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TECHNOLOGIES OF THE ADMINISTRATION AND PERENITY OF MICRO AND SMALL ENTERPRISES/ECNOLOGIAS DA ADMINISTRACAO E PERENIDADE DAS MICRO E PEQUENAS EMPRESAS.

INTRODUCTION

To analyze variables of contemporary Administration Technologies, with investigations that seek alternatives to manage problems related to the dimensions of Technological Capacity, Administrative Technological, Institutional and Economic Social Policy. It, suggests the discovery of aspects that favor clarifying aspects not investigated and / or little researched and Its relation with the perenniality of Micro and Small Enterprises (MPEs), being relevant for the Administration while Social sciences, in their academic and practical aspects.

The government, entrepreneurs, managers and managers of MPE's seek in the contemporary Administration technologies, information and partnerships that improve the management of their business, such as Brazil with the MPE Basic Federal Law and its adaptations (Complementary Law 123/06, Articles 146 : 170 and 179/07, Federal Law No. 9.317 / 96) and the State of Maranhao with Law No. 9,529 / 11--Chapter IX "From the Stimulus to Innovation and Professional Management of Microenterprises MIs and Small Businesses (EPPs)", for the implementation of Professional Management. The term Small Business--PEs also applies to Small Business - EPPs.

This article, on the theme of "Management Technologies and perenniality of MPEs," aims to analyze, through literature and field research, the contributions of Management Technologies, including Integrated Sustainability Management (GSI) in the perenniality of the industrial and services rendering companies.

A problem requires considering that the researcher is involved in the reality of the situation to be clarified. The research questions represent what the researcher wishes to clarify and can indicate among the variables, associations associations (Trivinos, 2009). The problem is: in what ways can the Technologies of Contemporary Administration contribute to the perenniality of the Industrial and Services Provisioning Companies of Sao Luis do Maranhao?

Research questions: What relationship could be established between the physical system, data base, software, machinery and equipment with the perpetuity of Industrial and Service Provision MPEs?

What is the relation between the formal qualification of the managers, their experiences and talents with perpetuity of the MPEs?

What is the relation of the variables of the GSI Model, as a Professional Management technology in the MPEs of the sample in the creation, maintenance, perennial maintenance and growth phases, with perpetuity of these MPEs?

In what way do products and services, the organizational system, management strategies, procedures and organizational routines impact on the sustainability of MSEs?

The hypothesis predicts a relation between two terms (Quivy & Campenhoudt, 1995). The hypothesis is: the technologies of the Administration contribute favorably in the perennial of the Industrial MPEs and of Provision of Services of Sao Luis of Maranhao.

THEORETICAL REFERENCE

Technology means the set of pieces of knowledge - both "practical" and "theoretical" - of know-how, methods, procedures, successful and unsuccessful experiences, and of course physical devices and equipment (DOSI, 2006). Technological competence refers to the company's abilities to perform innovative activities in products, processes and organization of production, organizational systems, equipment and engineering of stored projects, not only in people's minds (skills, experience, formal qualifications) but, As well as in their organizational system, routines and procedures (BELL & PAVITT, 1995; FIGUEIREDO, 2003).

Technological capacity at the organizational level is the set of resources that can be tangible, coded or intangible, tacit, coded and uncoded Incorporated in several dimensions of the organization: management and production techniques, organizational routines, organizational structures, values and norms. (PENROSE, 1959 NELSON & WINTER, 1982 TEECE & PISANO, 1994 LALL, 1992 FIGUEIREDO, 2004).

Technological accumulation and industrial innovation (Figueiredo, 2005) suggests a contribution to the management of the industrial development process in the context of developing economies, particularly in Brazil. The technological capacity of a company is stored in at least four components (Lall, 1992 Bell & Pavitt, 1995 Figueiredo, 2003), shown in figure 1.

Innovation, is a pioneering activity, based mainly on the internal competencies of a company to develop and induce a new product in the market. In the Schumpeterian view it is not restricted to products and processes, it involves new forms of management, new markets and production inputs. It is cumulative--there is no leap (KIM, 2005).

From the 1990s, the knowledge society stood out. It is the management of innovation and contribution of technology, generating results in companies with the support of Higher Education Institutions in research. The Administration as Social Science advanced in three aspects: Intellectual Capital; Knowledge management; And Management Digital Focus, in which the Management Information System (GIS) emerged to meet the needs of managing complex relationships between the organization and the environment, and at the levels of the functional hierarchy.

Studies on "TI investments" (Oliveira et al., 2014), aiming at identifying decision factors in MPEs in the service and commerce sectors, point out that investments are still scarce. In its analysis, three factors for investment decision: "Utility of the Information System" "Intensity of Competition" and "Partnerships in TI Deployment". In the managerial field, these results allow us to propose factors to be used when the interest and demand for IT investments in MPEs, comparing the benefits of TI through the correlation between the weight of each factor and the perceived returns.

The Technological Capability is incorporated in several dimensions of the organization, among them, the management techniques, highlighting (Duarte, 2009) as one of the technological capabilities, since well-managed organizations develop consistency, growth and prosperity, and poorly managed, declining and often dying.

In the work of Professional Management, Polary (2012) emphasizes the importance of the analysis of the phases of the MPEs of creation, maintenance, perennial maintenance, growth and durations (frame 2) and the application of the GSI Integrated Sustainability Management, composed of 03 dimensions, 05 components and 12 variables (frame 3), being an extension of the management term (Drucker, 2002), and different from the term "Sustainable Management of the Geoenvironmental Dimension" (Casarotto Filho & Pires, 2001). GSI is an alternative model of Professional Management for Management, which requires the manager personal professional awareness to manage with Entrepreneurial Guidance and Integrative Vision, in face of its variables, components and dimensions, to favor the company's management, success and permanence.

The GSI model is based on the Theory of Entrepreneurship in two approaches to literature: managerial, in McClelland's Theory (1970) and Organization and Administration Theories, and in the perspective of corporate strategies and modes of strategic management, Lumpkim And Dess (1996); and the economic one, in Schumpeter's (1934) studies, introduced in the Social Sciences by Economic Theory.

The model was analyzed as one of the Technological Capacity Dimensions at organizational level "management techniques", and applied in the MPEs of the industrial sample (Polary, 2012), which also investigated its phases and processes, and the MIs and EPPs (POLARY et al. 2016).

It highlights the importance of entrepreneurship for the countries' economies, where their teaching began in the United States in 1947 at the Harward School of Business (Katz, 2003). Entrepreneurs are "differentiated people, who have unique motivation, and want to be recognized and admired, referenced and imitated, want to leave a legacy." Dornelas (2001).

In an analysis of the global and Brazilian panorama of entrepreneurship, data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor GEM Brazil (Greco et al. 2008, 2010) show that the Entrepreneurship Rate in Initial Stage of TEA of Brazil in 2008 (12.02) 13th place in the world ranking.

The analysis of the entrepreneurship rate of the adult population in Brazil (18 to 64 years of age in each country) makes it possible to compare the intensity of the entrepreneurial activity of the GEM countries (GEM, 2015).

Grphic 1 shows the countries' TEA rates, grouped according to the development phase, driven by factors, efficiency, or innovation. From 2014 to 2015, Brazil moved from 13th to 8th place in the ranking of the 31 countries of efficiency-driven economies, with TEA of 17.2% in 2014 and 21.0% in 2015, the highest in the group, surpassing the Countries of the BRICs, the United States and Germany.

Regarding the levels of development, it can be seen from the distribution curves that the highest rates of ASD are concentrated in the group of factor driven countries and the lowest in countries driven by innovation. A GEM study, in partnership with the World Economic Forum (2015), identified a negative correlation between the level of development of countries (factors, efficiency and innovation) and initial entrepreneurship rates (TEA). It suggests a better analysis of the variables of this context by the managers, when of their decisions of investments in the countries.

These references are coherent with the research on "the impact of the technologies of contemporary management on the peremptory MPEs", among them the GSI based on entrepreneurship.

METHOD

The research method: the methodology covers the methods of approach, procedures and techniques (Marconi & Lakatos, 2007). Malhotra (2006) describes measurement scales; Ulrich et al. (2009), ranging from 1 to 10 points, which served as the basis for the questionnaire score of this research. Follow the method.

In the literature: Delimitation: data extracted from the secondary sources, analyzed in the universe of MSEs and the GSI Model. The research line was "Management Technology", of organizational studies of the Brazilian reality of the Doctoral Program in Administration of FGV / EBAPE and the Research Group "Administration, Management and State-AGE" CNPq--Applied Social Sciences--Administration area And Management of MPEs.

Method: hypothetical deductive--for the construction of systemic concepts and hypotheses deduced from this theoretical explanatory model (QUIVY & CAMPENHOULD, 1995).

Approaches and Theories: Management Technologies; And Entrepreneurship in two approaches to literature, economics, and management that underpinned the GSI Model.

In the field research: delimitation, universe and sample: the data of 2012 were collected in the universe of 1,700 industrial MPEs of Maranhao (FIEMA, 2006). A proportional stratified random sample of 134 MPEs (tables 1 and 2) was extracted, considering the participation of each economic category in the PIB (frame 1); and data from 2016 in the universe of the MIs and EPPs Industrial and Service Provision of Sao Luis/MA (JUCEMA, 2016). A sample of 38 MPEs was extracted for accessibility (Vergara, 2007), according to tables 3 and 4.

Data collection and analysis: the technique was the questionnaire. Data from 2012 received statistical treatment, with exploratory data analysis, Correlation Test, Regression and Multiple Correlation and in 2016, exploratory analysis of data with averages and percentages.

Categories of analysis: guarantee rigor (Vieira, 2004), which were: size of MSEs Importance of the variables in each phase of the MPEs: creation, maintenance, perennial maintenance, growth and perenniality variables, relevant to the permanence of MSEs in the dimensions of Technological Capacity and Administrative, Technological, Institutional and Economic Social Political of the GSI Model.

Limitations of the method: the universe of MPEs, due to Brazil having a large territorial dimension, and Maranhao 217 municipalities (IBGE, 2009), was soon delimited to the MPEs of the Industrial Sector and Service Provision of Maranhao; Little literature and empirical work on this subject that would allow an in-depth study of the theory (POPPER, 1975).

Conscious of the limitations, we consider that the method was adequate and acceptable to support the research and the analysis of the data with consistency.

RESULTS

In the analysis of the results of the survey in the Microenterprises - MIs, and also in the Small Companies - Industrial PEs of the sample (Polary, 2012), statistical procedures were: analysis of means and percentages of variables, components and dimensions of GSI, The Variables, Regression and Multiple Correlation.

It was constituted by the analysis of the 12 variables of the GSI Model, which among the predominant 06, "Competences and managerial skills of the members that direct and of thers that administer or advise the business--Professional Management GSI, based on Entrepreneurship", in the view of managers, is the one that most positively influences the Management, Success and Perennial in the MIs of the sample, with an average of 8.99 (table 5) and in the PEs with a mean of 8.95 (table 6).

By the results of the Multiple Regression and Correlation of the 06 variables that most positively influence the Management, Success and Perenniality of the MIs (Independent--table 5) and the 06 most important for the success of the MIs in the perpetuity phase (Dependents--table 7) of the Model GSI, it was verified that the variable "Do feasibility studies: technical, economic and financial" (frame 4), presented a substantial positive correlation, according to the regression equation Y= a + b1x1 + b2x2 + ... + b6x6. F of Regression = 12.2673. p < 0.0001. Coefficient of multiple determination (R2xy) = 0.4612 and multiple correlation coefficient (Rxy) = 0.6791.

Conclusion: F is significant for p <0.0001, at least one of the Independent variables (Peditoras) influence the variable Dependent The coefficient of determination means that 46.12% of the Y variation can be explained by the model, the remaining (53.88%) are inexplicable and are due to other factors or to chance The variable that has the smallest value of p is the variable Make feasibility studies: technical, economic and financial, so it is the one that most explains the variation of Y.

In the PEs, it was verified by the results of the Regression and Multiple Correlation of the six (6) variables that most positively influence the Management, Success and Perennial (Independent table 6) and the 06 most important for success in the perennial phase (Dependent - Table 8) ", that the variable" Qualified industrial labor "(frame 5) presented substantial positive correlation, according to the regression equation Y = a + b1x1 + b2x2 + ... + b6x6. F of Regression = 4.0576. P = 0.0038. Coefficient of multiple determination (R2xy) = 0.4173 and multiple correlation coefficient (Rxy) = 0.6460.

Conclusion: F is significant for p <0.0001, at least one of the independent variables influences the dependent variable. The coefficient of determination means that 41.73% of the Y variation can be explained by the model, the remaining 58.27% are inexplicable and If due to other factors or at random, the variable that has the smallest value of p is the skilled industrial labor variable, so it is the one that most explains the variation of Y.

The results of this research express, through the tests, the correlation of all variables of the GSI Model (frame 3), applied in the MIs and PEs of the sample (Polary, 2012), which makes possible an analysis of the effectiveness of the model in the view of the managers , On the management, success, permanence and phases and processes of MPEs, and suggest the continuity of application of this model in service and commercial MPEs. These results are consistent with the studies and research of ILDA (1984) and SOUZA (2009).

In another research (Polary et al., 2016), on the Technologies of Contemporary Administration, among them the GSI Model in Microenterprises MIs and Small Enterprises EPPs in the industrial and services sectors in Sao Luis do Maranhao, the results express: as for TEM, 64% of MIs are in the range of 1 to 4 years 9% between 5 and 8 years 18% between 9 and 12 and 9% over 12 years in EPPs, 50% are over 12 years, 25% up 4 years 19% between 5 and 8 years and 6% between 9 and 12 years (figures 2 and 3).

In analogy to the MPEs phases (Polary, 2012), the majority of MIs (45%) are in the stable maintenance phase; 23% in the growth phase; 23% remaining in business to recover the invested capital; and 9% acquired financial stability with investments in several areas; In the EPPs, 63% are in the stable maintenance phase, with success in business, without structural and physical growth "; 31% in the growth phase, structural, physical, number of employees, customers and financial gain; And 6% acquired financial stability, with investment in management technology and the workforce, remaining perennial and fulfilling their mission (figures 4 and 5).

As to the relevance of the variables of the GSI model it was verified that the one of higher average in the MIs was: Preservation of the environment (8,18); and in the EPPs was: Business location (8.68), according to tables 9 and 10, which show the analysis of all variables. Regarding the GSI technology variables present in the MIs and EPPs that contribute the most to the perenniality, products and services predominated, with averages of 8.75 and 8.36, respectively (tables 11 and 12), which show the Analysis of all variables.

DISCUSSION

It is concluded from the analysis of literature and field research that in Brazil and other countries surveyed, the difficulties and challenges to keep perennial organizations persist, but there was a significant advance of governments and private initiative regarding the policies favoring Micro and Small Businesses - MPSs, in spite of recognizing their economic and social importance. In the analysis of the Integrated Sustainability Management Model (GSI) (Polary, 2012), it was found to be a viable alternative to MPEs, in which two relevant conclusions are highlighted: 1. The Management of MSEs, when applied in the GSI Model, Favors the Perenniality of the industrial MPEs of the sample; And 2. The permanence of industrial MPEs has a positive impact on the Industrial Development of the State of Maranhao.

As for the 12 variables of the GSI Model most important for the success of the industrial MPEs in its five phases, it was concluded that "Competences and managerial skills of the managing partners and others that administer or advise the business - GSI Professional Management" was the The most important variable for the success of MPEs in the creation, maintenance, perennial maintenance and growth phases, and for the sustainability phase was "Prioritizing the qualification of industrial labor".

In the conclusions of Polary et al. (2016), of application of the GSI Model, as one of the Administration technologies and its influence in the perenniality of the Microenterprises MIs of the sample, predominated the variable: preservation of the environment, and in the EPPs, location of the business. As for the GSI Model technologies present in the MIs and EPPs that contribute most to its sustainability, the "products and services" variable was highlighted for both.

The technologies revolve around the products and services of the company, because it is through them that some kind of value will be offered to the customers. The object of supply of the MIs and EPPs represent not only the maintenance of their customers and establishment of competitive advantage, but also a means of reducing costs through industrial efficiency and effective working methods, as verified in the variable "products and services" which obtained higher mean for MIs and EPPs.

As to the level of formal qualification of managers, their experience and talent in the MPEs of the sample (Polary et al., 2016), 39% of the managers have a medium level, 50% higher level and 11% with a specialization or a master's degree. "knowledge and experience in the area in which it operates and seek its development" to act in the MIs and EPPs", for the managers of the MIs the average was 8.27 and the EPPs were 9.06.

These conclusions give answers to the problem investigated, to the research questions raised and confirmation of the hypothesis, having thus reached its objectives. The expectation is that these results and conclusions contribute to further research in MPEs in the area of Management Technologies, among them, Management for Integrated Sustainability GSI, as one of the technologies and innovations that favors the perpetuation of MPEs and the development of countries.

doi: 10.5585/iji.v5i2.167

Received on January 28, 2017 / Approved on April 15, 2017

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[1] Ilmar Polary Pereira

[1] State University of Maranhao (Brazil). [i.polary@hotmail.com]

Caption: Graphic 1--Initial entrepreneurship rate (TEA) of GEM participating countries grouped according to the economic development phase (this classification is based on the Global Competitiveness Report--Publication of the Economic Forum considering PIB per capita and the share of primary goods)--2015. Source: GEM (2015).
Table 1--Population for stratification, according to
municipalities by size of industries.

No   Counties              MICRO      SMALL      TOTAL

                           Quantity   Quantity

01   Alcantara             01         --         01
02   Bacabal               36         09         45
03   Balsas                59         21         80
04   Caxias                17         20         37
05   Cajapio               04         --         04
06   Imperatriz            192        97         289
07   Lago da Pedra         16         03         19
08   Paco do Lumiar        04         01         05
09   Raposa                02         --         02
10   Rosario               08         08         16
11   Sao Joao dos Patos    11         --         11
12   Sao Jose de Ribamar   21         09         30
13   Sao Luis              739        380        1119
14   Timon                 32         10         42
     Total                 1142       558        1700

Source: Adapted from FIEMA (2006) and Polary (2012).

Table 2--Significant samples stratified industries,
according to municipalities by size of industries.

No      Counties              MICRO      SMALL      TOTAL

                              Quantity   Quantity

01      Alcantara             01         --         01
02      Bacabal               03         02         05
03      Balsas                06         02         08
04      Caxias                02         02         04
05      Cajapio               01         --         01
06      Imperatriz            16         08         24
07      Lago da Pedra         03         02         05
08      Paco do Lumiar        02         01         03
09      Raposa                01         --         01
10      Rosario               02         01         03
11      Sao Joao dos Patos    01         --         01
12      Sao Jose de Ribamar   02         01         03
13      Sao Luis              51         22         73
14      Timon                 02         --         02
        Total                 93         41         134

Source: Adapted from FIEMA (2006) and Polary (2012).

Table 3--Population of MIs and EPPs active for stratification in
Sao Luis-MA by size.

                Company Size

No   Counties   Microenterprise-   Small Business
                MI                 Company-EPP      TOTAL

                Quantity           Quantity

01   Sao Luis   14.183             929              15.112

Source: JUCEMA (2016).

Table 4--Accessibility samples of MIs and EPPs active for
stratification in Sao Luis-MA by size

                Company Size

No   Counties   Microenterprise-   Small Business
                MI                 Company-EPP      TOTAL

                Quantity           Quantity

01   Sao Luis   22                 16               38

Source: JUCEMA (2016).

Table 5--The 06 variables of the GSI Model that most positively
influence the Management, Success and
Perennial of the industrial MIs of the State of Maranhao,
in the view of the managers.

Variables                                n      %     Average

1. Management skills and abilities of
the managing partners and others who
administer or advise the business--
Professional Management (GSI), based
on Entrepreneurship                      92   98.92    8.99

2. Technological support (machinery
and equipment, systems and working
methods)                                 90   96.77    8.86

3. Make feasibility study: technical,
economic and
financial                                88   94.62    8.83

4. Qualified industrial labor
force                                    92   98.92    8.63

5. Level of industrial
efficiency                               92   98.92    8.62

6. Preservation of the local
environment of the industry              90   96.77    8.58

7. Management skills and abilities of
the managing partners and others who
administer or advise the business--
Professional Management (GSI), based
on Entrepreneurship                      92   98.92    8.99

8. Technological support (machinery
and equipment, systems and working
methods)                                 90   96.77    8.86

9. Make feasibility study: technical,
economic and
financial                                88   94.62    8.83

10. Qualified industrial labor
industrial                               92   98.92    8.63

11. Level of industrial efficiency       92   98.92    8.62
12. Preservation of the local
environment of the Industry              90   96.77    8.58

Variables                                Minimum   Maximum     DP

1. Management skills and abilities of
the managing partners and others who
administer or advise the business--
Professional Management (GSI), based
on Entrepreneurship                         1        10      1.5442

2. Technological support (machinery
and equipment, systems and working
methods)                                    1        10      1.5107

3. Make feasibility study: technical,
economic and
financial                                   3        10      1.5773

4. Qualified industrial labor
force                                       1        10      2.1315

5. Level of industrial
efficiency                                  4        10      1.4207

6. Preservation of the local
environment of the industry                 1        10      2.1093

7. Management skills and abilities of
the managing partners and others who
administer or advise the business--
Professional Management (GSI), based
on Entrepreneurship                         1        10      1.5442

8. Technological support (machinery
and equipment, systems and working
methods)                                    1        10      1.5107

9. Make feasibility study: technical,
economic and
financial                                   3        10      1.5773

10. Qualified industrial labor
industrial                                  1        10      2.1315

11. Level of industrial  efficiency         4        10      1.4207

12. Preservation of the local
environment of the Industry                 1        10      2.1093

Source: Polary (2012).

Tabela 6--The 06 variables of the GSI model that most positively
influence the Management, Success and
Perennial of the industrial PEs of Maranhao.

Variables                                 n      %      Average

1. Management skills and abilities of
the managing partners and others who
administer or advise the business--
Professional Management (GSI), based
on Entrepreneurship                       41   100.00    8.95

2. Technological support (machinery
and equipment, systems and working
methods)                                  41   100.00    8.80

3. Qualified industrial labor
force                                     41   100.00    8.61

4. Level of industrial
efficiency                                40   97.56     8.58

5. Location of the Small Business         41   100.00    8.56

6. Preservation of the local
environment of the Industry               41   100.00    8.44

Variables                                 Minimum   Maximum     DP

1. Management skills and abilities of
the managing partners and others who
administer or advise the business--
Professional Management (GSI), based
on Entrepreneurship                          7        10      1.0476

2. Technological support (machinery
and equipment, systems and working
methods)                                     7        10      0.9992

3. Qualified industrial labor
force                                        5        10      1.4980

4. Level of industrial
efficiency                                   6        10      1.1068

5. Location of the Small Business            4        10      1.4841

6. Preservation of the local
environment of the Industry                  1        19      2.7023

7. Management skills and abilities of
the managing partners and others who
administer or advise the business--
Professional Management (GSI), based
on Entrepreneurship                       41   100.00    8.95

8. Technological support (machinery
and equipment, systems and working
methods)                                  41   100.00    8.80

9. Qualified industrial labor force
                                          41   100.00    8.61

10. Level of industrial efficiency        40   97.56     8.58

11. Location of the Small
Business                                  41   100.00    8.56

12. Preservation of the local
environment of the Industry               41   100.00    8.44

Variables                                Minimum   Maximum     DP

7. Management skills and abilities of
the managing partners and others who
administer or advise the business--
Professional Management (GSI), based
on Entrepreneurship                          7        10      1.0476

8. Technological support (machinery
and equipment, systems and working
methods)                                     7        10      0.9992

9. Qualified industrial labor force          5        10      1.4980

10. Level of industrial efficiency           6        10      1.1068

11. Location of the Small
Business                                     4        10      1.4841

12. Preservation of the local
environment of the Industry                  1        19      2.7023

Source: Polary (2012).

Table 7--The 06 most important variables for the success of
the industrial MIs of Maranhao in the perennial
phase.

Variables                                n    %        Average
1. To reinvest in Microenterprises to
better serve their workforce, their
clientele and fulfill their economic
and social function in order to remain
successful in the market, in the view    90   96.77    9.38
of the managers

2. Prioritize the qualification of
industrial labor and maintain the        93   100.00   9.25
required levels of efficiency and
productivity of the sector

3. Prioritize the technical and
professional development of the
partners they direct and of others who
administer or advise the company         93   100.00   9.22

4. Preservation of the local
environment of industry                  92   98.92    8.88

5. Use the Industrial Development
Plan--PDI 2020                           84   90.32    7.24

6. Public policies of the Federal,
State and Municipal Governments,
attractive investments and
microenterprise partnerships with
Government and private nterprise         91   97.85    6.77

Variables                                Minimum   Maximum   DP

1. To reinvest in Microenterprises to
better serve their workforce, their
clientele and fulfill their economic
and social function in order to remain
successful in the market, in the view    6         10        0.9189
of the managers

2. Prioritize the qualification of
industrial labor and maintain the        1         10        1.4192
required levels of efficiency and
productivity of the sector

3. Prioritize the technical and
professional development of the
partners they direct and of others who
administer or advise the company         3         10        1.3092

4. Preservation of the local
environment of industry                  3         10        1.5956

5. Use the Industrial Development
Plan--PDI 2020                           1         10        2.8523

6. Public policies of the Federal,
State and Municipal Governments,
attractive investments and
microenterprise partnerships with
Government and private nterprise         1         10        3.0553

Source: Polary (2012).

Table 8--The 06 most important variables for the success of the
industrial PEs of Maranhao in the perennial phase.

Variables                                  n      %      Average

1. Prioritize the qualification of
industrial labor and maintain the
required levels of efficiency and
productivity of the sector                 41   100.00    9.20

2. Reinvesting in Small Businesses
(PEs), to better serve the workforce,
the clientele and fulfill its economic
and social function in order to remain
successful in the market                   41   100.00    9.10

3. To prioritize the technical and
professional development of the members
who direct and of others who manage or
advise the business the PEs                41   100.00    9.07

4. Preservation of the
environment                                41   100.00    8.56

5. Use the Development Plan. Industrial
-PDI 2020                                  40   97.56     8.20

6. Public Policies of Federal, State and
Municipal Governments, attractive
investments and partnership with Small
Businesses with Government and private
initiative                                 41   100.00    7.51

Variables                                  Minimum   Maximum     DP

1. Prioritize the qualification of
industrial labor and maintain the
required levels of efficiency and
productivity of the sect or                   5        10      1.1878

2. Reinvesting in Small Businesses
(PEs), to better serve the workforce,
the clientele and fulfill its economic
and social function in order to remain
successful in the market                      4        10      1.2001

3. To prioritize the technical and
professional development of the members
who direct and of others who manage or
advise the business the PEs                   6        10      1.2528

4. Preservation of the
environment                                   4        10      1.5008

5. Use the Development Plan. Industrial
-PDI 2020                                     4        10      1.7127

6. Public Policies of Federal, State and
Municipal Governments, attractive
investments and partnership with Small
Businesses with Government and private
initiative                                    2        10      2.0140

Source: Polary (2012).

Table 9--Relevance of the variables of the GSI Model for the
perenniality of the MIs of the sample Source: Polary et al. (2016).

Business Location   8,13

Table 10--Relevance of the variables of the GSI Model for the
perenniality of the EPPs of the sample.

Variables                                                 Media

Competences and management skills--Professional           8,18
Management-GSI of the partners and others who run the
business, based on Entrepreneurship

Make feasibility studies (technical, economic,            6,62
financial)

Technological support (machinery and equipment)           8,37

Technological support: systems and working methods        8,18
Level of industrial efficiency (appropriate inputs) use   7,93
of production

Public Policies of the Federal, State and Municipal       6,31
Government
Legal, tax and labor aspects                              6,87

Local Strategies and Political Institutional              6,43
Partnerships, Industrial Segment and Civil Society

Industrial Development Plan                               5,25
Skilled labor force                                       7,18
Investment attractiveness: internal, external and local   6,18
government

Preservation of the environment                           7,75
Business Location                                         8,68

Source: Polary et al. (2016).

Table 11--Technologies present in the MIs that contribute most
to the perenniality.

Tecnologias                                               Media

The physical system, database, software, machines and     7,50
equipment

Individuals' minds; Knowledge and qualification;          8,25
Experience and accumulated talent

Products and services                                     8,75
Organizational system and management strategies;          8,12
Procedures and organizational routines

Management for Integrated Sustainability--GSI as one of   7,50
the management technologies, Based on entrepreneurship

Source: Polary et al. (2016).

Tabela 12--Technologies present in the EPPs that contribute
most to the perenniality.

Tecnologias                                               Media

The physical system, database, software, machines and     7,77
equipment

Individuals' minds; Knowledge and qualification;          7,18
Experience and accumulated talent

Products and services                                     8,36
Organizational system and management strategies;          7,31
Procedures and organizational routines

Management for Integrated Sustainability--GSI as one of   7,40
the management technologies, Based on entrepreneurship

Source: Polary et al. (2016).

Figure 1: Visualization of the technological trajectory
of developing economy companies.

Physical system, database, software, machines and equipment

System (fabric)
Organizational and
management strategies;
Procedures and routines
organizational.

Technological
Capacity=
specific
knowledge of
the
organization/
Company

Minds of guys tacit
knowledge and
formal qualification of
engineers and technicians,
operators. Your experience
and accumulated talent.

Products e Services

Source: Lall (1992); Bell & Pavitt (1995); Figueiredo (2003).

Figure 2--TEM of the sample MIs.

1 a 4            64%
5 a 8             9%
9 a 12           18%
Acima de 12       9%

Source: Polary et al. (2016).

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Figure 3--TEM of the sample EPPs.

1 a 4            25%
5 a 8            19%
9 a 12            6%
Acima de 12      50%

Source: Polary et al. (2016).

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Figure 4--Phases of MIs.

Mantendo-se funcionado ate sair da fase
De "prejuizo"                                        23%

Manutencao estavel, com sucesso nos
negocios, sem crescimento estrutural e
fisico.                                              45%

Em crescimento estrutural, fisico, numero
de empregados, expansao de mercado, de
clientes e de ganhos financieros.                    23%

Adiquiriu estabilidade financeira, com
investimento em tecnologia de gestao e da
forca de trabalho, mantendo-se perene e
cumprindo a sua missao                                9%

Encerrando suas atividades no mercado,
apos cumprir suas obrigacoes legais, fiscais e
trabalhistas por nao querer continuar no
negocio.                                              0%

Source: Polary et al. (2016).

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Figure 5--Phases of EPPs.

Mantendo-se funcionado ate sair da fase
De "prejuizo"                                        0%

Manutencao estavel, com sucesso nos
negocios, sem crescimento estrutural e
fisico.                                              63%

Em crescimento estrutural, fisico, numero
de empregados, expansao de mercado, de
clientes e de ganhos financieros.                    31%

Adiquiriu estabilidade financeira, com
investimento em tecnologia de gestao e da
forca de trabalho, mantendo-se perene e
cumprindo a sua missao                                6%

Encerrando suas atividades no mercado,
apos cumprir suas obrigacoes legais, fiscais e
trabalhistas por nao querer continuar no
negocio.                                              0%

Source: Polary et al. (2016).

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Frame 1--PIB14 municipalities of the sample of 134 MPEs researched
in the Industrial Sector-MA

No     Counties              PIB a preco corrente   %

1      Alcantara             R$65.418.000,00        0,17%
2      Bacabal               R$505.600.000,00       1,27%
3      Balsas                R$1.120.221.000,00     2,82%
4      Cajapio               R$22.781.000,00        0,06%
5      Caxias                R$825.527.000,00       2,08%
6      Imperatriz            R$2.000.735.000,00     5,03%
7      Lago da Pedra         R$152.435.000,00       0,38%
8      Paco do Lumiar        R$291.564.000,00       0,73%
9      Raposa                R$100.920.000,00       0,25%
10     Rosario               R$134.819.000,00       0,34%
11     Sao Joao dos Patos    R$89.164.000,00        0,22%
12     Sao Jose de Ribamar   R$473.407.000,00       1,19%
13     Sao Luis              R$ 15.337.347.000,00   38,58%
14     Timon                 R$715.427.000,00       1,81%
       TOTAL PIB             R$                     54,93%
       (municipalities
       participating in
       the research)         21.835.365.000,00
       TOTAL PIB             R$                     45,07%
       (municipalities
       participating in
       the research)         17.918.346.000,00
       PIB Maranhao          R$ 39.753.711.000,00   100%

Source: PIB of the municipalities of Maranhao--2009 (IBGE--2012).

Frame 2: Phase Cycle and Processes of MPEs.

N    PHASES OF MPEs      DEFINITIONS

01   CREATION            It is the legal formalization of MPE,
                         via a social contract and /or
                         constitution document, in which the
                         company is created to operate and meet a
                         market demand.
02   MAINTENANCE         It is to fulfill the mission of creating
                         the business, and keep working until
                         leaving the phase of "loss" (recovery of
                         capital invested in the creation phase),
                         and from there, to remain in the market
                         with the generation of own resources and
                         operating at a profit.
03   PERENE              The company remains stable, successful
     MAINTENANCE         in business, but without structural and
                         physical growth. Staying alive
                         successfully in business, and
                         consciously avoiding expansion.
04   GROWTH              It is to grow the business in its
                         structural and physical aspects, with
                         the increase of the number of employees,
                         greater market share and expansion of
                         the clientele, increase of financial
                         gains, among others.
05   PERENITY            It is to remain alive in the market,
                         long-lived and succeeding generations,
                         with constant feedbacks from the
                         creation, maintenance and perennial
                         maintenance phases, with the capacity to
                         maintain structural growth, the market,
                         the clientele, and acquire financial
                         stability, prioritizing the development
                         Of management technologies and of the
                         workforce that guarantees professional
                         maturity and can fulfill its political,
                         economic and social function in the face
                         of its mission.

N    PROCESSES OF MPEs   DEFINITIONS

01   SUCCESS             MPE presents good administrative,
                         operational and financial results,
                         generating capacity for its continuity,
                         providing the necessary conditions for
                         the company to reach the remaining
                         phases and achieve longevity, thus
                         fulfilling its political, economic and
                         social mission in the environment in
                         which it operates.

02   LOW PLANNED         Closing of the activities of the MPE in
                         the market in which it operates, carried
                         out in a manner planned by the owner,
                         after complying with its legal, fiscal
                         and labor obligations. It is a
                         professional decision not to want to
                         continue in the business, regardless of
                         the reason.
03   FAILURE             It is the poor result of MPE, and its
                         inability to continue operating in the
                         market in a viable way to
                         administrative, technical, operational
                         and financial matters, being compromised
                         the relation with the employees, clients
                         and the results of financial profit.
04   MORTALITY           Insolvency of MPE, ceasing the normal
                         operation of its administrative,
                         technical and operational activities,
                         for not achieving economic and financial
                         success. It ceases to exist functionally
                         with an active organization, reflecting
                         negatively on the economic and social
                         development of the environment in which
                         it operates.

Source: Polary (2012).

Frame 3--The GSI model integrates 03 dimensions, 05 components
and 12 variables.

MODEL   DIMENSIONS        COMPONENTS          VARIABLES

        Administrative    Management          Skills and Management
        Technological                         Skills--Professional
                                              Management-GSI, based
                                              on Entrepreneurship.
                                              Feasibility studies:
                                              technical, economic
                                              and financial.
                          Technology          Technological support
                                              (machinery and
                                              equipment, systems and
                                              working methods).
                                              Industrial efficiency
GSI                                           level.
        Political         Policies            Public Policies of the
        Institutional                         Federal, State and
                                              Municipal Government.
                                              Legal, tax and labor
                                              aspects.
                          Strategies          Local Strategies and
                                              Political
                                              Institutional
                                              Partnerships,
                                              Industrial Segment and
                                              Civil Society.
                                              Industrial Development
                                              Plan--IDP-2020.
        Economic Social   Economic and        Qualified industrial
                          Social Indicators   labor force.
                                              Investment
                                              attractiveness:
                                              internal, external and
                                              local government.
                                              Preservation of the
                                              local environment of
                                              industry.
                                              Business Location.

Source: Polary (2012).

Frame 4--Multiple linear regression between the variables that most
positively influence the Management, Success and Perennial
(Independent) and Prioritize the qualification of industrial labor
and maintain the levels of efficiency and productivity required of
the sector (Dependent) in the industrial MIs of Maranhao.

  Independent                            Partial
  Variables                              regression    t        P
  (Peddler)                              coefficient
  Constant (Intercept)                   1.4039(a)     --       --
  Skills and managerial skills of the    0.0234(b1)    0.2571   0.7977
managing partners and others who
administer
or advise the business--Professional
Management (GSI), based on
Entrepreneurship
  Technological support (machinery       0.2817(b2)    2.9741   0.0038
and equipment, systems and working
methods)
  Conduct feasibility studies:           0.3615(b3)    3.6469   0.0004
technical, economic and financial
  Qualified industrial labor force       0.0444(b4)    0.7225   0.4719
  Level of industrial efficiency         0.2301(b5)    2.3558   0.0207
  Preservation of the local              0.0414(b6)    0.5946   0.5536
environment of industry

Source: Polary (2012).

Frame 5--Multiple linear regression between the variables that
most positively influence the Management, Success and Perennity
(Independent) and Reinvest in the PEs to better serve their
workforce, the clientele and fulfill their economic and social
function to remain successful in the market (Dependent) In the
industrial PEs of Maranhao.

  Independent                            Partial

  Variables                              regression    t        P
  (Peddler)                              coefficient
  Constant (Intercept)                   1.4039(a)     --       --
  Compentencies and management skills    0.0234(b1)    0.2571   0.7977
of the managing partners and others
who administer or advise the business
allied to Professional Management
(GSI) and Entrepreneurship.

  Technological support (machinery and   0.2817(b2)    2.9741   0.0038
equipment, systems and working
methods)

  Qualified industrial labor force       0.3615(b3)    3.6469   0.0004
  Level of industrial efficiency         0.0444(b4)    0.7225   0.4719
  Local of the Small Business            0.2301(b5)    2.3558   0.0207
  Preservation of the local              0.0414(b6)    0.5946   0.5536
environment of industry

Source: Polary (2012).
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Publication:International Journal of Innovation
Date:May 1, 2017
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