A"

Making moan,

2 Sad as the sea-bird is, when going

Forth alone,

3 He hears the winds cry to the waters'


4 The grey winds, the cold winds are blowing "B"

Where I go.

5 I hear the noise of many waters "reduced A"

Far below.

6 All day, all night, I hear them flowing

To and fro.

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Date:Jun 22, 1998
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