Swift's corrected copy of 'Contests and Dissensions,' with other pamphlets from his library.
That any of this came to light is a story in itself. On a front endpaper or title page Swift usually signed books which he acquired. His signature in the volume should have alerted the Minnesota binder and the dealers who later handled its contents. Apparently there was no signature, at least in what had survived. In June 1995, some time after the contents had been dispersed, I received a note from John Bidwell at the Clark Library in Los Angeles, asking if I knew the pamphlet attributed to Temple, Further Proposals for Amending and Settling the Coyn "By a Person of Honour" (London: by M. Whitlock, 1696), and enclosing a xerox of the title page of their copy with its MS ascription under the byline, "[S.sup.r] William Temple." I had never heard of this attribution before, but there was something decidedly familiar in the autograph. Further correspondence revealed that both the Temple pamphlet and the one ascribed to Halifax, Some Observations Upon Discourses Lately Published on the Publick Revenues (London: n. p., 1698), with MS attribution "By Charles Montague [Esq.sup.r]," had come to the Clark from Stephen Weissman of Ximenes Rare Books, and that Weissman had acquired a third pamphlet from the same source, a copy of Swift's Contests and Dissensions with title page signed (he originally thought) "R. Dingley" or "Rc. Dingley," possibly a relation of Temple's young cousin William Dingley. With good reason, as it turned out, Weissman was now beginning to wonder if the Dingley signature didn't belong to the better-known Rebecca, Swift's friend and Stella's lifelong companion, who had been living in Temple's household when Further Proposals for Amending the Coyn first came out. When I was able to assemble xeroxes from all three pamphlets, it was dear that his Dingley was indeed Rebecca, signing "Re: Dingley" almost exactly as she had a 1699 receipt among Temple's estate papers in the James M. Osborn Collection at Yale.(3) The Temple ascription in Further Proposals was almost certainly in her hand, and the Montagu ascription in Some Observations looked exactly like Swift's about this time. Where had the three pamphlets come from? Ximenes had acquired them, Weissman explained, from an unnamed dealer friend who had visited the book fair in Minnesota, noticed the binder's display, and because the contents were old, bought the decrepit "Before" volume for stock. Many of the pamphlets were in poor shape, Weissman recalled, and except for the three which Ximenes purchased, he found them lacking in intrinsic interest or notable MS annotation. He said he had just phoned back his friend to ask about the others, but was told that they had all been dispersed here and there through the trade, their destinations now forgotten.(4)
So matters stood until the fall of 1995, when Weissman was cleaning out Ximenes' old quarters in New York before shifting to a new location. Amid the clutter he rediscovered the detached front cover from the Minnesota volume, with MS table of contents on the pastedown, which he had asked for and received when he bought his three pamphlets from the volume. Remembering my interest in the provenance, he stuck it in an envelope and sent it on to me. Though the pastedown paper was browned and crumbling, the MS entries were definitely in Swift's hand -- fairly early, but not so early as his period working for Temple in the 1690s. With emendations indicated by angled brackets < > and above-the-line insertions by caret indicated by vertical strokes / /, Swift's table of contents reads as follows:
Pamphletts in this Vo<lum>e
Dissen<t>er's Sayings. by [S.sup.r]. R. L'Estrange. [P.sup.rt] [2.sup.d]. Essay <on> translated Verse. by the E. of Roscommon. Propo<sa>lls for amending the Coyn. by [S.sup.r] W. Temple. <Argum>ent [ag.sup.st] a stand. Army. by [M.sup.r] Trenchard, or [M.sup.r] Waller. <[d.sup.o]> the [2.sup.d] Part. by the same Author. <O>bservations on [D.sup.r] D'avenant's Discourses &c. by Ch. Mountague, [L.sup.d] Halifax <Sp>eech to the E. of [Rochest.sup.r]. by [D.sup.r] /P/ Brown, Provost of T. Coll. A Discourse of the Contests in Athens and Rome. by [D.sup.r] Jon. Swift. New Association. [P.sup.rt] [2.sup.d] by Ch. Lesly. Occasionall Lettr. [Num.sup.br]. 1. supposed by the B. of Sarum. History of Stand. Armyes. supposed by [M.sup.r] Trenchard. Scotch Presb. Eloquence. The true Tom Double. by [D.sup.r]<illegible, crossed out> <Smalridge, erased> Atterbury, as h<e> /told me himself/ Bp of Sarum's Speech on Occas. Conformity. Address of the H. of [L.sup.ds] on the Ailsbury Business. supposed by [L.sup.d] Sommers
It is the first entry which allows us to identify the Minnesota volume with the 4to collection of pamphlets listed with Swift's library in 1745, "L'Estrange's Dissenters Sayings and other Pamphlets Lond. 1681, &c." For the lead pamphlet which Swift records in the Minnesota volume, Sir Roger L'Estrange's Dissenters Sayings, The Second Part, the only possible date is indeed 1681 -- the imprint date of both the two editions which were issued separately, Wing's L1245 and L1246. A glance at the pamphlet's title page suggests how the 1745 auction cataloguer -- whose entries are generally brief and superficial -- might have mistaken Part 2 for L'Estrange's better-known first part. Sandwiched between the large bold capitals of the title and subtitle, the more delicate italics of "The Second Part" are easily overlooked.(5)
Together with the MS table of contents, the surviving three pamphlets allow us to determine a fair amount about the volume. Using the revised Wing Short Title Catalogue, the old National Union Catalogue, and the online English Short-Title Catalogue (ESTC), consulted during September and October 1995, I have reconstructed the full titles and possible editions of the twelve pamphlets known only from the table of contents. They appear here in the appendix, together with the three survivals, in the order in which Swift lists them. Excluding the first pair of pamphlets, originally published in the 1680s, the component titles cluster around the years 1696-1705. Probably Swift had them bound up about 1705 -- certainly no earlier than that year and probably no later than 1711, as the twice-altered entry for The True Tom Double suggests. Initially Swift had been baffled by the authorship of this piece, which attacks Davenant for turning moderate in his 1705 Essays upon Peace at Home and War Abroad. Indeed the pamphlet remains unattributed in Wing and the ESTC today. Swift thought better of his original attribution (possibly "Atterbury"), heavily scored it through and entered "Smalridge" in its place (George Smalridge, another High Church cleric and a friend of Atterbury's), and finally erased "Smalridge" and wrote "Atterbury" instead, adding the clincher, "as he told me himself." Until 1711 Swift seems to have known Atterbury only slightly, if at all, but that year on 26 April he moved to Chelsea, where he found Atterbury lodging immediately opposite. The two soon grew friendly -- a necessary precondition for trading confidences about anonymous literary productions.(6) Almost certainly Swift's two earlier stabs at attribution antedate this time.
Similarly we can see that, before he had them bound up, the great bulk of the volume's component pamphlets reached Swift at different times and by different routes. In his MS table of contents written in 1705 or later, Swift properly ascribes Some Observation Upon Discourses Lately Published on the Publick Revenues to "Ch. Mountague, [L.sup.d] Hallifax," but on the pamphlet's title page he writes only "Charles Montague, [Esq..sup.r]" This was Halifax's correct name at the time of publication in 1698 until Dec. 1700, when he was raised to the peerage. The pamphlet is decidedly rare -- not in Kress, not yet on ESTC, only two other copies in Wing -- and as Stephen Weissman remarks in his original catalogue description (Ximenes, Occasional List 105, $256), it may have been printed for private circulation. On pages 6-7, 9-10, and 15-16 in Swift's copy are minor MS corrigenda which, as Weissman points out, "look to be authorial." Certainly the autograph is unfamiliar, and several of the alterations involved -- commas inserted in seven-figure numbers, parentheses substituted for commas in a short appositional phrase -- are the kind which are made by eye, not by ear, a pattern seldom encountered among Swift's own MS corrigenda. Swift may have received this copy directly from the author. With its ascription in her hand, by contrast, the 1696 Temple pamphlet on currency reform must have reached Swift through Rebecca Dingley rather than from the author himself. Like her friend Stella, she was a regular member of Temple's household at Moor Park. If the pamphlet first appeared before Swift returned from Ireland to Moor Park, about May of that year, a Dingley provenance would make perfect sense.(7) In a different way, so does his copy of Contests and Dissensions with her signature on it. This time both Dingley and Swift had been far from the press. By the time the piece was published in London, late in October 1701, Swift had been back in Dublin for a month and Dingley for nearly two.(8) It is typical of his offhandedness with his own productions -- witness the many difficulties encountered by his Irish publisher and friends when they began assembling his collected Works in 1732 -- that he acquired his copy of Contests and Dissensions (at least the copy which he corrected and preserved) not directly from London but from a friend in Dublin. As Frank Ellis remarks, there had been a large number of printer's errors in this initial printing of 1701. From a more careful and self-conscious author -- Pope, for instance -- we would expect many more corrections than Swift's eight. They are scattered and desultory in occurrence and in themselves relatively trivial, qualities typical of Swift's correcting work throughout his life. Equally typical, all eight correct errors or weaknesses which would have been apparent to a listener, when read aloud, rather than to a silent reader, using eyes alone.(9)
It is also typical that, from all appearances, Swift never got around to sending these MS corrections to his earliest publishers. True, four of the eight turn up corrected in the reprinting of 1707, and all but one were eventually incorporated in his 1711 Miscellanies, the first reprinting of the text for which Ellis finds evidence of authorial involvement. But in addition to replicating seven of the eight MS corrections, the 1711 text drops the entire final paragraph and elsewhere incorporates at least 28 further substantive changes.(10) Not one of them has been marked in Swift's copy. Almost certainly his corrections there antedate whatever work he did for the 1711 reprinting. To borrow Ellis's chapter and line locations, textual apparatus, and early edition symbols from his splendid edition of Contests and Dissensions, the breakdown of Swift's eight MS corrections is as follows:(11)
location 1701(1) text as corrected in MS when corrected in print 1.166 worth nothing. worth noting. 1711 NB: 1701(2) and 1707 instead correct this to "worth remarking." 2.177 his Conditions his own Conditions 1711 3.201 to the former to the latter never 3.268 lawful of lawful for 1707, 1711 3.392 were left us are left us 1707, 1711 4.48 where the Stage where the State 1707, 1711 5.203 is apt is so apt 1711 5.223-24 rest of Herd rest of the Herd 1707, 1711
The 1711 Miscellanies text omits Swift's correction at 3.201, a reference to an attempted encroachment by the popular party: "the Commons made further Advances on the Power of the Nobles; demanding, among the rest, that the Consulship, which hitherto had only been disposed to the former, should now lie in common to the Pretensions of any Roman whatsoever" (my emphasis). Properly speaking, "the former" can only refer to "the Commons," indicating that the Roman plebes had previously controlled the consulship -- just the opposite of the truth, as every schoolboy would have known. Perhaps because Swift's intended sense remains clear enough despite the phrasing (and because "former" and "latter" are such feeble referents anyway), the mistake has remained uncorrected ever since, even in Ellis's edition.
Of the fifteen titles in Swift's volume, only three had been published with their authors, names (L"Estrange's Dissenters' Sayings, Roscommon's essay on translation, Gilbert Burnet's speech on occasional conformity). Questions of attribution clearly interested Swift. Of the remaining twelve tides, published anonymously or pseudonymously, Swift assigns authors to eleven in his MS table of contents, including his own Contests and Dissensions ("by Dr Jon. Swift"). The one title which he does not attempt to ascribe is the one he had the least occasion to have inside information about -- The Scotch Presbyterian Eloquence, written in far-off Scotland under an obvious pseudonym, "Jacob Curate." With the eleven other tides, he makes distinctions between firm and doubtful attributions. The influential Argument Shewing that a Standing Army is Inconsistent with a Free Government -- nowadays usually attributed to John Trenchard with or without Walter Moyle -- is cautiously put down to "Mr Trenchard, or Mr Waller," as is its Second Part ("by the same Author"). Their sequel, A Short History of Standing Armies, is only "supposed by Mr Trenchard"; The Occasional Letter, No. I is "supposed" by Bishop Burnet; and the Lords' formal address protesting the Commons' handling of the franchise case at Aylesbury is "supposed" from the pen of Lord Somers. "Supposed" by whom? Swift's recurring use of the word suggests coffee-house gossip, literary hearsay which he has encountered (perhaps more than once) but does not completely trust. To other titles he gives firm attributions, almost certainly from firmer evidence. Besides the Temple, Halifax and Atterbury pamphlets, Swift assigns The New Association, Part II to the High Church controversialist Charles Leslie, and the Latin speech to the Earl of Rochester to the Rev. Dr. Peter Browne who in later years, as Bishop of Cork, inveighed against drinking memories to the dead. All Swift's ascriptions are as authoritative as they are firm. The Leslie attribution was independently confirmed about a century ago (Ellis, 244 n.). For the other pamphlets, which have remained anonymous until now, Swift knew all four authors and had ascertained at least one attribution personally, with Atterbury. Temple had been Swift's employer until his death in 1699; the 1698 Halifax pamphlet, as we have seen, may have been a gift of the author; and Swift had been back in Dublin at the time of Browne's speech at Trinity College to Lord Rochester, the new Lord Lieutenant, on 13 October 1701. From John Stearne, another Trinity D.D. and Swift's predecessor as Dean of St. Patrick's, we have confirmation that Swift is right about Browne. The Trinity College library preserves Stearne's copy of the Oratio, bound with other pamphlets in a volume with Stearne's MS table of contents calling it "Dr Browns speech to [y.sup.e] Earl of Rochester" [PP.dd.9, 2nd free endpaper, with Stearne's bookplate as Bishop of Clogher dated 1717).
By far the greatest value of the Minnesota volume, or what survives of it, is the insight it promises into Swift's thinking and writing during the time of its collection and the period which followed. When sitting down to compose something, what recent pamphlets, poems, or books was he echoing, countering, paraphrasing, mimicking, co-opting or otherwise responding to? It is one thing to hypothesize that Swift could have seen a certain pamphlet -- or that he would have, should have, may have, might have, must have, or any other permutation of uncertainty. It is quite another to show that he actually did have a copy on hand in his library, indeed that it was one of the few pamphlets there which he troubled to collect and preserve. For instance when discussing The Sentiments of a Church of England Man, which Swift dated 1708 but published only in 1711, Irvin Ehrenpreis suggests that the tract may generally reflect much of Swift's thinking in the period 1702-1705 and, more specifically, that in places Swift may be answering Bishop Burnet's House of Lords speech opposing the Bill against Occasional Conformity, 1704, a speech which Swift mentions once in passing. But if Swift composed his tract about 1708, as he claimed, how clearly would he have remembered something so ephemeral from four years before? The presence of a copy of the published speech in the Minnesota volume considerably strengthens Ehrenpreis's argument.(12) Similarly in the Sentiments, Swift refers to the violently partisan "Papers published by Mr. Lesly, and others of his Stamp" against Dissenters and their defenders. These pamphlets, he says, encourage readers to "rise as one Man, and destroy such Wretches from the Face of the Earth." Normally we might think of Leslie's The New Association, 1702, which helped to inspire Defoe's The Shortest Way with the Dissenters. Thanks to the Minnesota volume, however, we know that Swift had preserved a different but equally firebrand example of Leslie's pamphleteering, his sequel The New Association, Part 2 of 1703. While drafting the Sentiments of a Church of England Man, Swift may well have counted himself one of the wretches whom Leslie wished to see destroyed. As Frank Ellis has observed, The New Association, Part 2 attacks Contests and Dissensions point by point and ascribes it to that seasoned Whig politico, Bishop Gilbert Burnet. From the author of Contests and Dissensions and others in his camp, Leslie writes, "There can be no Peace and Quietness where they Live, and have any Power!" Their constant experiments in revolution and new-modelling of the government, if tolerated once again, "may Draw out the Hearts-Blood of the Nation; which cannot long Subsist, under many such Paroxisms!"(13) No matter how mistakenly, being labelled a dangerous subversive is likely to make an impression. Whether in all seriousness or ironically -- eventually Swift came to despise Bishop Burnet -- Swift found Leslie's mistake worth noting on the flyleaf of the Minnesota volume.
"[Mem..sup.d]," he writes under his table of contents there, [M.sup.r] Lesley in his new Association, [p.sup.t]. [2.sup.d]. inveighing against the Discourse of Athens and Rome, lays it to the [B.sup.p] of Sarum [D.sup.r] Burnet."
A full evaluation of the Minnesota pamphlets and their use in Swift's writings must await a far more thorough canvassing than is possible here. As a start I have shared all information gleaned from the volume with Heinz Vienken and Dirk Passmann, for inclusion in their long-awaited descriptive bibliography of Swift's library and reading. For each author and title they will also list the full range of secondary studies to date.(14) Meanwhile a few observations may be possible. One way or another, the great majority of titles in Swift's volume reflect the big issues at stake between Whigs and Tories during the years 1697-1705, from the question of whether William III should be allowed a standing army in peacetime, a major issue in 1697-1698, to the attempts five and six years later to outlaw the practice of occasional conformity, whereby protestant Dissenters were allowed to qualify themselves for public office by pretending membership in a national Church which they rejected. In most instances a Tory House of Commons found itself at loggerheads with a Whig House of Lords, as happened over the so-called Aylesbury men in 1704-1705, when the Commons jailed five would-be Whig voters who protested being barred from the 1702 parliamentary election at Aylesbury, Bucks., and the Lords then claimed a right to adjudicate the franchise there. Swift owned one of the official Whig protests, the Lords' Humble Representation and Address of 14 March 1704/5, which he doubtfully attributes to his patron Somers. Possibly he agreed with the Lords' position, as he probably did with Halifax's rejoinder to Davenant in 1701. Presumably he disagreed with Charles Leslie's pamphlet attacking him in 1703, and probably he had at least a few reservations about Bishop Burnet's defense of occasional conformity in 1704. Almost certainly, agreeing or disagreeing with their particular positions had little to do with the decision to save the pamphlets and bind them up together. Perhaps Swift considered them especially important in substance, effective in method, or both. Possibly they each held special associations for him. For the moment, without more evidence, we can only speculate about Swift's overall criteria of selection. Consideling the original Dingley provenance in two of the surviving pamphlets -- and Swift's oddly formal way of referring to himself in the table of contents, as "Dr Jon. Swift" -- it is even possible that he had the pamphlets bound up to give to Stella and Dingley, as Dr. Vienken at first suggested to me. Certainly Swift does not mention the volume in his autograph library list dated August 1715. But then Swift does not list anything else which he had personally published or worked with, even the bound MS volume of Temple letters which he kept in his possession until his death.(15) Again, if Swift bound up the pamphlets to make a gift of them, why did he then hold onto the volume so long, at least through the middle of 1711, while entering, obliterating, and re-entering attributions for The True Tom Double three different times? On balance I think we must discard the Stella hypothesis. Sometime between late 1742 and 1745 -- possibly from the estate of Rebecca Dingley, who died in 1743 -- Swift's trustees received back a number of Stella's books which then were sold with his library. If he had given Stella or Dingley the pamphlet volume before 1715, this would be the likeliest way for it to re-enter the Deanery. However, it is absent from list which the trustees drew up, "More Books added Mrs E: J:" -- and, as we have seen, it was already present in their inventory of the library, dated October 1742.(16)
Meanwhile we have the pamphlets themselves, or at least the three originals and the flyleaf listing the other tides. Even here there are surprises. The books and pamphlets which loom largest today, for traditional merit or historical significance, are not necessarily those which most impressed contemporaries. As Frank Ellis remarks in his edition of Contests and Dissensions (13), literary studies "require history without benefit of hindsight." Both the Whig leader Halifax and the Tory pamphleteer Davenant figure prominently in Ellis's masterful narrative of the Paper War of 1697-1702, but we find no mention of Halifax's retort to Davenant, Some Observations Upon Discourses Lately Published on the Publick Revenues, 1698, which Swift bound into his pamphlet volume. In the notes and headnotes of our best collection of political literature of this period, the 1697-1704 and 1704-1714 volumes of Poems on Affairs of State (New Haven, 1970 and 1976), we search in vain for mention of most of the titles in Swift's volume -- as indeed we do in the Guthkelch/Smith edition of A Tale of a Tub and the index volume of Herbert Davis's edition of Swift's Prose Works. When Swift returned to England from his empty church at Kilroot in mid 1696 -- and according to most estimates began drafting A Tale of a Tub in good earnest -- we might expect him to be more than usually sensitive to attitudes of sectarian exclusion and intolerance. After all, he had first reached Moor Park in 1689 as a refugee from newly resurgent Roman Catholic domination in Ireland. In 1696 he was returning to Moor Park after a two-year dose of Presbyterianism in Ulster, where the Anglican church might be legally established but the Dissenters still were dominant. In his quarto pamphlet volume, the contents of which he apparently began collecting about this time, it is hardly surprising to find that both of the two purely sectarian pamphlets, L'Estrange's Dissenters Sayings, Part 2 and The Scotch Presbyterian Eloquence, highlight themes of intolerance for Anglican faith and worship. In both cases the villains are Presbyterian. Like its better-known predecessor but perhaps to even more damning effect, the L'Estrange pamphlet leads off with long sections of excerpts from early Calvinist divines -- spiritual fathers of the Dissenters then agitating for full toleration and equality in England -- denying the least toleration for any faith but their own, and calling for the complete suppression of Anglicanism. The Scotch Presbyterian Eloquence reflects a situation even closer to what Swift may have felt at Kilroot: William III's disestablishment of the Anglican Church of Scotland in favor of a Presbyterian national Kirk, with resulting mob persecution of the dispossessed bishops ("prelates") and parish ministers ("curates"), winked at when not actively encouraged by Kirk authorities. The author, who calls himself "Jacob Curate," is clearly an Anglican clergyman surrounded by hostile Dissenters, as Swift had been in Ulster. In the three final sections of the pamphlet he presents a number of horror stories collected from colleagues, friends, and fellow sufferers. In the opening section, readers of the Tale of a Tub and the Mechanical Operation of the Spirit may find his description of Presbyterian worship, if possible, even more striking. "The most of their Sermons," he complains, "are Nonsensick Raptures, the abuse of Mystick Divinity, in canting and compounded Vocables," from preachers without the least pretence to, or interest in, book-learning. "The snuffling and twang of the Nose," he says at another point, "passes for Gospel sound; and the throwings of the Face, for the motions of the Spirit." Indeed, he insists, the Presbyterian rabble
are generally deluded by Persons that have but specious pretence to Godliness. And such is the force, that a loud Voice and a whining Tone, in broken and smother'd Words, have upon the Animal Spirits of the Presbyterian Rabble; that they look not upon a Man as endued with the Spirit of God, without such casting and deformity of Holiness....
Elsewhere we hear of "extemporary Gibberish," of ministers chosen by mobs who are "not led by Reason nor Religion, but by Fancy and Imagination"; of "their strong delusions" and "Instances of their Madness" which "might swell into an huge Volume." Thanks to the Calvinist emphasis on predestination, not works, "Morality with them is but old, out-dated heathenish Virtue"; generally indeed, he points out, "their Conventicles [have] produced very many Bastards."(17)
In Swift's period, to be sure, The Scotch Presbyterian Eloquence was hardly the only work to attack Dissenters in terms we may find reminiscent of Swift's. Somewhere in the vast secondary literature on Swift, it is odds that some scholar or other has already noted it amongst the many other examples which Swift may or may not have seen at some point in his life. Its real significance -- which remains to be traced in detail -- derives from our knowing that Swift actually did own a copy, and preserved it, during the very period that he was writing the Tale. If we want to understand Swift's satiric gift, the way he could transform unpromising subject matter into something memorable, here is a good place to start.
Another good place might be Further Proposals For Amending and Settling the Coyn, 1696, which Swift and Dingley identify as Sir William Temple's. This fact alone should seize our attention and send us to Swift's own writings on currency reform, most famously in The Drapier's Letters. If Temple was not the single most formative influence on Swift's life, as Irvin Ehrenpreis has repeatedly argued, he certainly provided Swift with a wealth of literary strategies, conscious or otherwise, to be adapted, fine-tuned, and put to use in his writings. Unlike the equally anonymous Scotch Presbyterian Eloquence, which reached three editions in its first two years and several more in the next century, Further Proposals is not the sort of thing which anyone before now would have associated with Swift. Nor would anyone have imagined it to be Temple's. In the 1681 edition of his first essay collection, the Miscellanea of 1680, Temple had announced that nothing of his would be published "at any time hereafter without his Name." (The earliest edition of Miscellanea had carried the same byline as Further Proposals, "By a Person of Honour.") Further Proposals is an unheralded 10-page effort which never reached a second edition. To judge from its entry in Wing (8 copies, excluding Swift's at the Clark), it never circulated very widely in the first. Currency reform is not a subject we usually associate with Temple, nor does the pamphlet sound anything like him. Temple had apparently prided himself on adjusting his writing style to his particular readership, "so that one may discover the Characters of most of those Persons he writes to, from the Stile of his Letters," as Swift puts it in the preface to the first volume of Temple's Letters, 1700. In actual practice, as I have noted elsewhere, Temple's published writings usually demonstrate much of a sameness -- an easy and genteel grace, informal but elegant, overlying a tendency towards digression, faulty logic, and enthusiastic if unconscious self-contradiction.(18) In the coinage pamphlet Temple for once follows his own advice. The style is plain and unpolished, the structure straightforward, the tendency to digression reined in until nearly the end. Clearly he is writing for plain folk, never directly enumerated in the pamphlet but presumably including shopkeepers, farmers, and others who had been suffering from the steady depreciation of the silver coinage through the early 1690s -- too many coins badly clipped or filed along their unmilled edges -- and who were worrying about the proposed reforms being debated late in 1695.(19) Temple begins without the least preamble. "There are but Two Ways of Redressing the Disorder of our Coyne," he writes:
The One by calling in all the Old that is Clipp'd, and Coyning it New into Mill'd Money.
Th' other of giving all the Old Money course, for at least one Year longer, but with Denominations different from what they bear at present, and more proportioned to their Weight or intrinsick Value. Plain language, directly put; three sentences in as many paragraphs. What could be more forthright or down-to-earth? We should weigh these options by comparing their likely inconveniences, Temple continues. He then lists them by number in as many paragraphs, "First ... Secondly ... The Third Inconvenience ... Fourthly ..." (3-5), and then for the second option, "In the first Place ... Secondly ... Thirdly ... Fourthly ... Fifthly ... and Lastly ..." (6-9). Nothing could seem more dispassionate and even-handed until we pause to consider that the second series actually lists advantages, not disadvantages. Indeed, for the inconveniences of Temple's second option -- assigning special values to clipped and to unclipped coins -- he can see none of weight," besides the occasional squabble over weighing badly clipped coins (9-10). Meanwhile there is not a word about Whig or Tory. Although the issue was at least partly a political one, then being fought out in the Privy Council and in Parliament, no hint of politics ever enters the pamphlet's argument. With every appearance of fairness and dispassion, our author has outlined for us a situation in which the evidence overwhelmingly favors one side.
In strategy and technique there is much to compare in the Drapier's first letter a generation later, A Letter to the Shop-Keepers, Tradesmen, Farmers, and Common-People of Ireland, Concering the Brass Hatf-Pence Coined by Mr. Woods,(20) addressed to the same class of readers implied in Temple's pamphlet. Like Temple, Swift keeps his style simple, with plain diction and frequent recourse to one-sentence paragraphs. Once again the evidence is overwhelmingly on one side of the issue -- Wood's halfpence are intrinsically worth so little, only a twelfth of their face value, that no one in Ireland will willingly touch them (pp. 4-5 ff). In reality the struggle over Wood' halfpence was intensely political, but in the pamphlet, once again, politics enter the argument hardly at all. There is nary a word about Whig or Tory. Even across the water in England, we hear only of the nefarious Wood' "GREAT FRIENDS" and the dubious advisers who mislead the King (5-6), 14). Against Wood and his scheme in Ireland, we are told, stand "all the Nobility and Gentry here" (5), an angry House of Commons (6), indeed this whole Kingdom" (10). At one point, though in a different context, the Drapier even carries us through short numbered steps to a summation, much as Temple had: "First, you are oblig'd ... Secondly, you are not obliged ... Thirdly, much less are you obliged ... Therefore, my Friends ..." (13-14). But the Drapier is not the anonymous "Person of Honour" in Temple's Further Proposals, and thereby hangs the difference between a pamphlet which died aborning and one which galvanized a nation. Temple had no taste for satire above the level of sarcasm, no concept of persona, and at least in his Further Proposals, practically no understanding of his chosen readership and what it would take to engage them -- homely examples, pithy humor, a mobility of expression, the occasional finger poked in the chest. In the original sense of the word, then prevalent, a Person of "Honour" was a person of rank. As a baronet and privy counsellor -- formally, the Right Honourable Sir William Temple, Bt. -- Temple is simply writing as his anonymous but dignified self, keeping his style plain and simple for the sake of the plain and simple people whom he wishes to convince. If Further Proposals gave Swift the idea for the Drapier's first letter, as I now suspect, we may take the measure of Swift's greatness by tracing his divergences from the model, not his fidelities to it.
This and other studies suggested by the Minnesota volume fall outside the proper purview of an introductory article. From the volume itself we can currently trace Swift's MS table of contents and his copies of Further Proposals, the Halifax pamphlet, and Contests and Dissensions. What of the other twelve pamphlets from the volume, now dispersed? As far as I know, they should still exist somewhere. judging from the three survivors rescued by Ximenes, I should be able to identify them from the numbering system which Swift used on the individual tide pages. Late in 1995, on the suggestion of Juliet McLaren at ESTC, I called up records of all twelve missing tides using ESTC's expanded bibliographical mode. Here the system displays the date on which each located copy was reported to ESTC. As a result I could identify which libraries reported copies of the twelve tides after the time of the Swift volume's disbinding and dispersal. Of the libraries which I then contacted for photocopies -- Kansas, Texas, the Folger, Duke, North Carolina/Chapel Hill, California/Riverside, the California State Library's branch in San Francisco, and the united Garrett-Evangelical and Seabury-Western theological library outside Chicago -- none produced a match. But it is still early. In time, many if not most of the dispersed Swift copies should find their way to public repositories. Once they are reported to ESTC, it should be possible to trace and ascertain them -- and see what else they may have to teach us.
Swift's Quarto Pamphlet Volume: Identification of Titles and Editions
Nowhere in his MS table of contents does Swift indicate an edition number for any of the 15 pamphlets. Statistically it would be unlikely that all were first editions. More probably Swift simply did not bother to give edition information. For the twelve unlocated pamphlets listed below, full titles and other information are adapted from ESTC, Wing and National Union Catalogue entries, adjusted when possible by comparison with actual copies.
1. "Dissenter's Sayings, by Sir R. L'Estrange, Part 2d."
[The] Dissenters Sayings. The Second Part. Published in their own Words, For the Information Of the People. And Dedicated to the Grand-Jury of London, August 29. 1681. By Roger L'Estrange. London, 1681.
Swift's copy: unlocated. Notes The 1745 Sale Catalogue indicates that the imprint year must be 1681, the year of original publication. Only two editions, varying slightly in the title, are possible for that year. (A) L'Estrange, Sir Roger, 1616-1704. Dissenters Sayings. The Second Part. Published in their own Words, For the Information Of the People. And Dedicated to the Grand-Jury of London, August 29. 1681. By Roger L'Estrange. London, Printed for Joanna Brome, at the Gun at the West-End of St. Pauls Church-yard, 1681. 4to; , 79,  p. References: ESTC R2228; Wing L1245; NUC NL-0287628. Microfilm: Early English Books 1641-1700 (Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1976), reel 605, no. 9. (B)_______. The Dissenters Sayings. The Second Part.... The Second Edition. London, Printed for Joanna Brome, at the Gun, at the West End of S. Paul's. 1681. 4to; , 79,  p. References: Wing L1246; not in NUC to 1956; not yet in ESTC (10/95).
2. "Essay on translated Verse, by the E. of Roscommon."
An Essay on Translated Verse. By the Earl of Roscommon. London, 1684, 1685, or 1709. Swift's copy: unlocated. Notes: One of the best-known treatments of the subject in Swift's period, many times reprinted during the 18th century. Of the separately-issued editions which Swift may have owned, the two from the 1680s are much likelier than the two from 1709 which are rather late for inclusion in Swift's 4to volume and are in a smaller format. (A) Roscommon, Wentworth Dillon, Earl of, 1633?-1685. An Essay on Translated Verse. By the Earl of Roscomon [!]. [Latin tag.] London: Printed for Jacob Tonson at the Judges Head in Chancery Lane, 1684. 4to; , 24 p. Reference: Wing R1930; ESTC R7257; NUC NR-0420709. Microfilm: Early English Books 1641-1700, reel 437, no. 6. (B) _______. [tags Horace, Virgil] The Second Edition, Corrected and Enlarg'd. London: Printed for Jacob Tonson at the Judges Head in Chancery Lane, near Fleet-street. 1685. 4to; , 24,  p. References: Wing R1931, ESTC R12039; NUC NR-0420710. Microfilm: Early English Books 1641-1700, reel 799, no. 29. (C) _______. London: Printed and Sold by H. Hills, in Black-fryars, near the Water-side. 1709. 8vo; 16 p. One copy reported with an unnumbered final advertisement leaf. References: Foxon D307; ESTC T33420; NUC NR-0420712 (for both Hills issues). Microfilm: The Eighteenth Century (Woodbridge, Conn.: Research Publications, 1986 reel 2209, no. 18. (D) _______. London: Printed and Sold by H. Hills ... 1709. 8vo; 15 [i.e. 16] p. Page 16 misnumbered 15. Also issued as part of: "A collection of the best English poetry, by several hands." References: Foxon D308; ESTC T33421; NUC NR0420712 (for both Hills issues).
3. "Proposalls for amending the Coyn, by Sir W. Temple."
Further Proposals For Amending and Settling the Coyn. By a Person of Honour. London: Printed, and Sold by M. Whitlock, near Stationers-Hall, 1696 [1695?]. Swift's copy: William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, Los Angeles, temporary shelfmark X95118EE10 Provenance: Ximenes, Occasional List 107 (11/94), #160. 4to; 12 p. Disbound; MS ascription "Sr William Temple" on tide page, almost certainly in the hand of Rebecca Dingley. References: Wing F2563; ESTC R6964, NUC NF-0434948. Microfilm (different copies). Early English Books 1640-1700, reel 493, no. 14; Goldsmiths'-Kress Library of Economic Literature (New Haven: Research Publications, Inc., 1974), reel 207, no. 3336 Notes: Not previously attributed. Swift's and Dingley's ascriptions to Sir William Temple provide prima facie evidence of its truth. Despite imprint date, the pamphlet was probably published late in 1695, when proposed currency reforms were being debated in Parliament.
4. "Argument against a stand. Army, by Mr Trenchard, or Mr Waller."
An Argument, Shewing, that a Standing Army Is inconsistent with A Free Government, and absolutely destructive to the Constitution of the English Monarchy. London, 1697 or 1698. Swift's copy: unlocated. Notes: Wing and the NUC list this tide under John Trenchard; following the old British Museum Catalogue, ESTC attributes it to Trenchard and Walter Moyle. It is unclear whom Swift means by "Mr. Waller." Edmund, the poet, had been dead for some years. Unless Swift is thinking of the younger Sir William Waller (d. 1699), a noted Papist-baiter and the discoverer of the Mealtub Plot, Wing lists only a William Waller, Esq., who about this time was writing about mines. There were three different editions which Swift may have owned. (A-B) [Trenchard, John, 1662-1723]. An Argument, Shewing, that a Standing Army Is inconsistent with A Free Government, and absolutely destructive to the Constitution of the English Monarchy. London; Printed in the Year 1697. 4to; iv, 30 p. References: Wing T2110 ESTC R16212; NUC NT-0324466. Microfilm: Early English Books 1641-1700, reel 479, no. 2. N.B. Although Wing, ESTC and NUC each provide a single listing under this year, there were in fact two different typesettings of the full text, sigs. B-E, sharing the same preliminary bifolium, sig. A1-2. In the second version the text has been reset line for line in different type, presumably by a different printer, resulting in more than a score of variants in accidentals but only one substantive change. Register and pagination remain the same; no signs of authorial revision. Distinguishing features: (A) Pressmarks at pp. 5, 7, 13, 15, 26, 29; good type; typo at p. 17 11. 23/24 reads "Justice of the / Ministers." (B) Pressmarks at pp. 2, 4; cheaper type; p. 17 11. 23/24 corrected to "Justice of such / Ministers." (C) _______. London printed: [s.n.], 1698. 4to, 31,  p. References: Wing T2111; ESTC R32891; not in NUC to 1956. Microfilm: Early English Books 1641-1700, reel 1537, no. 56.
5. "Argument against a standing Army, the 2d Part, by the same Author."
The Second Part of an Argument Shewing, that a Standing Army Is inconsistent with A Free Government, and absolutely destructive to the Constitution of the English Monarchy. With remarks on the late published List of King James's Irish Forces in France. London, Printed in the Year, 1697. Swift's copy: unlocated. 4to; 27 p. References: Wing M3030; ESTC R17336; not in NUC to 1956. Microfilm. Early English Books 1641-1700, reel 502, no. 8; Goldsmiths'-Kress Library, reel 216, no. 3465. Notes: Although Swift attributes this to the same hand as the preceding, Wing and ESTC give this sequel to Trenchard's friend Walter Moyle. NUC attributes it to Trenchard. There seems to have been only the one edition.
6. "Observations on Dr D'Avenant's Discourses &c. by Ch. Mountague, Ld Hallifax"
Some Observations Upon Discourses Lately Published on the Publick Revenues, And on the Trade of England. London, Printed in the Year MDCXCVIII. Swift's copy: William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, Los Angeles, temporary shelfmark X95118EE9. Provenance: Ximenes, Occasional List 105 (7/94), #256. 4to; 16 p. Disbound. Title page bears MS ascription in Swift's hand "By Charles Montague Esqre." MS corrigenda pp. 6, 7, 9, 10, 15, and 16 in another hand (not Swift's). References: Wing S4537B, not yet in ESTC (10/95); not in NUC to 1956. Notes: Answers the first part of Charles Davenant's Discourses on the Publick Revenues, 1698, which had alleged incompetence and mismanagement in the collection of the excise and other taxes. Not previously attributed. The Whig statesman and literary patron Charles Montagu (1661-1715) was created Baron Halifax in Dec. 1700 and Earl of Halifax in 1714. Pastedown ascription to "Ld Hallifax" must date after the time of his elevation to the peerage in 1700; the title page ascription ("Charles Montague Esqre"), before this time. Technical in substance and unpolished in style, the pamphlet reads exactly like the private memorandum it purports to be, a hurried effort dated 17 Jan. 1697/8, only four days after Montagu says he received the Davenant pamphlet (pp. 16, 7). Probably printed for private circulation. As First Lord of the Treasury at the time, Montagu would have been expected to respond to Davenant's charges.
7. "Speech to the E. of Rochester, by Dr P. Brown, Provost of T. Coll."
Oratio Habita Excellentissimo Honoratissimoque Domino, Domino Laurentio Comiti Roffae Hiberniae Proregi optatissimo. A.D. 1701. 13 Calend. Octob. Londini: Impensis T. Bennet, ad Insigne Lunae falcatae, in Coemeterio D. Pauli. 1701. Swift's copy: unlocated. 4to; , 6 p. References: ESTC T180836; NUC NO-0110104. Notes: Only the one edition is known. Queen Anne's uncle Laurence Hyde, 1st Earl of Rochester in the next creation after the poet's, was a leader of the High-Church Tories in the year of Swift's Contests and Dissensions, 1701. As Lord Lieutenant of Ireland he visited Dublin that year from September to December, and as this pamphlet indicates, he was addressed in form at Trinity College on 13 Oct. The printed speech has not been previously attributed, but Swift's ascription to the Rev. Dr. Peter Browne (ca. 1666-1735) is confirmed by another contemporary then in Dublin, the Rev. Dr. John Stearne, in the volume containing his own copy, T.C.D. shelfmark PP.dd.9. Browne had been Provost of T.C.D. since August 1699 and in 1710 was made Bishop of Cork. 8. "A Discourse of the Contests in Athens and Rome, by Dr Jon. Swift."
A Discourse of the Contests and Dissensions Between the Nobles and Commons in Athens and Rome, With the Consequences they had upon both those States. [tag Lucret.] London: Printed for John Nutt near Stationers-Hall. 1701. Swift's copy: ACE. Provenance: Ximenes, Occasional List 107 (11/94), #119. 4to; (62 p. Disbound. Rebecca Dingley's signature "Re: Dingley" at bottom of t-p, and eight MS corrections in the text by Swift, all but one eventually incorporated in later editions. First edition, original issue, typesetting with broken rides on title page and "worth nothing" p. 9, here corrected by Swift to "worth noting." References: Teerink-Scouten 478; Ellis, Contests and Dissensions, edition "1701(1)," pp. 182-85; Rothschild 1991; ESTC T074617.
9. "New Association, Part 2d by Ch. Lesly."
The New Association. Part. II. With farther Improvements, As Another and Later Scots Presbyterian-Covenant, Besides that mention'd in the Former Part. And the Proceedings of that Party since. An answer to some Objections in the Pretended D. Foe's Explication, In the Reflections upon the Shortest Way. With Remarks upon Both. Also an Account of several other Pamphlets, which carry on, and plainly Discover the Design to Undermine and Blow-up the Present Church and Government. Particularly, The Discovery of a certain Secret History, Not yet Publish'd. With a Short Account of the Original of Government. Compar'd with the Schemes of the Republicans and Whigs. London, 1703, 1705, [1706?], or 1708.
Swift's copy: unlocated.
Notes: Under the table of contents on his volume's flyleaf, Swift adds the note, "Mem.d Mr Lesley in his new Association, pt. 2d. inveighing against the Discourse of Athens and Rome, lays it to the Bp of Sarum Dr Burnet." Primarily an attack on the Dissenters and their defenders, as exemplified by Burnet, portions of whose "Secret History" [much later published as his History of His Own Time] Leslie has seen in MS. Also contains a defence against Daniel Defoe's charges in The Shortest Way with the Dissenters. In his edition of Contests and Dissensions, pp. 245-51, Frank Ellis reprints the section containing Leslie's comments on Contests and Dissensions. Suggested as long ago as 1705, the attribution to Leslie has been established since 1886 (Ellis, p. 244 n.), although NUC (1956) lists the pamphlet under Henry Sacheverell. Four possible editions, 1703 to 1708, the second (1705) claiming "Additions." The fast (1708) may be a bit late for Swift's volume.
(A) [Leslie, Charles, 1650-1722.] The New Association. Part. II. With farther Improvements, As Another and Later Scots Presbyterian-Covenant, Besides that mention'd in the Former Part. And the Proceedings of that Party since. An answer to some Objections in the Pretended D. Foe's Explication, In the Reflections upon the Shortest Way. With Remarks upon Both. Also an Account of several other Pamphlets, which carry on, and plainly Discover the Design to Undermine and Blow-up the Present Church and Government. Particularly, The Discovery of a certain Secret History, Not yet Publish'd. With a Short Account of the Original of Government. Compar'd with the Schemes of the Republicans and Whigs. [London:] Printed and Sold by the Booksellers of London and Westminster, 1703. Price One Shilling.
4to; , 36, 22 p. Supplement separately paginated. Some copies with a final errata leaf.
References. ESTC T73020; NUC NS-0010414.
(B) _____. The second edition with additions. [London:] Printed and sold by the booksellers of London and Westminster, 1705.
4to; , 62,  p. With a final advertisement leaf.
References: ESTC N5052; NUC NS-0010415.
Microfilm: The Eighteenth Century, reel 991, no. 25.
(C) [_____.] The new association. Part II. &c. With farther improvements. [London, 1706?].
4to; , 62 p. Title from drop-head. In A collection of tracts, written by the author of The snake in the grass, John Brydal Esq; Dr. S-ll, &c. . . . London, [1706?].
References: ESTC T105196 [only the B.L. copy, lacking title page]; not in NUC to 1956.
(D) _____. London, the booksellers, 1708.
4to, , 38, 3-22 p.
References: NUC NS-0010416 (1 copy only, at Library of Congress); not in ESTC (10/95).
Notes: Possibly a ghost, with "1708" a misreading of "1703" from the first edition, which has a similar collation.
10. "Occasionall Lettr. Numbr. 1, supposed by the B. of Sarum."
The Occasional Letter. Number I. Concerning several Particulars in the New Association: The Occasional Bill; A MS. History, &c. With an Examination of Some Proceedings in the late Reign By some Passages in the Lord Clarendon's History. With a Postscript, Relating to Sir Humphrey Mackworth's Book, Intituled, Peace at Home. Or his Defence of the Occasional Bill. London: Printed in the Year MDCCIV.
Swift's copy: unlocated.
4to; , 5-32 p. Half-title: "A Letter Occasion'd by the Second Part of the New Association."
References: ESTC T75814; NUC NO-0013576.
Microfilm: The Eighteenth Century, reel 643, no. 42.
Notes: Only the one edition known. Replies to the tract immediately preceding in Swift's volume, Leslie's New Association, Part II, which had violently attacked Bishop Burnet and (thinking it Burnet's) Swift's Contests and Dissensions. No attribution in ESTC or in the DNB account of Burnet. Swifts notation "supposed by" clearly reflects contemporary opinion. If not by Burnet, the pamphlet is certainly designed to sound that way: the author demonstrates a convincing insider's knowledge of Burnet's unpublished history, its contents and private circulation, and correctly gives the title under which it was eventually published (pp. 12-13). He mocks Leslie for thinking Burnet wrote Contests and Dissensions, "that Learned and Judicious Treatise," whose "Real Author is so much better able to defend it" that nothing need be said here. Indeed, he notes, "'tis now so little a Secret who Writ it," that Leslie must be living in complete obscurity to persist in his confusion (pp. 15-16).
11. "History of Stand. Armyes, supposed by Mr Trenchard."
A Short History of Standing Armies in England. London, 1698.
Swift's copy: unlocated.
Notes: Traditionally attributed to John Trenchard, at least in Wing, ESTC, and NUC to 1956. A bill among Sir William Temple's estate papers at Yale (printed by Ehrenpreis in Swift, 1:287) indicates that Temple bought a copy of this title in 1698. For Swift's volume, four editions are possible.
(A) [Trenchard, John, 1662-1723.] A Short History of Standing Armies in England. [tag Virgil.] London, Printed in the Year MDCXCVIII.
4to; viii, 46,  p. Errata leaf at end.
References: Wing T2116; ESTC R9739 (duplicating ESTC R39727?); apparently not in NUC to 1956.
Microfilm: Early English Books 1641-1700. reel 991, no. 10 (copy: Huntington) and reel 1644, no. 12 (copy: Harvard); Goldsmiths'-Kress Library, reel 220, no. 3566.
(B) _____. London printed: [s.n.], MDCXCVIII .
4to; 32 p.
References: Wing T2115; apparently not in NUC to 1956. ESTC R39727, which cross-references Wing T2115, either gives a wrong collation or duplicates the ESTC entry for the 46-page edition, ESTC R9739 and Wing T2216.
(C) _____. ______.
4to; 22 p.
References: Wing T2115A; not yet in ESTC (10/95); apparently not in NUC to 1956.
(D) _____. The third edition. London: Printed for A. Baldwin, MDCXCVIII.
4to; 32 p.
References: Wing T2117; ESTC R32892; apparently not in NUC to 1956.
Microfilm: Early English Books 1641-1700, reel 1537, no. 57.
12. "Scotch Presb. Eloquence."
The Scotch Presbyterian Eloquence; Or, The Foolishness of their Teaching Discovered from their Books, Sermons and Prayers; And some Remarks on Mr. Rule's late Vindication of the Kirk. London, 1692, 1693, or 1694.
Swift's copy: unlocated.
Notes: Dedication signed "Jacob Curate." Wing and NUC attribute the work to Gilbert Crokatt while ESTC assigns it to Crockatt and John Munro, adding a note that Robert Calder may have edited some of the reprints. Four possible editions. NUC and ESTC add a number of editions too late for Swift's volume, including 1719, 1732, 1738, 1748, 1766, 1767, and 1786.
(A) The Scotch Presbyterian Eloquence; Or, The Foolishness of their Teaching Discovered from their Books, Sermons and Prayers; And some Remarks on Mr. Rule's late Vindication of the Kirk. [tags Baxter, Rutherford] London, Printed for Randal Taylor near Stationers-Hall. 1692.
4to; , 116 p.
References: Wing C6961; ESTC R10498; NUC NC-0798680; Arber, Term Catalogues, II, 413.
Microfilm: Early English Books 1641-1700, reel 311, no. 8.
(B) _____. The Second Edition, with Additions. London, Printed for Randal Taylor near Stationers-Hall. 1693.
4to, ,104 p. An apologetic publisher's postscript is added facing p. 1.
References: Wing C6962; ESTC R4863; NUC NC-0798681.
Microfilm: Early English Books 1641-1700, reel 686, no. 7.
(C) _____. ______. London, Printed for Randal Taylor near Stationers Hall, 1694.
4to; , 88 p. With publisher's postscript facing p. 1.
References: Wing C6963; ESTC R32778; NUC NC-0798682.
Microfilm: Early English Books 1641-1700, reel 1033, no. 2.
(D) _____. _____. London: Printed for Randal Taylor ..., 1694.
4to; , 104 p.
References: Wing C6963A; ESTC R23132; NUC NC-0798683. However, the ESTC and NUC entries duplicate their entries for (C) above, an 88-page edition of the same year.
13. "The true Tom Double, by Dr Atterbury, as he told me himself."
The True Tom Double. Or, An Account of Dr. Davenant's late Conduct and Writings, particularly with Relation to the XIth section of his Essays on Peace at Home, and War Abroad. With Some Latin Memorandums for the Dr.'s Use. Part I. London, n.d. or 1704.
Swift's copy: unlocated.
Notes: Accuses Charles Davenant of trimming and otherwise going over to the Whigs in his Essays upon Peace at Home and War Abroad, 1704. (For a Whig reply to an earlier tract by Davenant, see no. 6 above.) This pamphlet is not previously attributed, at least in NUC and ESTC. Swift's initial confusion over the attribution suggests that the anonymity had been fairly deep. By using the honorific "Dr" for both Atterbury and George Smalridge, Swift's entries almost certainly antedate the two men's appointment to bishoprics, in 1713 and 1714. Two possible editions.
(A) The True Tom Double: Or, An Account of Dr. Davenant's late Conduct and Writings, particularly with Relation to the XIth section of his Essays on Peace at Home, and War Abroad. With Some Latin Memorandums for the Dr.'s Use. Part I. [tag Davenant.] London: Printed by G. Croom, and sold by J. Nutt, near Stationer's-Hall. [n.d., 1704?]
4to; 32 p.
References: ESTC T51940; not in NUC to 1956.
Microfilm: Goldsmiths'-Kress Library, reel 252, no. 4114.
(B) _____. London: printed by G. Croom, and sold by J. Nutt, 1704.
4to; 32 p.
References: ESTC N36822; NUC N-0358549.
14. "Bp. of Sarum's Speech on Occas. Conformity."
The Bishop of Salisbury's Speech in the House of Lords, upon the Bill against Occasional Conformity. London, Dublin, or Edinburgh, 1704.
Swift's copy: unlocated.
Notes: A widely-disseminated speech against the bill to stop the practice of occasional conformity, whereby Protestant Dissenters pretended allegiance to the Church of England in order to qualify themselves for holding office. ESTC locates 59 copies of one edition alone (10/95). Compare Swift's letter to William Tisdall, on 16 Dec. 1703, reporting that Burnet and other Whig leaders assure him the Bill would hurt the Church and promote Dissent (Correspondence, 1:39). Four possible editions, of which the first (the authorized London edition) is the most likely and the last (Edinburgh, in folio rather than quarto) the least likely.
(A) Burnet, Gilbert, 1643-1715. The Bishop of Salisbury's Speech in the House of Lords, upon the Bill against Occasional Conformity. [London: Printed for Ri. Chiswell, at the Rose and Crown in St. Paul's Church-Yard. MDCCIV. Price Two-pence.]
4to; 8 p. Drop-head title; imprint from colophon.
References: ESTC T22854; NUC NB-0980597. Also issued as part of A third collection of several tracts ... By Dr. Gilbert Burnet, London, 17903, which also forms the final part of A collection of several tracts and discourses, London, 1704.
Microfilm: The Eighteenth Century, reel 5407, no. 16.
(B) _____. [London: printed, and sold by the booksellers of London and Westminster, 1704].
4to; 8 p. Drop-head title; imprint from colophon.
References: ESTC N32202; not in NUC to 1956.
(C) _____. [London: printed for Ri. Chiswell: and re-printed, for M. Gunne, Dublin, 1704].
4to, 8 p. Drop-head title; imprint from colophon.
References: ESTC N43926; not in NUC.
(D) _____. [Edinburgh: reprinted by George Mosman, 1704.]
Folio; 4 p. Drop-head title; imprint from colophon.
References: ESTC N5988; not in NUC.
15. "Address of the H. of Lds. on the Ailsbury Business, supposed by Ld.
The Humble Representation, and Address, Of the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal In Parliament Assembled, Presented to Her Majesty The Fourteenth Day of March, 1704. And Her Majesties Most Gracious Answer thereunto: With Their Lordships Thanks for the same. Together with The Papers Annexed to the said Address, and Laid before Her Majesty. London or Dublin, 1704  or 1705.
Swift's copy: unlocated.
Notes: Swift had dedicated A Tale of a Tub to Lord Somers the year before. Despite the tide, both the Lords' Journal and Cobbett's Parliamentary History of England (both of which reprint the address) date it to 13 Mar. 1704/5, not 14 March. The case arose out of the disputed election of 1702 at Aylesbury, where some of Lord Wharton's Whig burgesses were barred from voting. When five burgesses ("the five Aylesbury men") sued the borough constables -- and when the Tory Commons threw them into jail as a result -- they appealed to the Lords. The Lords challenged the Commons' right to adjudicate questions of who might vote in Aylesbury (as opposed to who won the election), and the Commons challenged the Lords' right to hear appeals on this matter. This Address followed a failed conference on the subject, which was in fact never settled. See Sir George Clark, The Later Stuarts 1660-1714, 2nd ed. (Oxford, 1956; rpt. corr. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965), p. 254. Two possible editions.
(A) [England and Wales. Parliament. House of Lords.] The Humble Representation, and Address, Of the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal In Parliament Assembled, Presented to Her Majesty The Fourteenth Day of March, 1704. And Her Majesties Most Gracious Answer thereunto: With Their Lordships Thanks for the same. Together with The Papers Annexed to the said Address, and Laid before Her Majesty. London, Printed by Charles Bill, and the Executrix of Thomas Newcomb, deceas'd; Printers to the Queens most Excellent Majesty. 1704 .
Folio; 20 p. Sometimes with an errata slip pasted to the verso of the titlepage.
References: ESTC T36814; apparently not in NUC to 1956.
Microfilm. Goldsmiths'-Kress Library, reel 255, no. 4174.0.
(B) _____. London: printed by C. Bill, and the executrix of Tho. Newcomb; and re-printed for Matt. Gunne, Dublin, 1705.
4to; , 26 p.
References: ESTC T76936; apparently not in NUC to 1956.
Microfilm: The Eighteenth Century, reel 416, no. 7.
(1) Faulkner, "Some Further Account of Doctor Swift, In a Letter to the Earl of C[hesterfield]," undated, in The Works of the Reverend Dr. Jonathan Swift, Dean of St. Patrick's Dublin, 8vo (Dublin: by Faulkner, 1763), 11:324. When Swift and his friends were gathering materials for Faulkner's original edition of the Works, published in 1735, Charles Ford in London had to collect and bind together a number of pamphlets by Swift, out of fear that "you have been too negligent in keep copies." See The Correspondence of Jonathan Swift, ed. Sir Harold Williams [and David Woolley] (Oxford, 1963-65; rpt. corr. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965-72), 4:202, 203-4.
(2) "A Catalogue of Books belonging to Dr. Swift taken about Oct:br 6th 1742: & compared June 2d 1744," MS in Sir Walter Scott's library at Abbotsford, ff. 6r and 10r; A Catalogue of Books, The Library of the late Rev. Dr. Swift, Dean of St. Patrick's, Dublin. To be Sold by Auction (Dublin. for George Faulkner, 1745), 8 and 13, hammer prices quoted from David Woolley's transcription of John Putland's priced copy in the Forster Collection, Victoria and Albert Museum, London (Forster *8522; FD.10.97). The Abbotsford inventory is discussed and the sale catalogue reprinted in Sir Harold Williams, Dean Swift's Library (Cambridge U. Press, 1932). I am grateful to Dr. Woolley for sharing his Forster transcription, and I especially thank Heinz J. Vienken for providing a microfiche of the Abbotsford MS, for allowing me to consult the Davenant and L'Estrange entries in his and Dirk F. Passmann's forthcoming descriptive bibliography of Swifts library and reading, and for fielding other queries relating to this article.
(3) Beinecke Library, Osborn Collection, fb 182, no. 79 at f. 25 (signed receipt otherwise in Swifts hand, 16 Feb. 1698/9, for 10 s. for fowl which Dingley brought from Winchester), as I inventoried these papers in 1979. Compare her 1723 autograph and signature in a letter illustrated in Shane Leslie, The Script of Jonathan Swift and Other Essays (U. of Pennsylvania Press, 1935), facing p. 13.
(4) Personal communications with Stephen Weissman, with Stephen Tabor at the Clark, and with john Bidwell, then Clark Librarian and now Curator of Graphic Arts at Princeton. See further Ximenes Rare Books' "Occasional List No. 105, Rare Books and Manuscripts, Part IV: L to O" (New York: Ximenes, July 1994), item 256 (Halifax pamphlet); "Occasional List No. 107, Rare Books and Manuscripts, Part VI: Sk to Z" (New York: Ximenes, Oct. 1994), items 119 (Contests and Dissensions) and 160 (Temple pamphlet). After identifying the Swift and Dingley autographs and confirming that the three pamphlets shared a common provenance, I advised the Clark to buy Dingley's Contests and Dissensions to keep the three together. Ximenes sold it to a private collector only after the Clark declined the opportunity.
(5) Phrasing and layout vary between the two 1681 editions which Swift might have owned -- for instance, the first edition begins with black-letter "Dissenters Sayings" in one line, the second with bold roman "The DISSENTERS Sayings" in three lines -- but the light italic phrase "The Second Part," which comes next, is dwarfed in each by what precedes and what follows.
(6) Swift, Journal to Stella, ed. Sir Harold Williams (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1948), 1:251 ff.; cf. Irvin Ehrenpreis, Swift: The Man, His Works, and the Age (Harvard U. Press, 1962-83), 2:448. In 1711 Swift and Atterbury lodged opposite each other for more than two months, from 26 Apr. to 5 July (Journal to Stella, 1:142 n.).
(7) Very probably this was the case. Publications late in the year commonly bore imprints giving the following year's date. Late in 1695 Parliament was still considering competing schemes of currency reform, and the Michaelmas Term Catalogue for that year lists a number of other pamphlets on the subject. See The `Missing' Term Catalogue, Oxford Bibliographical Society Occasional Publication no. 20 (Oxford, 1987), 2-3 and facsimile, "Miscellanies" nos. 9-12, 14, 17-18, and 26.
(8) See Ehrenpreis, Swift, 2:71-72 (Dublin arrival dates), and Frank H. Ellis in his edition of Swift's Discourse of the Contests and Dissensions Between the Nobles and the Commons in Athens and Rome (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967), 176, 178 (publication date).
(9) Ellis, 182. I have discussed Swift's habits of revising and correcting his published work in George Faulkner and the Sanctity of Swifts Texts," a paper read at the 1983 ASECS conference in New York, and in "Senatus Consultum: Revising Verse in Swift's Circle in Dublin," read at the 1994 Swift Symposium at Munster and forthcoming in the third Proceedings volume, ed. Hermann J. Real and Helgard Stover-Leidig. For further examples of Swift's desultory-looking style of MS correction, see his annotated set of the Swift-Pope Miscellanies now in the Wren Library of Trinity College, Cambridge, described in The Rothschild Library (Cambridge, 1954, rpt. London: Dawson's, 1969), no. 1422, 1:367072; and his annotated Gulliver's Travels at the Armagh Public Library, Co. Armagh, discussed in David Woolley, "Swift's Copy of Gulliver's Travels: The Armagh Gulliver, Hyde's Edition, and Swift's Earliest Corrections," in Clive T. Probyn, ed., The Art of Jonathan Swift (London: Vision, 1978), 131-78.
(10) Ellis, 182-87 and 202-6.
(11) Readings have been double-checked against the Teerink copies of 1701(1) and 1701(2) at the Univ. of Pennsylvania (shelfmarks EC7.Sw555.701d and 701db), the Goldsmiths' Library copy of 1707 at the University of London (no. 4129, Goldsmiths'-Kress microfilm reel 253), and the British Library copy of 1711, shelfmark 838.g.1, as reproduced in the Scolar Press facsimile edition (introd. C. P. Daw [Menston, Yorks., 1972]).
(12) Ehrenpreis, Swift, 2:126-27; The Prose Works of Jonathan Swift, ed. Herbert Davis et al. (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1939-1968), 2:6 and n. For the pertinence of Burnet's speech to Swift's Argument against Abolishing Christianity, also composed about 1708, see Frank H. Ellis, "An Argument against Abolishing Christianity as an Argument against Abolishing the Test Act," in Richard H. Rodino and Hermann J. Real, eds., Reading Swift: Papers from the Second Munster Symposium on Jonathan Swift (Munich: Wilhelm Fink, 1993), 138 and n.
(13) Prose Works, 2:13; Ellis, 242-51, excerpting Leslie's counter-arguments against Contests and Dissensions (the quoted passage being at p. 251) but mentioning his misattribution to Burnet only in passing (244). In The New Association, Part II. With Farther Improvements (London: n. p., 1703), apart from attacking Burnet personally, Leslie alternately denies urging "Gallows, Galleys, Persecution, and Destruction of the Dissenters," as Defoe had accused him of doing (p. 6), and depicts the Dissenters and their sympathizers as dangerous, hate-maddened subversives who are secretly working to overthrow the Queen, the Church, and the Government, as they had during the Civil War a couple of generations before (3-4, 27, 36, and Appendix, 14-15 and 21).
(14) See H. I. Vienken, "Jonathan Swift's Library, His Reading, and His Critics," originally delivered as a paper at Notre Dame's sesquicentennial Swift conference in 1991 and printed in Christopher Fox and Brenda Tooley, eds., Walking Naboth's Vineyard: New Studies of Swift (U. of Notre Dame Press, 1995), 154-63. Unfortunately, the editors do not print Dr. Vienken's sample bibliography entry for Horace, which accompanied the paper and caused such a stir at the time.
(15) Swift's 1715 list has been reproduced, alphabetized, and annotated by William LeFanu in A Catalogue of Books belonging to Dr. Jonathan Swift, Cambridge Bibliographical Society Monograph no. 10 (Cambridge, 1988). Here there are no books or other published works by Swift, not even a copy of his collected Miscellanies volume of 1711. The sole pamphlet collection to be found in the 1715 list seems to be the second of the two present in the 1745 auction catalogue, the 8vo volume beginning with Davenant's True Picture of a Modern Whig, 1701 (LeFanu, 16 and 63, 8vo "Pamphlets. 1701"). The bound MS volume of Temple's letters (now at Trinity College, Cambridge, Rothschild no. 2255) was no. 634 in the 1745 sale catalogue but is absent from the 1715 list. Swift had presumably received it in 1699, as Temple's literary executor, some months before he brought out the two-volume published version, Letters Written by Sir W. Temple, Bart. and Other Ministers of State (London: for Tonson et al., 1700).
(16) For the Stella books, see Williams, Dean Swifts Library, 11, 23-24. Under her will, proved 22 July 1743, Dingley bequeathed her books and papers to her executor, the Rev. John Lyon. Since Lyon also served as one of Swift's court-appointed guardians -- indeed, the 1742 inventory seems to be in his hand -- it is likely that the Stella books eventually added to the inventory arrived via Lyon from Dingley's estate. See Swift, Correspondence, 5:245; Lefanu, 7; and F. Elrington Ball in his earlier edition of The Correspondence of Jonathan Swift (London: Bell, 1910-14), 6:225.
(17) The Scotch Presbyterian Eloquence (London: for Randal Taylor, 1692; Wing C6961), 2, 5, 7, 8-9, 22.
(18) "Advertisement of the Stationer to the Reader" in Temple, Miscellanea [Part 1], "By Sir William Temple, Baronet. The Second Edition, Corrected and Augmented" (London: by J. C. for Edw. Gellibrand, 1681; Wing T647), sig A2v; cf. title page, Temple, Miscellanea (London: by A.M. and R.R. for Edward Gellibrand, 1680; Wing T646), "By a Person of Honour"; Swift, "The Publisher to the Reader," in Letters Written by Sir W. Temple, Bart., I, sig. A2v-A3r; and Elias, Swift at Moor Park (U. of Pennsylvania Press, 1982).
(19) For a brief summary of the currency reform issue, see William L. Sachse, Lord Somers, A Political Portrait (Manchester U. Press, 1975), 105-6. Interestingly enough, in light of Swift's alignment with Somers, Halifax, and the Whigs a few years later, Temple argues against the provisions which they pushed through Parliament in Dec. 1695, for minting new coins with milled edges and recalling the old clipped pieces at face value.
(20) Here cited from Herbert Davis's edition of The Drapier's Letters to the People of Ireland (Oxford, 1935; rpt. corr. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965).
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|Title Annotation:||Jonathan Swift|
|Author:||Elias, A.C., Jr.|
|Date:||Mar 22, 1996|
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