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Systematics of the plantbug genus Irianocoris Carvalho (Insecta: Heteroptera: Miridae: Orthotylinae: Austromirini).

Abstract--The austromirine plant bug genus Irianocoris is revised, with three new Australian species described: I. carvalhoi n.sp., I. carbine n.sp., and I. schuhi n.sp. The previously described Australian species, I. australicus Carvalho, is redescribed, and its distributional range extended to Western Australia. The type species, I. italae Carvalho, from Indonesia (Irian Jaya) is redescribed and recorded from Papua New Guinea for the first time. A generic redescription and a key to species are given. The diagnostic characters of the male and female genitalia are illustrated.

Key words: Miridae, Orthotylinae, Austromirini, Irianocoris, systematics.

INTRODUCTION

Irianocoris was first described by Carvalho (1971) for the remarkable species, I. italae Carvalho, an orthotyline plant bug (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Orthotylinae) from Maffin Bay, Irian Jaya (Indonesia). This species has an exaggerated first antennal segment, being greatly incrassate and elongate, with unique, brushlike setae. Carvalho (1983) described a second species, Irianocoris australicus, from Cape York, Australia, and documented that it possesses similar antennal features. Exaggerated antennal segments are found occasionally in other genera of the Miridae; e.g., Heterotoma Le Peletier and Serville (Orthotylinae), Ectopiocerus Uhler (Mirinae), and Pseudodoniella China and Carvalho (Bryocorinae). However, the degree of exaggeration as found in species of Irianocoris is unsurpassed.

Irianoeoris was first assigned to the nominotypical tribe of the Orthotylinae, the Orthotylini. Cassis and Gross (1995) and Schuh (1995) followed this arrangement in their respective Australian and world catalogues. It is here transferred to the tribe Austromirini on the basis of the tumid peritreme of the metathoracic glands (Cassis, 2008; Cassis and Wall, 2010). Irianocoris is one of the few taxa of this tribe that is found outside of continental Australia.

Our paper is dedicated to Randall Schuh of the American Museum of Natural History, on the occasion of his 70th birthday. We acknowledge his many landmark contributions to the field of heteropteran systematics.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Material: This work is based on the examination of 28 specimens, including the type of Irianoeoris italae. We were unable to examine the type of I. australicus but its habitus image has been observed on the Plant Bug Inventory locality database (http://research.amnh/org/pbi/databases/locality_ database.html). All specimens have been applied with unique specimen identifiers and matrix codes. The institutional acronyms used in this work are:

AM--Australian Museum, Sydney.

ANIC--Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO, Canberra.

BPBM--BP Bishop Museum, Honolulu.

BMNH--Natural History Museum, London.

MNRJ--Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro.

QM--Queensland Museum, Brisbane.

UNSW--University of New South Wales, Sydney.

USNM--[United States] National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

WAM--Western Australian Museum, Perth.

Homology and Terminology: Homology and terminology for salient features follow that of Cassis (1995) and references therein. Genitalic characters follow Slater (1950), Davis (1955), Cassis et al. (2003), and Schwartz (2011) for females, and Cassis (2008) for males. The male aedeagus comprises one or two endosomal spicules that are designated as the dorsal (DES) and ventral (VES) endosomal spicules; VES is always present. In some cases the DES is not present, and is presumed to be lost.

Measurements of continuous characters are maximal lengths, with the following attributes recorded and abbreviations used: AI, II, AIII and AIV = first, second, third and fourth antennal segments; Cun = cuneus; CunClyp =distance between apex of cuneus to apex of clypeus; InterOc = interocular distance; Pron = Pronotum; and, Scut = scutellum.

Scanning Electron Microscopy: Scanning electron micrographs were taken using a Cambridge scanning electron microscope. Light microscopy observations were made using a LEICA MZ16 stereomicroscope and a LEICA DMB compound microscope. Illustrations were made using a camera lucida. The habitus images were taken using a Visionary Digital photographic system.

IRIANOCORIS CARVALHO

Irianocoris Carvalho, 1971:15 (n.gen. and n.sp.); Carvalho, 1983:404 (n.sp., first Australian species); Cassis and Gross, 1995:190 (catalogue); Schuh, 1995:126 (catalogue).

TVPE SPECIES: Irianocoris italae Carvalho, 1971, by original designation.

DIAGNOSIS: Irianocoris is diagnosed by the following characters: red to brown body, often with mottled red highlighting (Fig. 1); greatly enlarged eyes occupying much of the head in lateral view (Fig. 2A); antennifers with triangular process (Fig. 2A); greatly enlarged, thick AI, with elongate, black, flattened, brushlike setae (Fig. 3); AII with distal swelling (Fig. 3); vertex with deep, conspicuous, median sulcus (Fig. 1); frons most often with anterior (=frontal) spine (Fig. 1); male pygophore with right tergal process (Figs. 4A, 7A, 8A, 9A); and, left paramere club (Figs. 4D, E, 7C, 9D) or C-shaped (Fig. 8C); right paramere larger than left paramere, sickle shaped and elongate (Figs. 4H, 7B) or C-shaped (Figs. 8B and 9C); aedeagus with one (Figs. 8D, 9E) or two endosomal spicules (Figs. 4F, 7D).

DESCRIPTION: Macropterous. Small, elongate-ovoid body, total length, male 3.49-4.64 rum, female 3.45-4.42 mm. COLORATION: Dorsum coloration variable, from reddish brown with pale markings to pale brown with reddish markings; head either testaceous or reddish brown, with median longitudinal sulcus darker; AI orange, red or yellow, AII, AIII, and AIV usually yellow, with bases and apices redor orange. TEXTURE AND VESTITURE: Dorsum texture smooth; pronotum granulose. Dorsal vestiture very sparse, mostly very small, decumbent, silvery, simple to weakly sericeous setae, and frequently erect bristlelike setae. Antennae: First antennal segment moderately covered with large, erect, flattened, ribbonlike, black setae; AII-AIV typically with a dense cover of semierect to erect, short to moderately sized, pale or dark setae. Legs: With moderate to dense cover oferect to inclined, bristlelike setae; meso- and metatibiae with rows of spinules. Abdomen: Densely clothed with semi-erect pale setae. STRUCTURE. Head: Oval in dorsal view (Fig. 1), oval to quadrate in lateral view (Fig. 2A); posterior margin of head straight (Fig. 1), head width much wider than callosite region of pronotum (Fig. 1), removed from anterior margin of pronotum; vertex weakly biconvex, surface equal with dorsal margin of eyes, longitudinal median sulcus deep, conspicuous (Fig. 1); frons weakly tumid, dorsal surface strongly convex, anterior and dorsal surfaces oblique, anteriorly usually with a medial, narrow tubercle or spine (Fig. 1), sometimes extending beyond base of AI; eyes very large, round, occupying dorsal 2/3 to 3/4 of head, moderately emarginate anteriorly (Fig. 2A); clypeus small, weakly tumid, anterior surface straight to angulate, posteriorly oriented (Fig. 2A); maxillary plate very small, triangular; mandibular plate very small, subquadrate; gena very narrow; bucculae very small, arcuate; labrum extremely small, narrow. Antennae: Inserted at midheight of eye (Fig. 2A); antennifers large, subtriangular, contiguous with anterior margin of eye; AI extremely large, subequal to combined lengths of head and pronotum, greatly thickened, sometimes fusiform, sometimes with margins sinuate and apex tumose (Fig. 3); AII weakly to moderately swollen apically, 2/3 the length of AI and much narrower (Fig. 3); AIII fusiform, much narrower than AII and ca. half its length (Fig. 3); AIV narrow, cylindrical, half the length of AII (Fig. 3). Labium: Reaching mesocoxae; very narrow, apex tapered. Thorax: Pronotum: Campanulate, weakly biconvex, width of callosite region slightly greater than posterior lobe (Fig. 1); collar flat, narrow, fully exposed; anterior angles indistinct, rounded; calli indistinct, weakly incised posteriorly; posterior lobe weakly to moderately elevated, weakly convex, posterior margin straight to convex. Mesoseutum: moderately exposed (Fig. 1). Scutellum: Weakly tumid, weakly convex (Fig. 1). Hemelytra: (Fig. 1) Costal margins convex, widest across posterior aspect of clavus, strongly convergent posteriorly; embolium very wide, not to weakly deflexed; R + M weakly incised; median flexion line half the length of corium; corium flat; elavus moderately to strongly bi-planar, lateral plane oblique to corium; claval vein indistinct; cuneus small, very short. Proepisternum: Subrectangular, propleural suture straight, distinct; proepimeron strongly depressed medially, margin ventrad of humeral angle deeply incised. Pterothoracic pleura: Mesepimeron subrectangular, dorsal margin weakly arcuate; metathoracic spirade visible, opening narrow, evaporative areas vestigial, reduced to lip of spiracular opening (not visible under light microscope) (Fig. 2C, E); metepisternum subovoid; scent efferent system occupying slightly more than one third of segrnent (Fig. 2C); peritreme strongly tumid, surface hirsute, extending beyond evaporative areas dorsally (Fig. 2D); evaporative areas anteriorly submarginal, extending along posterior margin, almost reaching metepimeron (Fig. 2C); evaporative bodies subrectangular, subquadrate or pentagonal, widely separated (Fig. 2D). Legs: Meso- and metacoxae widely separated; femora cylindrical, weakly oval in cross section; metafemur not reaching apex of abdomen; metatibia slightly longer than metafemur; pretarsus: claws large, very thick basally, narrow and strongly arcuate distally; parempodia distally lobate, leaflike, broad, only apices recurved (Fig. 2B); pulvilli small, membranous (Fig. 2B). Abdomen: Very broad, slightly compressed dorsoventrally (Fig. 2F). GENITALIA: Male: Pygophore moderate in size (Fig. 2F, H), cylindrical (Figs. 4A, 7A) to strongly conical (Figs. 8A, 9A,B), weakly dorsoventrally flattened (Fig. 2G); aperture small (Fig. 9A) to moderately (Fig. 7A) sized, genital opening terminally oriented (Fig. 2F), dorsal margin of opening weakly concave, with a greatly enlarged, sickle-shaped left tergal process (Figs. 4A, 7A) or small triangular to subtriangular process (Figs. 8A, 9A); left paramere small, variable, either club-shaped (Figs. 4D, E, 7C, 9D) to C-shaped (Fig. 8C); right paramere either large, sickle-shaped, with medial process (Figs. 4H-J, 7B), sometimes with apical furcation (Fig, 4H-J) or C-shaped (Figs. 8B, 9C); aedeagus with one (Figs. 8D, 9E) or two endosomal spicules (Figs. 4F, 7D); ventral endosomal spicule always present, elongate, either smooth (Figs. 4F, 7D) or apically serrated (Figs. 8D, 9E), when dorsal endosomal spicule present, straight, with distai serrations; species with one spicule, with ventral endosomal spicule with distal serrations (Figs. 4F, 7D). Female: Dorsal labiate plate with small to moderately sized, folded sclerotized rings (Fig. 5), and paired medial sclerotized regions (Fig. 5); posterior wall with sclerotized inter-ramal sclerite (Fig. 5) and arcuate digitiform inter-ramal lobes, surfaces most often spiculate (Fig. 5).

DISTRIBUTION: Irianocoris is found in Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea and northern Australia (Fig. 6).

REMARKS: Irianocoris is unlike any other austromirine, with its unique possession of an exaggerated first antennal segment (Cassis and Gross, 1995; Cassis, 2008; Cassis and Wall, 2010). The austromirine genus Woodwardiola Carvalho has a greatly enlarged second antennal segment, but its genital structures are still under investigation, and its affinities to Irianocoris are yet to be determined. Irianocoris differs from Woodwardiola by the reddish-brown coloration and elongate-ovoid body (cf. black coloration and parallelsided body). It is also differentiated from non antmimetic austromirines in the Lattinova Cassis complex (Cassis, 2008) by the structure of the head, with the clypeus strongly produced in this group, as opposed to the small and posteriorly projected clypeus in Irianocoris. The orientation of the endosomal spicules differ between taxa in the Lattinova complex and Irianocoris, with all spicules basally oriented to the right of the secondary gonopore. In addition, the pygophore of Irianocoris has a left tergal process, which is present in other members of the Orthotylini, but not in the Lattinova complex (Cassis, 2008). In terms of male genitalic characters, Irianocoris is differentiated from the non ant-mimetic genus Kirkaldyella Poppius by having the apophysis of the left paramere not projected on to the ventral surface of the pygophore (Cassis and Moulds, 2002).

CHECKLIST OF SPECIES OF IRIANOCORIS

I. australicus Carvalho, 1983        Queensland, Western
                                     Australia, Northern
                                     Territory
I. carbine, n.sp.                    Queensland
I. carvalhoi, n.sp.                  Queensland
I. italae Carvalho, 1971             Irian Jaya, Indonesia,
                                     Papua New Guinea
I. schuhi, n.sp.                     Queensland


KEY TO SPECIES OF IRIANOCORIS

Second antennal segment not significantly swollen apically (Figs. 2, 3, e.g., I. italae) 2

--Second antennal segment swollen apically (Figs. 2, 3, e.g., I. australicus) 3

2. Frons excised anteriorly, without a frontal process (Fig. 1); female posterior wall without inter-ramal lobes (Fig. 5C) I. italae Carvalho

--Frons entire, with a spinelike process anteriorly (Fig. 1); female posterior wall with inter-ramal lobes (Fig. 5D) I. carvalhoi, n.sp.

3. First antennal segment cylindrical, without beading or apically incrassate (Fig. 3); setae of first antennal segment pale brown; pygophore with a small subtriangular left tergal process (Fig. 9A); aedeagus with one endosomal spicule (Fig. 9E, VES) I. schuhi, n.sp.

--First antennal segment beaded, and apically incrassate (Fig. 3); setae of first antennal segment of first antennal segment black; pygophore with an exaggerated sinuate, left tergal process (Figs. 4A, 7A); aedeagus with two endosomal spicules (Figs. 4F, 7D) 4

4. First antennal segment greatly incrassate apically, with setal length not exceeding width of beads, setae also more lanceolate (Fig. 3); apex of apophysis of right paramere with deep bifurcation (Fig. 7B); apex of DES moderately splayed apically (Fig. 7D) I. carbine, n.sp.

--First antennal segment moderately incrassate apically, with setal length at least basally exceeding width of beads, setae also narrowly lanceolate at most (Fig. 3); apex of apophysis of right paramere with shallow narrow trifurcation (Fig. 4H-J); apex of DES strongly splayed apically (Fig. 4F) I. australicus Carvalho

Irianocoris australicus Carvalho Figures 1, 3-6

Irianocoris australicus Carvalho, 1983:404 (n.sp.); Cassis and Gross, 1995:191 (catalogue); Schuh, 1995:126 (catalogue)

HOLOTYPE: Coen Area, Cape York Peninsula, 13.763[degrees]S 143.119[degrees]E, 27 May 1951, C. Oke, 1[female] (AMNH_PBI 00175089). Type not seen. Deposited in MNRJ.

DIAGNOSIS: Iriancocoris australicus is recognized by the following combination of characters: body mostly brown to yellowish-brown with red high-lighting (Fig. 1); AI incrassate, beaded, distal bead moderately expanded, with dense distribution of elongate, needlelike to lanceolate setae (Fig. 3); AIIa little shorter than AI, with distal swelling (Fig. 3); frons with short anterior process (Fig. 1); pygophore with enlarged, sickle-shaped tergal process (Fig. 4A C); left paramere club-shaped with dorsal serrations and mesial processes (Fig. 4D, E); right paramere enlarged, sickles-haped, apophysis with triangular medial process and trifurcate apex (Fig. 4H-J); endosoma of aedeagus with two spicules (Fig. 4F, G); interramal lobes of posterior wall lobate with spiculate surface (Fig. 5A, B).

DESCRIPTION: Body length, male 3.49-4.64 mm, female 3.45-4.42 mm. COLORATION: body brown with extensive red highlighting (Fig. 1). Head: Brown with reddish highlighting to uniformly reddish-brown, with indistinct darker red vittae; clypeus, mandibular and maxillary plates red, rarely with mandibular plates yellow; occipital region mostly red with yellow midline, sometimes yellowish-brown. Antennae: AI red, sometimes areas between beads yellow, with brushlike setae dark brown to black; AII with small basal light red band, remainder of cylindrical region yellow, with swollen apex red; AIII and AIV yellow, sometimes with apices infused with red. Labium: Yellow with apex of LIV weakly embrowned. Thorax: Pronotum: Brown, with midline yellow to yellowish brown, sometimes females with red stripes adjacent to yellow midline. Thoracic pleura: Mostly brown, with reddish highlighting to more extensively red. Metathoracic gland: Yellow. Scutellum: Mostly brown, with apex yellow. Legs: Uniformly yellow. Hemelytra: mostly brown, with red mottled highlighting. Abdomen: Yellowish-brown with red highlighting to broadly red. VESTITURE: Antennae: AI with dense distribution of elongate, needlelike to lanceolate, dark brown to black setae, setae of apex of distal lobe graduating to fine simple setae; AII-AIII with dense distribution of pale, erect, simple setae. STRUCTURE: Head: Frontal spine small, sometimes barely visible (Fig. 1); medial sulcus of vertex + frons deep. Antennae: AI enlarged, longer than maximal pronotal width, arcuate, incrassate, beaded, with three obvious beads, distal lobe most voluminous (Fig. 1); AII a little shorter than AI, arcuate, with basal 2/3rd cylindrical in cross-section, distally swollen (Fig. 1); AIII weakly fusiform, less than 1/2 AII length (Fig. 1); AIV weakly fusiform, shorter than AIII (Fig. 1). GENITALIA: Male. Pygophore with enlarged, sickle-shaped tergal process (Fig. 4A-C); left paramere club-shaped with dorsal serrations and mesial processes (Fig. 4D, E); right paramere enlarged, sickle-shaped, apophysis with triangular medial process and trifurcate apex (Fig. 4H-J); endosoma of aedeagus with elongate VES, medially sinuate, with distal bifurcation (Fig. 4F, G), DES slender, apically splayed with serrate margins (Fig. 4F), shorter than VES. Female: Sclerotized rings of dorsal labiate plate moderately sized, folded (Fig. 5A, B); medial regions of dorsal labial plate sclerotized (Fig. 5A, B); and, inter-ramal lobes of posterior wall lobate with spiculate surface (Fig. 6).

MEASUREMENTS: See Table 1.

DISTRIBUTION: This species is known only from tropical northern Australia, including the Kimberley, the Northern Territory and north Queensland (Fig. 6).

REMARKS: We have not been able to examine the holotype of Iriancocoris australicus. Carvalho (1983) reported that the type specimen from Coen, Queensland, was deposited in the Australian National Insect Collection, but it is not housed there presently. The image of the holotype in the PBI database is conspecific with the material that we examined. In addition, Carvalho (1983) reported paratype materials (one male and one female) as being deposited in the British Museum of Natural History and his own collection; however, we have not been able to find these materials. Notwithstanding, we have found his description and illustration of the male genitalia to be commensurate to what we have found for male specimens we are now ascribing to this species. Carvalho's illustrations did not illustrate a medial process on the right paramere; we interpret this to be the position in which he illustrated this component of the male genitalia. Our illustrations of the tergal pygophoral process and left paramere are similar to those given in Carvalho (1983). The endosomal spicules are similar, although he gives minor serrations on one of the arms of the VES, which we did not find. However, be does illustrate what appears to be a third spicule, that we interpret as an error, as there are no specimens of any Irianocoris that has three spicules.

In addition, we found intraspecific variation across the geographic range of this species in Northern Australia. There are minor differences in the shape of the left tergal process of the pygophore (Fig. 4A-C), apex of VES (Fig. 4F, G), and apophysis of the right paramere (Fig. 4H-J). Such differences are no more than intraspecific variation and continuous in nature.

Irianocoris australicus is most closely related to I. carbine and is differentiated from it by the trifurcate head of apophysis of the right paramere, the more distally splayed DES, and the less-beaded first antennal segment.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED: AUSTRALIA: Northern Territory: 3 km SSW of Katherine, 14.5[degrees]S 132.25[degrees]E, 12 Nov 1979, T. Weir, 1[male] (AMNH_PBI 00034170) (ANIC). Cooper Creek, 19 km E by S of Mt. Borradale, 12.06[degrees]S 133.04[degrees]E, 31 May 1973, T. Weir & N. Forrester, 19 (AMNH_PBI 00193298) (NTM). Queensland: N camp Beagle, 45 km N of Aurukun, 12.95[degrees]S 141.72[degrees]E, 25 Nov 1981, M. Robinson, 1[male] (AMNH_PBI 00020740) (AM). Ross River Reservoir 10 km S Townsville, 19.45[degrees]S 146.73333[degrees]E, 27 Nov 1991, C. J. Burwell, 19 (AMNH_PBI 00201620) (QM). Western Australia: Carson Escarpment, 14.49[degrees]S 126.49[degrees]E, 09 Aug 1975-15 Aug 1975, I. F. B. Common & M. S. Upton, 1[female] (AMNH_PBI 00034171) (ANIC). Dip Yards, Broome, 17.97[degrees]S 122.23[degrees]E, 29 Sep 1998, C. Brockway, Light Trap, 19 (AMNH_PBI 00399999) (WAM), Light Trap, 2[male] (AMNH_PBI 00030484, AMNH_PBI 00030485) (WAM); 13 Dec 1999, S. Kniveton, Light Trap, 2[male] (AMNH_PBI 00400000, AMNH_PBI 00400001) (WAM). Drysdale River, 15.02[degrees]S 126.55[degrees]E, 03 Aug 1975-08 Aug 1975, I. F. B. Common & M. S. Upton, 19 (AMNH_PBI 00034168) (ANIC). Eco Beach, Broome, 17.96[degrees]S 122.23[degrees]E, 19 Nov 1998-20 Nov 1998, C. Brockway, Light Trap, 2[male] (AMNH_PBI 00400002, AMNH_PBI 00400573) (AM). Mining Camp, Mitchell Plateau, 14.81666[degrees]S 125.83333[degrees]E, 09 May 1983-19 May 1983, I. D. Naumann and J. C. Cardale, 2[female] (AMNH_PBI 00034166, AMNH_PBI 00034167) (ANIC).

Irianocoris carbine, new species Figures 1, 3, 6 and 7

ETYMOLOGY: This species is named after the type locality, Mt Carbine, north Queensland.

HOLOTYPE: McLeod R[iver] 14 km W by N of Mt. Carbine, 16.3[degrees]S 145[degrees]E, 23 Nov 1981, D. H. Colless, Light Trap, 1[male] (AMNH_PBI 00034169) (ANIC).

DIAGNOSIS: Irianocoris carbine is recognized by the following combination of characters: body mostly testaceous with extensive red highlighting (Fig. 1); first antennal segment incrassate, strongly beaded, with scattered distribution of short lanceolate setae (Fig. 3); first antennal segment longer than maximal pronotal width; second antennal segment swollen distally, shorter than maximal pronotal width; frons with short frontal spine (Fig. 1); pygophore with enlarged, sickle-shaped tergal process (Fig. 7A); left paramere club-shaped with dorsal serrations and mesial processes (Fig. 7C); right paramere enlarged, sickle-shaped, apophysis with deeply bifurcate apophysis, and vestigial medial process (Fig. 7C); endosoma of aedeagus with two spicules, and DES narrowly splayed distally (Fig. 7D).

DESCRIPTION: Male body length 3.88 mm. COLORATION. Body mostly testaceous with extensive red highlighting. Head: Testaceous, without vittae; median sulcus of vertex red; clypeus, mandibular and maxillary plates red; occipital region mostly red with yellow midline. Antennae: AI red; All basally testaceous, clavate apical region red; AIII orange. Labium: yellow with apex of LIV weakly embrowned. Thorax: Pronotum: Callosite region testaceous-brown; disc mostly testaceous, with extensive submedial red highlighting; midline with weak yellow stripe. Thoracic pleura: Mostly red. Metathoracic glands: red. Scutellum: Mostly red, with midline, expanding distally. Legs: Testaceous, with weak orange to red tinge on distal aspect of femora and proximal regions of tibiae. Hemelytra: Mostly testaceous, with extensive red highlighting on claval margins; corium with most dense marking on medial aspect of embolium, and patchily on cuneus, with apex of the latter yellow. Abdomen: Red. VESTITURE: Antennae: AI with moderate distribution of relatively short, needlelike to lanceolate, dark brown setae, setae of apex of distal lobe graduating to line simple setae; AII-AIII with dense distribution of pale, simple setae. Legs: Femora almost with setae, scattered bristlelike setae on ventral surface; tibiae with moderate distribution of semierect, pale, simple setae, mostly on ventral surface, densest on foretibiae. STRUCTURE. Head: Frontal spine small (Fig. 1); medial sulcus of vertex shallow. Antennae: AI enlarged, incrassate, beaded, with distal lobe voluminous, longer than maximal pronotal width; AII (Fig. 3) short, less than maximal pronotal width; AIII narrowly fusiform, short, less than anterior width of pronotal collar (Fig. 3); AIV unknown. Labium: First labium extending beyond posterior margin of head. GENITALIA: Male: Pygophore with enlarged, sickle-shaped tergal process (Fig. 7A); left paramere club-shaped with dorsal serrations and mesial processes (Fig. 7C); right paramere enlarged, sickle-shaped, apophysis with deeply bifurcate apophysis, and vestigial medial process (Fig. 7D); endosoma of aedeagus with elongate VES, medially sinuate, with distal bifurcation (Fig. 7D), DES slender, moderately splayed distally, with serrate margins (Fig. 7D), shorter than VES. Female and nymph: unknown.

MEASUREMENTS: See Table 1.

DISTRIBUTION: This species is known only from the type locality; Mt Carbine in north Queensland (Fig. 6), which is the southern-most distribution of the genus.

REMARKS: See "Remarks" section for I. australieus. Irianocoris carvalhoi, new species Figures 1, 3, 6 and 7

HOLOTYPE: Dividing Range, 15 km W. of Captain Billy Creek, Cape York Pen[insula], N. QLD, 11.66666[degrees]S 142.75[degrees]E, 04 Jul 1975-09 Jul 1975, G. B. Monteith, 1[female] (AMNH_PBI 00201622) (QM).

ETYMOLOGY: This species is named after the late Dr Jose Carvalho, who was the author of Irianocoris and two of the included species.

DIAGNOSIS: Irianocoris carvalhoi is recognized by the following combination of characters: frons with elongate spinelike process (Fig. 1); first antennal segment evenly incrassate and arcuate, with uniform distribution of lanceolate setae (Fig. 3), red; first antennal segment longer than maximal pronotal width; second antennal nar rowly fusiform, not swollen distally (Fig. 3), longer than maximal pronotal width; sclerotized rings small (Fig. 5D); posterior wall with narrow, fingerlike inter-ramal lobes (Fig. 5D).

DESCRIPTION: Female body length 3.354.06 mm. COLORATION: Body mostly red-brown, with yellow markings and red highlighting (Fig. 1). Head: Uniformly red; clypeus with fuscous highlighting; bucculae and adjacent gula region yellow; occipital region red. Antennae: AI red; All mostly yellow, with distal orange tinge, or uniformly pale orange; AIII and AIV yellow to pale orange. Labium: Mostly yellow with apex of LIV embrowned. Thorax: Pronotum: Red-brown, sometimes disc brown, with midline yellow, expanding caudally. Scutellum: Yellow with anterolateral angles red. Thoracic pleura: Red. Legs: Uniformly yellow, sometimes with pale orange tinge. Hemelytra: Mostly red to red-brown, with apex of endocorium beyond median flexion line yellow; cuneus yellow with extensive red highlighting; membrane fumose with veins red. Abdomen: Red to red-brown, sometimes subgenital plate medially yellow. VESTITURE: Antennae: AI with dense and even distribution of elongate, dark brown needlelike to lanceolate setae (Fig. 3); AII with dense distribution of elongate, semi-erect, simple setae, intermixed with scattered more elongate, needlelike setae (Fig. 3); AIII-AIV with elongate, semierect, simple setae (Fig. 3). STRUCTURE: Head: Frontal spine elongate (Fig. 1); medial sulcus of vertex deep. Antennae: AI enlarged, incrassate, weakly arcuate, longer than maximal pronotal width; AII cylindrical, weakly arcuate, not clavate distally (Fig. 3), a little longer than maximal pronotal width; AIII and AIV short, cylindrical. Labium: First labium extending beyond posterior margin of head. Hemelytra: Claval commissure elongate, 1.5x longer than scutellar margin of clavus. GENITALIA: Female: Dorsal labiate plate with small sclerotized rings, small medial plates (Fig. 5D); narrow, fingerlike inter-ramal lobes, with moderate spiculation (Fig. 5D). Male and nymph: unknown.

MEASUREMENTS: See Table 1.

DISTRIBUTION: Irianoeoris carvalhoi is known only from a few localities within Cape York Peninsula (Fig. 6).

REMARKS: Irianocoris carvalhoi is only known from females, but has distinctive genitalia (Fig. 1) and the most elongate, spinelike, frontal process on the head (Fig. 1) of any species. It is putatively most closely related to I. italae; however, the latter does not have a frontal process (Fig. 1). In addition, the posterior wall of the female genitalia of I. carvalhoi has narrow inter-ramal lobes (Fig. 5D).

SPECIMENS EXAMINED: PARATYPES: AUSTRALIA: Queensland: Cape York Peninsula, Heathlands homestead, 11.45[degrees]S 142.34[degrees]E, 20 Mar 1992, G. Cassis, 1[male] (AMNH_PBI 00020742) (AM). Gunshot Creek, Cape York Peninsula, 11.75[degrees]S 142.46666[degrees]E, 12 Jul 1975-15 Jul 1975, G. B. Monteith, 1[female] (AMNH_PBI 00201621) (QM), 19 (AMNH_PBI 00400576) (QM).

Irianocoris italae Carvalho Figures l, 3, 5, 6, 8

Irianocoris italae Carvalho, 1971: 16 (n.sp.); Carvalho, 1983:405 (diagnosis); Schuh, 1995: 126 (catalogue)

HOLOTYPE: Femea, Maffin Bay, Dutch N[ew] Guinea (W[est] Irian) [Indonesia], 22-VII-44, E.S. Ross, 1[female] (USNM). Type seen.

DIAGNOSIS: Irianocoris italae is recognized by the following combination of characters: body mostly testaceous to testaceous-brown with extensive red highlighting; frons with vittae; head without frontal process (Fig. 1); first antennal segment evenly incrassate, not beaded, strongly arcuate, with even distribution of elongate needlelike lanceolate setae (Fig. 3); first antennal segment longer than maximal pronotal width (Fig. 3); second antennal segment elongate, weakly swollen distally, longer than maximal pronotal width, and subequal in length to first antennal segment (Fig 3); third antennal segment arcuate (Fig. 3); metafemora with broad subapical red band; pygophore with a small triangular left tergal process (Fig. 8A); left paramere C-shaped (Fig. 8C); right paramere (Fig, 8B) aedeagus with only one endosomal spicule (Fig. 8D); VES linear, with apex arcuate, spiculate (Fig. 8D); phallotheca with spiculate apex (Fig. 8D); dorsal labiate with small sclerotized rings (Fig. 5C); dorsal labiate plate with small sclerotized rings, without sclerotized medial regions, posterior wall without inter-ramal lobes (Fig. 5C).

DESCRIPTION: Body length, male 3.43 mm, female 3.41-4.17 mm. COLORATION: Body mostly testaceous to testaceous-brown with extensive red highlighting (Fig. 1). Head: Testaceous-brown, with vittae; median sulcus of vertex embrowned; clypeus, mandibular and maxillary plates red to testaceous-brown with red highlighting; occipital region mostly brown. Antennae: AI red-brown, with apex red; AII mostly testaceous, apical clavate region red; AIII and AIV testaceous, sometimes with weak orange highlighting. Labium: Yellow with tip of LIV weakly embrowned. Thorax: Pronotum: Mostly testaceous-brown, more darker anteriorly, with divergent pair of red stripes, midline pale yellow. Thoracic pleura: Testaceous-brown with red to fuscous-red highlighting. Metathoracic gland: Variable in colour, yellow medially to more red to fuscous-red laterally, to more testaceous-red. Scutellum: Mostly testaceous to testaceous-brown, with anterolateral angles red, apex always testaceous Legs: testaceous; metafemora with broad subapical red band. Hemelytra: Mostly testaceous, with extensive red highlighting on claval margins, distal regions of endocorium, with dense marking on medial aspect of embolium, and basally and apically on cuneus; exocorium with mottled appearance; membrane veins red. Abdomen: Male: Mostly red, with SIII and SIV more testaceous. Female: Testaceous-brown, with ovipositor and SVIII red. VESTITURE: Antennae: AI with even, dense distribution of elongate, needlelike to lanceolate, dark brown setae (Fig. 3); AII-AIII with dense distribution of pale, semi-erect simple setae. STRUCTURE. Head: Frontal spine absent (Fig. 1); medial sulcus of vertex deep. Antennae: AI enlarged, evenly incrassate, not beaded, longer than maximal pronotal width; AII (Fig. 3), elongate, as long as AI and longer than maximal pronotal width (Fig. 3); AIII weakly arcuate, narrowly fusiform, longer than width of pronotal collar (Fig. 3); AIV narrowly fusiform, longer than interocular distance (Fig. 3). Labium: Short, barely reaching bases of mesocoxae first labium subequal in length to posterior margin of head. GENITALIA: Male: Pygophore with a small triangular left tergal process (Fig. BA); left paramere C-shaped (Fig. 8C); right paramere (Fig. 8B) aedeagus with only one endosomal spicule (Fig. 8D); VES linear, with apex arcuate, spiculate (Fig. 8D); phallotheca with spiculate apex (Fig. 8D). Female: Dorsal labiate plate with small sclerotized rings (Fig. 5C), medial regions not sclerotized; posterior wall without inter-ramal lobes, inter-ramal sclerite robust (Fig. 5C).

Male and nymph unknown.

MEASUREMENTS: See Table 1.

DISTRIBUTION: Irianocoris italae is known from Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea (Fig. 6).

REMARKS: Irianocoris italae is differentiated from all other species of the genus by the absence of a frontal spinelike process (Fig. 1) and the posterior wall of the female lacking inter-ramal lobes (Fig. 5C). In addition, the first antennal segment is not beaded as in other members of the genus, and the second antennal segment is relatively long, with a small swelling distally (Fig. 3). Also see "Remarks" for I. carvalhoi.

SPECIEMENS EXAMINED: PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Madang Province: Adelbert Mountains, Wanuma, 4.72848[degrees]S 145.25412[degrees]E, 1000 m, 27 Oct 1958, J. L. Gressitt, Light Trap, 19 (AMNH_PBI 00046021) (BPBM). Baitabag, 5.7[degrees]S 145.4[degrees]E, 05 Jul 1999, R. L. Kitching, 1[female], 1[male] (AMNH_PBI 00400574, AMNH_PBI 00400575) (UNSW); 06 Jul 1999, R. L. Kitching, 19 (AMNH_PBI 00020741) (AM).

Irianocoris schuhi, new species Figures 1, 2, 3, 6, 9

ETYMOLOGY: This species is named after Dr Randall Tobias Schuh, of the American Museum of Natural History, in recognition of his lifelong contributions to the field of plant bug systematics.

HOLOTYPE: AUSTRALIA: Queensland: Massey Creek, Silver Plains via Coen, 13.91[degrees]S 143.6[degrees]E, 13 Dec 1964, G. Monteith, 1[male] (AMNH_PBI 00201623) (QM).

DIAGNOSIS: Irianocoris schuhi is recognized by the following combination of characters: body mostly testaceous with red highlighting; first antennal segment evenly incrassate and arcuate, with even distribution of lanceolate setae (Fig. 3), base and apex red, remainder yellow (Fig. 1); first antennal segment longer than maximal pronotal width; second antennal segment incrassate distally; head with moderately long frontal process (Fig. 1); pygophore with small triangular left tergal process (Figs. 9A, B); paramere C-shaped (Fig. 9C); left paramere short (Fig. 9D); and aedeagus with greatly enlarged VES, serrate distally, without DES (Fig. 9E).

DESCRIPTION: Male: COLORATION. Body mostly testaceous with red highlighting (Fig. 1). Head: Testaceous; vertex with median sulcus embrowned. Frontal spine sometimes reddened; clypeus whitish-yellow; mandibular plates with red highlighting. Antennae: AI mostly testaceous, base and apex with red annulations; AII basally testaceous, clavate apical region red; AIII and AIV testaceous. Labium: mostly testaceous with apex of LIV embrowned. Thorax: Pronotum: Medially testaceous in a vasiform shape, expanding caudally; collar and disc with sublateral pair of red stripes; lateral aspect testaceous-brown. Thoracic pleura: Mostly testaceous-brown with red highlighting, sometimes more red. Metathoracic gland: Testaceous. Scutellum: Mostly testaceous, laterally graduating to testaceous-brown with red tinge. Legs: Testaceous. Hemelytra: Mostly testaceous, with endocorium weakly enbrowned and bases of setae of exocorium dark brown, and with patterned red highlighting: on inner margins of clavus and anterior half of claval commissure, half length of exocorium, red star-shaped marking distally on corium. VESTITURE: Antennae: AI with dense and even distribution of elongate, needlelike to lanceolate, dark brown setae (Fig. 3); AII-AIV with dense distribution of hook-shaped, simple setae. STRUCTURE: Head: Frontal spine moderately sized (Figs. 1, 2A); medial sulcus of vertex shallow. Antennae: AI enlarged, evenly arcuate, weakly arcuate, a little longer than maximal pronotal width; AII relatively thickened distally (Fig. 1), subequal in length to AI; AIII narrowly fusiform, short, subequal in length to width of pronotal collar; AIV short, a little longer than interocular distance. GENITALIA: Male: Pygophore with small triangular left tergal process (Fig. 9A, B); pygophore with prominent ventral guide (Fig. 9B); right paramere C-shaped, with large subapical spine (Fig. 9C); left paramere short, club-shaped (Fig. 9D); aedeagus with greatly enlarged VES, serrate distally, without DES (Fig. 9E). Female and nymph: unknown.

DISTRIBUTION: This species is known only from the type locality: Silver Plains, near Coen, on the Cape York Peninsula (Fig. 6).

OTHER SPECIMENS EXAMINED: PARATYPES: Same data as holotype: 2[male] (AMNH_PBI 00201624, AMNH_PBI 00201625) (QM).

REMARKS: Irianocoris schuhi is recognised by the distinctive male genitalia, with the C-shaped right paramere unlike all other species, and the elongate VES, which is visible beyond the pygophore in situ (Fig. 2F-H). It is closely related to I. italae, but the VES is much larger and the apex of the second antennal segment is more swollen (Fig. 3). Also see "Remarks" of I. italae and I. carvalhoi.

Irianocoris schuhi was collected in the vicinity of the type specimens of I. australicus, but is conclusively differentiated from it by the genital and antennal structures.

DISCUSSION

Determination of close affinities of Irianocoris requires further analysis of the Austromirini. In this work we have compared it to the genera of the Lattinova complex and Kirkaldyella, but the putatively autapomorphic antennae and genitalia, obscure its sister-group relationships. It is of interest that the antennae in Irianocoris and Woodwardiola are greatly exaggerated, although of the first and second segments and their origins and functions are worthy of future investigation.

We have not examined the phylogenetic relationships of the Irianocoris species using parsimony analysis. Nonetheless, there is sufficient evidence to suggest that I. australicus and I. carbine are closely related on the basis of the male genitalia, in which both have an exaggerated aedeagus, right paramere, and tergal process that appear to be integrated and oriented towards the left side of the body; it would be of interest to assess how they are cantered when in copula. The aedeagus of both species comprises two endosomal spicules, with the ventral endosomal spicule greatly elongate and whiplike. In addition, these two species have similarities in antennal structure, with the beaded first antennal segment and the distally swollen second antennal segment. On the other hand, the New Guinean species, I. italae, is more closely related to I. schuhi, with both taxa having a single endosomal spicule, a very small left tergal process of the pygophore, and a C-shaped right paramere. In addition, the first antennal segment of both species is more evenly cylindrical and without the beading of the other above mentioned Australian species, and the second antennal segment is less swollen distally and more elongate. The position of I. carvalhoi is less certain, as males are unknown. However, it also has a more cylindrical first antennal segment, which indicates a closer affinity to I. italae + I. schuhi. In contrast, the inter-ramal lobes of the posterior wall are similar in morphology to I. australicus. The absence of these lobes in I. italae is of interest, as these structures are considered to be diagnostic for the Orthotylinae.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Our colleague Dr Thomas Henry, of the Systematic Entomology Laboratory at the United States Department of Agriculture, Washington DC, is thanked for the loan of the type of Irianocoris italae. We thank Dr Geoff Monteith, of the Queensland Museum, who collected many of the specimens for this study. Dr Tony Postle, formerly of the Australian Quarantine Inspection Service, is thanked for supplying material for this project. Tom Weir, of the Australian National Insect Collection, a usual suspect in supporting our work, is also thanked. Dr. Neal Evenhuis of the Bishop Museum is thanked for the loan of their material.

Ms Hannah Finlay at UNSW provided the excellent illustrations of the diagnostic anatomical characters. Ms Rossana Silveira provided advice in the preparation of graphical material. Ms Anouk Mututantri took the photographic habitus figures. Sue Lindsay of the Australian Museum provided the scanning electron micrographs.

This work was supported by grants from the Australian Biological Resources Study and the US National Science Foundation (Planetary Biodiversity Inventory, Grant DEB-0316495).

We thank Drs. Tom Henry and Christine Johnson (American Museum of Natural History) for inviting us to participate in the Toby Schuh Festchrift, and who thoughtfully shepherded our paper to completion.

LITERATURE CITED

Carvalho, J. C. M. 1971. Sobre uma curiosa especie nova de Mirideo da Nova Guine (Hemiptera). Revista Brasileira Biologia 31(1): 15-16.

Carvalho, J. C. M. 1983. A new genus and four new species of Miridae from Oceania (Hemiptera). Revista Brasileira Biologia 43(4): 401-408.

Cassis, G. 1995. A reclassification and phylogeny of the Termatophylini (Heteroptera: Miridae: Deraeocorinae), with a taxonomic revision of the Australian species, and a review of the tribal classification of the Deraeoeorinae. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 97(2): 358-330.

Cassis, G. 2008. The Lattinova complex of austromirine plant bugs (Insecta: Heteroptera: Miridae: Orthotylinae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 10(4): 845-939.

Cassis, G. and G. F. Gross. 1995. Hemiptera: Heteroptera (Coleorrhyncha to Cimicomorpha). Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Volume 27.3A. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, xv + 506 pp.

Cassis, G. and T. Moulds. 2002. A systematic revision of the plantbug genus Kirkaldyella Poppius (Heteroptera: Miridae: Orthtotylinae: Austromirini). Insect Systematics and Evolution 33: 53-90.

Cassis, G., M. D. Schwartz and T. Moulds. 2003. Systematics and new taxa of the Vannius complex (Hemiptera: Miridae: Cylapinae) from the Australian Region. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 49(1): 123-151.

Cassis, G. and M. A. Wall. 2010. Systematics and phylogeny of the hatchet-head plant bug genus Myrmecoroides Gross (Insecta: Heteroptera: Miridae: Orthotylinae. Entomologica Americana 116(3/4): 29-49.

Davis, N. T. 1955. Morphology of the female organs of reproduction in the Miridae (Hemiptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 48: 132-150.

Schuh, R. T. 1995. Plant Bugs of the World (Insecta: Heteroptera: Miridae). Systematic Catalog, Distributions, Host List, and Bibliography. The New York Entomological Society, New York, xii 1329 pp.

Schwartz, M. D. 2011. Revision and phylogenetic analysis of the North American genus Slaterocoris Wagner with new synonymy, the description of five new species and a new genus from Mexico, and a review of the genus Scalponotatus Kelton (Heteroptera, Miridae, Orthotylinae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 354: 1-290.

Slater, J. A. 1950. An investigation of the female genitalia as taxonomic characters in the Miridae (Hemiptera). Iowa State College Journal of Science 25: 1-81.

GERASIMOS CASSIS, MARINA CHENG AND NIKOLAI J. TATARNIC

Evolution & Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 Australia; gcassis@unsw.edu.au

Table 1. Body measurements of Irianocoris species.

                                          Length

                        Body    CunClyp   Head    Pron    Scut    Cun
Irianocoris australicus

Male         Mean       3.96    2.93      0.49    0.50    0.46    0.59
(N = 8)      St Dev     0.34    0.18      0.08    0.04    0.04    0.06
             Range      1.14    0.57      0.25    0.13    0.10    0.19
             Minimum    3.49    2.69      0.39    0.41    0.41    0.47
             Maximum    4.64    3.28      0.64    0.54    0.51    0.66
Female       Mean       3.99    3.01      0.50    0.52    0.46    0.54
(N = 7)      St Dev     0.34    0.26      0.07    0.04    0.07    0.06
             Range      0.97    0.60      0.17    0.12    0.19    0.18
             Minimum    3.45    2.75      0.40    0.47    0.37    0.42
             Maximum    4.42    3.35      0.57    0.59    0.56    0.61

Irianocoris carbine

Male                    3.88    2.88      0.56    0.50    0.46    0.49
(N = 1)

Irianocoris carvalhoi

Female       Mean       3.67    2.81      0.54    0.50    0.40    0.51
(N = 4)      St Dev     0.30    0.15      0.08    0.09    0.03    0.10
             Range      0.71    0.35      0.16    0.22    0.06    0.19
             Minimum    3.35    2.60      0.43    0.40    0.38    0.41
             Maximum    4.06    2.95      0.59    0.62    0.44    0.60

Irianocoris italae

Male                    3.43    2.49      0.42    0.48    0.40    0.52
(N = 1)

Female       Mean       3.75    2.87      0.44    0.48    0.41    0.53
(N = 3)      St Dev     0.39    0.11      0.03    0.02    0.01    0.12
             Range      0.76    0.22      0.05    0.03    0.02    0.22
             Minimum    3.41    2.77      0.41    0.46    0.40    0.44
             Maximum    4.17    2.99      0.47    0.49    0.42    0.66

Irianocoris schuhi

Male         Mean       4.43    2.23      0.69    0.61    0.42    0.45
(N = 3)      St Dev     0.06    1.82      0.01    0.01    0.04    0.39
             Range      0.11    3.17      0.02    0.03    0.07    0.71
             Minimum    4.36    0.14      0.68    0.60    0.40    0.00
             Maximum    4.47    3.31      0.70    0.63    0.47    0.71

                             Width

                        Head    Pron    Scut
Irianocoris australicus

Male         Mean       0.83    1.14    0.52
(N = 8)      St Dev     0.03    0.05    0.04
             Range      0.08    0.15    0.13
             Minimum    0.79    1.07    0.43
             Maximum    0.87    1.22    0.56
Female       Mean       0.76    1.15    0.55
(N = 7)      St Dev     0.03    0.03    0.05
             Range      0.09    0.08    0.14
             Minimum    0.72    1.11    0.48
             Maximum    0.81    1.19    0.62

Irianocoris carbine

Male                    0.72    1.08    0.59
(N = 1)

Irianocoris carvalhoi

Female       Mean       0.74    1.05    0.51
(N = 4)      St Dev     0.04    0.04    0.05
             Range      0.09    0.11    0.13
             Minimum    0.68    1.00    0.43
             Maximum    0.77    1.11    0.56

Irianocoris italae

Male                    0.73    1.00    0.47
(N = 1)

Female       Mean       0.74    1.05    0.46
(N = 3)      St Dev     0.02    0.07    0.05
             Range      0.04    0.14    0.10
             Minimum    0.72    0.98    0.41
             Maximum    0.76    1.12    0.50

Irianocoris schuhi

Male         Mean       0.87    1.20    0.55
(N = 3)      St Dev     0.01    0.06    0.09
             Range      0.02    0.10    0.18
             Minimum    0.87    1.17    0.46
             Maximum    0.88    1.26    0.65

                        InterOc   AI      All     AIII    AIV

Irianocoris australicus

Male         Mean       0.23      1.22    0.66    0.43    0.31
(N = 8)      St Dev     0.02      0.52    0.40    0.06    0.07
             Range      0.05      1.65    1.03    0.13    0.19
             Minimum    0.21      0.00    0.00    0.36    0.22
             Maximum    0.26      1.65    1.03    0.49    0.41
Female       Mean       0.33      1.28    0.93    0.43    0.32
(N = 7)      St Dev     0.03      0.19    0.12    0.05    0.08
             Range      0.07      0.49    0.35    0.13    0.14
             Minimum    0.31      1.00    0.72    0.37    0.25
             Maximum    0.38      1.49    1.08    0.50    0.38

Irianocoris carbine

Male                    0.31      0.63    0.50    0.81    0.25
(N = 1)

Irianocoris carvalhoi

Female       Mean       0.34      1.29    0.95    0.49    0.38
(N = 4)      St Dev     0.03      0.12    0.16    0.14    0.00
             Range      0.07      0.28    0.36    0.32    0.00
             Minimum    0.30      1.13    0.71    0.34    0.38
             Maximum    0.37      1.41    1.06    0.65    0.38

Irianocoris italae

Male                    0.32      1.14    1.37    0.56    0.08
(N = 1)

Female       Mean       0.37      1.30    1.18    0.59    0.34
(N = 3)      St Dev     0.06      0.27    0.26    0.18    0.13
             Range      0.13      0.55    0.51    0.34    0.26
             Minimum    0.32      1.04    0.92    0.45    0.21
             Maximum    0.44      1.58    1.43    0.79    0.47

Irianocoris schuhi

Male         Mean       0.29      1.06    1.26    0.57    0.29
(N = 3)      St Dev     0.03      0.26    0.26    0.03    NA
             Range      0.05      0.51    0.51    0.04    0.00
             Minimum    0.27      0.84    1.00    0.55    0.29
             Maximum    0.32      1.35    1.51    0.59    0.29


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Author:Cassis, Gerasimos; Cheng, Marina; Tatarnic, Nikolai J.
Publication:Entomologica Americana
Article Type:Report
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Date:Jan 1, 2012
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