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Synthetic evaluation on health quality of Liaoning tourism ecosystem.

1. INTRODUCTION The tourism ecosystem healthy question is one of the major issues during the process of tourism economy development(Zhang Jia-en, 2005).Tourism should be a win-win industry which can promote the environmental protection and the economic development at the same time, but the truth of recent development indicated that the ecological environment question is also serious, and the tourism economy, the environment, and the ecology were at the irreconcilable contradictory condition. The tourism ecosystem health has been threatened. How to solve this problem; making the tourism ecosystem be at the healthy condition, and how to achieve the sustainable development tourism? Many ecology scholars and the traveling scholars' research stresses mostly in the eco-tourism supporting capacity (XU,et al, 2006; SHANG & XIAO, 2006; LI & WEI, 2005; STEFAN GOSSLING, 2002), Study of tourism ecosystem (LIN, 2002; JIA, 2005; TONG, 2000) and sustainable development (GAO, 2001; Li, 2007) and safety evaluation tourism (CAO, 2006), but not many studies are focused on the analysis and evaluation of tourism ecosystem. This article utilizes the PSR model to build the evaluating indicator system about tourism ecosystem health, and carries on the generalized analysis to the tourism ecosystem health. The objective of this article is to make the tourism ecosystem develop optimized, healthily and sustainably through the tourism ecosystem generalized analysis appraisal, which has the important theory significance and the practice guiding sense regarding the ecology civilization construction and the harmonious social construction.

2. TOURISM ECOSYSTEM HEALTH CHECK-UP INDICATOR SYSTEM AND WEIGHT DETERMINATION BASED ON PSR

In environment economy warning system, there are two most important aspects: index design; and model choice. Firstly, it has to choose aspects on which the determinations must be made about environment and economy, and related indexes, and thus determination environment economy early warning standpoints. We have to choose persuaded and representative indexes, and establish their mutual relational model, enabling the index to have the persuasive power, also quite good operation. According to this principle, in the predecessor studies in the foundation (WU, 2002; ZHANG, et al, 2005; MA & Li, 2006; WANG & QIU, 2007; CHENG, 2004), and from the angle of threatened ecosystem, we established tourism ecosystem health evaluating indicator system including pressure index, the condition index with responding index. This system is described as the table 1.

3. LIAONING TOURISM ECOSYSTEM HEALTH EVALUATION INDEX CALCULATION BASED ON THE FRAMEWORK OF THE PSR

After identifying tourism ecosystem health evaluation index system, combined with the actual development of tourism in Liaoning, through access to a lot of statistics, this paper selects statistics of Liaoning Province from 2000 to 2007 to do some important analysis. The main indicator data are from the "Statistical Yearbook of Liaoning", "Liaoning Province Environmental Status ", "Table of Change of Land-Use in Liaoning Province", and "Liaoning Provincial Tourism Official Gazette ", Liaoning and Information Network database. As the indicator data are dimensional, the following methods require the original data to be normalized.

T = [T.sub.min] + [T.sub.max] - [T.sub.max]/[X.sub.max] - [X.sub.min] (X - [X.sub.min])

X in the formula stands for Raw data; [X.sub.max] X min mean maximum and minimum value to raw data; T means transformed data, also known as target data; [T.sub.max] and [T.sub.min] are maximum and minimum value to the transformed data, where [T.sub.max] gets 1, and [T.sub.min] gets 0. Besides, normalized data are shown in Table 2.

4. EVALUATION RESULTS ANALYSIS OF LIAONING TOURISM ECOSYSTEM HEALTH STATUS

4.1 Liaoning ecosystem health index analysis

Liaoning Provincial Tourism comprehensive indicator of ecosystem health results are shown in Figure 1.

According to the figure, Liaoning Tourism ecosystem health overall Composite Index is on the rise, due to the relatively fast socio-economic development in the 21st century with the growth of GDP from 8.9% in 2000 to 14.5% in 2007. Because of rapid growth on economy, people are free to increase disposable income, and tourism has become a way of life. Additionally, tourism revenue rose from 25.5 billion in 2000 to 130.7 billion Yuan in 2007; tourism revenue in the proportion of GDP increased from 5.46% in 2000 to 11.9 percent in 2007 and the growth rate of tourism revenue grew from 21.4 percent in 2000 to 34.7 percent in 2007.The growth rate of the tourism industry has caused a lot of pressure on travel Liaoning ecosystem, particularly on ecosystem health is threatened, although the response to the index from 2000 to 2007 showed the trend of growth, environmental protection efforts, but still lags behind economic growth.

Liaoning tourism ecosystem includes 3 sub-systems: pressure system, state sub-system response sub-system, and its comprehensive evaluation of the results is shown in Figure 2. Figure 2 shows, travel, Liaoning ecosystem pressure has been eased, but the overall situation is increasing as well as state index. This explains that the ecological environment quality of Liaoning tourism improved. Overall, ecosystem health status of Liaoning tourism is becoming a turn for the better.

4.2 Sub-system analysis of Liaoning eco-tourism system health status

4.2.1 Pressure subsystem

Liaoning tourism ecosystem, including 3 sub-systems: pressure system, state and sub-system response to the sub-system, and its comprehensive evaluation of the results shown in Figure 2. Figure 2 shows, travel, Liaoning ecosystem pressure has eased, but the overall increase in; Index high state on Tourism Liaoning improved the ecological environment quality; sub-system response to the rapid pace of growth, but also efforts Not enough. Overall, Liaoning ecosystem health tourism is becoming a turn for the better.

Pressure sub-systems of ecosystem on the Liaoning tourism include the abundance level of tourism resources, socio-economic growth and the pressure of human activity intensity area. The results of comprehensive analysis are shown in Figure 4. Figure 4 shows, socio-economic growth increased the pressure year after year, the intensity of human activities in recent years has increased, but diagram also see that the resource consumption is also growing with the development of social-economy. Water per capita reduces, meanwhile, forest area per capital changes a lot. Good tourist attractions are in the increase owned by every million people,showing that the fast development of tourism and tourism development and more attentions to environmental protection at the same time.

4.2.2 Sub-state system

Liaoning ecosystem health tourism sub-index value is shown as Figure 5. We can see from Figure 5, Liaoning tourist state of the ecosystem as a whole situation turned for the better year by year. SARS period in 2003, state of the ecosystem of Liaoning Tourism was poor. The ecosystem health sub-index rose from 2.0452 to 3.7433 in 2007, with an increase in the basic state, and more changes. This is the revitalization of old industrial base of Liaoning vigorously develop the tertiary industry, so that the rapid development of tourism economy.

State sub-system of Liaoning tourism ecosystem includes the ecological environment quality, level of economic development, and environmental awareness of the tourists. Results of analysis are shown in Figure 6. We can see from Figure 6, Liaoning Provincial Tourism ecological environment quality is getting worse, the level of economic development and a significant increase in tourists' awareness of environmental protection.

Ecological environment is the basis of Eco-tourism environmental quality .Currently quality of the environment in Liaoning Province declines annually, and the province's area of soil erosion are still 4,294,000 hectares, the phenomenon of desertification is still very serious. Water Environment index is still high compared with the serious pollution of water resources in general.

Economic development of Liaoning Tourism is on a high level. We can see from Figure 6, tourism revenue rose from 25.5 billion in 2000 to 130.7billion Yuan in 2007, the growth rate from 21.4 percent to 34.7 percent. Tourism revenue in the proportion of GDP came from 5.46% in 2000 to 11.9 percent. Development of the tourism industry has led to great social effect. Tourism employment rose from 30 million in 2000 to 105 million people in 2007.The development of tourism has brought a multiplier effect.

Environmental awareness of the tourists has been strengthened, but the growth rate is lower than the level of economic growth in tourism.

4.2.3 Response sub-system

Response sub-system of the health index value to Liaoning tourism ecosystem is shown in Figure 7. We can see from Figure 7, in response to the health of the larger changes in the index, particularly after the 2001 change significantly.

The indicators in the figure show that with the development of the tourism economy, it is a growing recognition of human activities on the ecological environment, a concern of the ecological environment construction, and to take active measures to improve the ecological environment. In particular, the Government takes more efforts to protect environment in the development of tourism-oriented development; particularly enlarges the area of nature reserves and takes great efforts to carry out eco-tourism; and also steps up efforts to increase environmental protection investment to upgrade their technological level and improve the environmental technology to deal with the ecological environment.

Response sub-system in Liaoning Province includes the tourism-oriented policy and efforts to environmental protection. Its comprehensive analysis results are shown in Figure 8. We can see from Figure 8, Liaoning province has done a lot of work on tourism policy and environmental protection, especially after 2002, it has been increasing infrastructure construction, the proportion of tertiary industry investment. In the tourism development projects, the government focuses on the construction of nature reserves and actively carries out eco-tourism projects, in order to improve the tourism environment. Environmental Protection efforts are increasing year by year, and have achieved certain results, but it should also improve the rate of response index.

5. CONCLUSIONS

It is a new attempt to carry out comprehensive evaluation and analysis on the health of the ecosystem using the model of pressure, the state and response index.

Eco-tourism system is a complex system. It is considerable to introduce more interdisciplinary approach to do research. The complexity of tourism and eco-system determines the complexity of the evaluation of the tourism indicators of ecosystem health.

Tourism ecosystem health assessment, is taking into account not only the reasons affecting the health system, but also considering the possibility of statistical data collection. From the angle of forced system, this paper analyzes reasons of the system's healthy problems and successfully builds Liaoning tourism ecosystem health evaluating indicator system with the utilization pressure, the state, the response model. Besides, this paper carries on the synthetic evaluation and the analysis to the Liaoning tourism ecosystem health's indicator system through bestowing on the weights, which proposes the new research mentality for the tourism sustainable development in Liaoning province.

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[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]

* Received 15 March 2009; accepted 10 June 2009

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WANG Hui-min, Qiulei. (2007). Resources - environment - economic complex diagnosis of early-warning system and application methods. Beijing: Science Press.

ZHANG Guang-rui, WEI Xiao-an & LIU Deqian. (2003-2005) tourism development in China: Analysis and Forecast. Beijing: Social Sciences Publishing House.

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FAN Qiu-mei (2, 3)

SUN Tie-heng (2, 3)

ZHANG Zhen-jia (3)

(1) Key Project of National Natural Science Foundation (20337010)

(2) Institute of Applied Ecology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China.

(3) Shenyang University, Shenyang 110041, China.
TABLES
Table 1. Tourism ecosystem health evaluating indicator system and
weighs

Target Principle
layer H layer A
H [A.sub.1] Factor layer B Index layer C

Tourism Presure [B.sub.1] Abundance [C.sub.1] Average water
ecosystem (0.4) of tourism area per capita0.04 )
health resources (0.12)
evaluating [C.sub.2] Average forest
indicator land area per person
system (0.04)

 [C.sub.3] Quantities of
 A-level tourist scenic
 zones every million
 people (0.04)

 [B.sub.2] Social [C.sub.4] GDP per
 economy growth capita (0.04)
 pressure (0.15)
 [C.sub.5] resident
 income Per capita
 (0.04)

 [C.sub.6] Growth rate
 of GDP (0.05)

 [C.sub.7] Safe degree of
 society (0.02)

 [B.sub.3] Human [C.sub.8] Population
 activity density (0.03)
 intensity (0.07)
 [C.sub.9] The natural
 population growth rate
 (0.02)

 [C.sub.10] Urbanization
 rate (0.02)

 [A.sub.2] [B.sub.4] Quality [C.sub.11] Afforestation
 Status of tourism rate (0.03)
 (0.4) ecological
 environment [C.sub.12] Soil erosion
 (0.15) area (0.02)

 [C.sub.13] Desertifi-
 cation rate (0.05)

 [C.sub.14] Water
 environmental index
 (0.05)

 [B.sub.5] Tourism [C.sub.15] Increment
 development level rate of Tourism revenue
 (0.15) (0.03)

 [C.sub.16] Tourism
 revenue in the
 proportion of
 GDP (0.05)

 [C.sub.17] Tourism
 employment (0.04)

 [C.sub.18] Catering
 retail growth rate
 (0.03)

 [B.sub.6] Tourist [C.sub.19] The number
 environmental of tourists visiting
 consciousness (0.04)

 [C.sub.20] The education
 level of tourists (0.03)

 [C.sub.21] Populari-
 zation rate of
 environmental
 protection publicity
 and education (0.03)

 [A.sub.3] [B.sub.7] Tourism [C.sub.22] The
 Response industry favorable proportion of
 (0.2) policy (0.08) tertiary industry
 investment (0.05)

 [C.sub.23] The
 proportion of the total
 area of nature
 reserves (0.03)

 [B.sub.8] [C.sub.24] Environmental
 Environmental protection into account
 protection the proportion of GDP
 dynamics (0.12) (0.03)

 [C.sub.25] Growth rate
 of investment in science
 and technology (0.02)

 [C.sub.26] Growth rate
 of investment in
 education (0.02)

 [C.sub.27] Sewage
 treatment rate (0.03)

 [C.sub.28] Garbage
 disposal rate (0.02)

Table 2. Standard data of health indicators of Liaoning eco-tourism
system

Target Principle Factor Index 2000 2001
layer layer layer layer

Health [A.sub.1] [B.sub.1] [C.sub.1] 1 0.875
indicators [C.sub.2] 1 0.4516
Evaluation [C.sub.3] 0 0.0663
system
of [B.sub.2] [C.sub.4] 0 0.239
Liaoning [C.sub.5] 0 0.1069
eco- [C.sub.6] 0 0.0179
tourism [C.sub.7] 0 0.3548
system
 [B.sub.3] [C.sub.8] 0 0.1186
 [C.sub.9] 1 0.6727
 [C.sub.10] 0 0.0227

 [A.sub.2] [B.sub.4] [C.sub.11] 0 0.0917
 [C.sub.12] 1 0.7432
 [C.sub.13] 0.9819 0.9593
 [C.sub.14] 1 0.2214

 [B.sub.5] [C.sub.15] 0.504 0.530
 [C.sub.16] 0 0.1094
 [C.sub.17] 0 0.44
 [C.sub.18] 0.779 0.971

 [B.sub.6] [C.sub.19] 0 0.0593
 [C.sub.20] 0 0.1545
 [C.sub.21] 0.67 0.69

 [A.sub.3] [B.sub.7] [C.sub.22] 0 0.0532
 [C.sub.23] 0 0.4722

 [B.sub.8] [C.sub.24] 0.0761 0
 [C.sub.25] 0.2887 0.0825
 [C.sub.26] 0.1497 0.0909
 [C.sub.27] 0 0.081
 [C.sub.28] 0.125 0

Target Principle Factor Index 2002 2003
layer layer layer layer

Health [A.sub.1] [B.sub.1] [C.sub.1] 0.7917 0.7222
indicators [C.sub.2] 0.5161 0.9677
Evaluation [C.sub.3] 0.1429 0.4025
system
of [B.sub.2] [C.sub.4] 0.358 0.627
Liaoning [C.sub.5] 0.1968 0.2921
eco- [C.sub.6] 0.2321 0.4643
tourism [C.sub.7] 1 0.9677
system
 [B.sub.3] [C.sub.8] 0.1949 0.2542
 [C.sub.9] 0.4 0.1545
 [C.sub.10] 0.0530 0.0909

 [A.sub.2] [B.sub.4] [C.sub.11] 0.2417 0.4083
 [C.sub.12] 0 0.5311
 [C.sub.13] 0.8709 0.6753
 [C.sub.14] 0.3825 0.2466

 [B.sub.5] [C.sub.15] 1 0
 [C.sub.16] 0.4063 0.2969
 [C.sub.17] 0.57 0.61
 [C.sub.18] 0.926 0

 [B.sub.6] [C.sub.19] 0.1675 0.1661
 [C.sub.20] 0.3171 0.4553
 [C.sub.21] 0.73 0.73

 [A.sub.3] [B.sub.7] [C.sub.22] 0.0890 0.1631
 [C.sub.23] 0.6389 0.6389

 [B.sub.8] [C.sub.24] 0.3307 0.3228
 [C.sub.25] 0.3024 0
 [C.sub.26] 0.2620 0
 [C.sub.27] 0.218 0.528
 [C.sub.28] 0.292 0.625

Target Principle Factor Index 2004 2005
layer layer layer layer

Health [A.sub.1] [B.sub.1] [C.sub.1] 0.7083 0.7917
indicators [C.sub.2] 0.7419 0.7097
Evaluation [C.sub.3] 0.5942 0.8055
system
of [B.sub.2] [C.sub.4] 0.821 0.761
Liaoning [C.sub.5] 0.4009 0.5716
eco- [C.sub.6] 0.6964 0.6071
tourism [C.sub.7] 0.8710 0.6452
system
 [B.sub.3] [C.sub.8] 0.3136 0.3475
 [C.sub.9] 0 0.0636
 [C.sub.10] 0.0833 0.1894

 [A.sub.2] [B.sub.4] [C.sub.11] 0.5917 0.925
 [C.sub.12] 0.4669 0.3998
 [C.sub.13] 0.9385 1
 [C.sub.14] 0.0796 0

 [B.sub.5] [C.sub.15] 0.665 0.684
 [C.sub.16] 0.4375 0.5938
 [C.sub.17] 0.68 0.75
 [C.sub.18] 0.838 0.441

 [B.sub.6] [C.sub.19] 0.3072 0.4577
 [C.sub.20] 0.6016 0.7724
 [C.sub.21] 0.75 0.77

 [A.sub.3] [B.sub.7] [C.sub.22] 0.2914 0.4750
 [C.sub.23] 0.7222 0.7778

 [B.sub.8] [C.sub.24] 0.2073 0.3543
 [C.sub.25] 0.1993 0.2337
 [C.sub.26] 0.5989 0.5561
 [C.sub.27] 0.706 0.863
 [C.sub.28] 0.792 0.792

Target Principle Factor Index 2006 2007
layer layer layer layer

Health [A.sub.1] [B.sub.1] [C.sub.1] 0.3056 0
indicators [C.sub.2] 0.2903 0
Evaluation [C.sub.3] 0.9333 1
system
of [B.sub.2] [C.sub.4] 0.806 1
Liaoning [C.sub.5] 0.7413 1
eco- [C.sub.6] 0.875 1
tourism [C.sub.7] 0.4516 0.2258
system
 [B.sub.3] [C.sub.8] 0.7712 1
 [C.sub.9] 0.1818 0.5727
 [C.sub.10] 0.9091 1

 [A.sub.2] [B.sub.4] [C.sub.11] 0.9417 1
 [C.sub.12] 0.3337 0.2004
 [C.sub.13] 0.2679 0
 [C.sub.14] 0.1650 0.1631

 [B.sub.5] [C.sub.15] 0.759 0.824
 [C.sub.16] 0.7813 1
 [C.sub.17] 0.81 1
 [C.sub.18] 0.279 1

 [B.sub.6] [C.sub.19] 0.7273 1
 [C.sub.20] 0.8862 1
 [C.sub.21] 0.78 0.8

 [A.sub.3] [B.sub.7] [C.sub.22] 0.7336 1
 [C.sub.23] 0.8611 1

 [B.sub.8] [C.sub.24] 0.9055 1
 [C.sub.25] 0.3986 1
 [C.sub.26] 0.2086 1
 [C.sub.27] 0.914 1
 [C.sub.28] 0.958 1

Table 3. Calculation Results of Liaoning Province Tourism Ecosystem
Health Status

(Table 3-a)

Year [B.sub.1] [B.sub.2] [B.sub.3] [B.sub.4] [B.sub.5]

2000 8 0 2 11.9095 3.849

2001 5.5716 1.4567 1.7466 7.665 6.81

2002 5.8028 4.4441 1.4907 6.9921 10.0895

2003 8.3696 6.2725 1.2534 6.8966 3.9245

2004 8.1776 8.2452 1.1074 7.7994 9.4165

2005 9.2276 8.7667 1.5485 8.5746 9.344

2006 6.1168 11.1466 4.4954 5.657 10.2605

2007 4 13.4516 6.1454 4.2463 14.472

Year [B.sub.6] [B.sub.7] [B.sub.8]

2000 2.01 0 1.3551

2001 2.7707 1.6826 0.5898

2002 3.8113 2.3617 3.3589

2003 4.2203 2.7322 3.8024

2004 5.2836 3.6236 5.9203

2005 6.458 4.7084 6.8155

2006 7.9078 6.2513 8.5889

2007 9.4 8 12

(Table 3-b)

Year [A.sub.1] [A.sub.2] [A.sub.3] H

2000 1.1 2.5648 0.163 1.0182
2001 1.0094 2.4484 0.2054 1.0192
2002 1.4681 2.9433 0.5920 1.4685
2003 2.033 2.0452 0.6749 1.5906
2004 2.2956 3.1108 1.0003 2.0525
2005 2.5307 3.3336 1.1946 2.2102
2006 2.7267 3.1785 1.5308 2.3556
2007 2.9279 3.7433 2.08 2.7519

Figure 2. Health index value to subsystem of the Liaoning Tourism
ecosystem

 2000y 2001y 2002y 2003y 2004y 2005y 2006y 2007y

Pressur 1. 1.118 1.607 2.279 2.575 2.664 2.768 2.927

Statu 2.564 2.448 2.943 2.045 3.110 3.333 3.178 3.743

Respons 0.16 0.205 0.59 0.674 1.000 1.194 1.530 2.0

Figure 4. Liaoning ecosystem pressure on the tourism sub-index value
of all elements of health status

 2000yr 2001yr 2002yr 2003yr 2004yr 2005yr

B1 8 5.5716 5.8028 8.3696 8.1776 9.2276

B2 0 2.1827 5.3797 7.9333 10.1116 9.6563

B3 2 1.7466 1.4907 1.2534 1.1074 1.5485

 2006yr 2007yr

B1 6.1168 4

B2 11.4664 13.4516

B3 4.4954 6.1454

Figure 6. The health status of the sub-index value of all elements
to Liaoning Tourism ecosystem

 2000yr 2001yr 2002yr 2003yr 2004yr 2005yr

B4 11.9095 7.665 6.9921 6.8966 7.7994 8.5746

B5 3.849 6.81 10.0895 3.9245 9.4165 9.344

B6 2.01 2.7707 3.8113 4.2203 5.2836 6.458

 2006yr 200yr

B4 5.657 4.2463

B5 10.2605 14.472

B6 7.9078 9.4

Figure 8. Response sub-index values of all elements to
Liaoning tourism

 2000yr 2001yr 2002yr 2003yr 2004yr

B7 0 1.6826 2.3617 2.7322 3.6236

B8 1.3551 0.5898 3.3589 3.8024 5.9203

B7 4.7084 6.2513 8

B8 6.8155 8.5889 12
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Author:Qiu-mei, Fan; Tie-heng, Sun; Zhen-jia, Zhang
Publication:Advances in Natural Science
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9CHIN
Date:Jun 30, 2009
Words:4034
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