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Survey for potential insect biological control agents of Ligustrum sinense (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae) in China.

ABSTRACT

A systematic survey of Chinese privet foliage, stems, seeds, and roots for associated phytophagous insects was conducted in China during 2005 and 2006 in order to establish basic information about the insect communities that Chinese privet harbors and to evaluate the abundance and damage caused by these insects. A total of 170 phytophagous insect species in 48 families and 5 orders were collected from Chinese privet in China. The insects belong to 4 feeding guilds: foliage, sap, stem, and root feeders. The impact of foliage feeders varied by site and over time. The mean percent defoliation of Chinese privet over all sites and years was 20.5 [+ or -] 8.2%, but ranged as high as 48%.

Key Words: Chinese privet, biological control, invasive species, exotic species

RESUMEN

Se realizo un sondeo sistematico de los insectos fitofagos asociados con el follaje, ramas, semillas y raices de Cabo chino Ligustrum sinense en China durante 2005 y 2006 para establecer informacion basica sobre las comunidades de insectos que usan L. sinense como un refugio y a la vez para evaluar la abundancia y dano causado por estos mismos. Un total de 170 especies de insectos consumidores en 48 familias y 5 ordenes fueron recolectada de L. sinense en China, que pertenecen a 4 grupos de consumidores: los que se alimentan sobre el follaje, savia, tallo y raices. El impacto de los consumidores de follaje varia segun el sitio y la epoca. El promedio del porcentaje de defoliacion de L. sinense en todos los sitios y anos estudiados fue de 20.5 [+ ou -] 8.2%, pero se observo rangos altos hasta de un 48%.

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Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense Lour., is an invasive exotic weed in the United States where it is a perennial, semi-evergreen shrub or small tree that grows to 10 m in height. This species is of great concern in the southeastern United States (Faulkner et al. 1989; Stone 1997), but it ranges from Texas to Florida, and as far north as the New England states (The Nature Conservancy 2004; University of Connecticut 2004). In addition, it has been introduced into Puerto Rico and Oregon (USDA-NRCS 2002).

Chinese privet is native to China, Vietnam, and Laos (The Nature Conservancy 2004; Wu & Raven 2003). In China it is found in the provinces south of the Yangzi River (Qui et al. 1992). It can be found between 200 and 2600 m in elevation where it occurs in mixed forests, valleys, along streams, thickets, woods, and ravines (Wu & Raven 2003; Qui et al. 1992).

Ligustrum sinense has been studied in China for its chemical composition and the medicinal value of its bark and leaves (Ouyang & Zhou 2003; Ouyang 2003). It has never been recorded as a noxious weed in either agricultural or forest settings. Chinese privet is grown nationwide as an ornamental hedge plant, for its berries used in brewing, and for oils extracted from seeds and used in soap making (Qui et al. 1992).

Chinese privet was introduced into the United States in 1852 (Coates 1965; Dirr 1990) as an ornamental shrub, for hedgerows (USDA-NRCS 2002), and sometimes as single specimens for its foliage and profusion of small white flowers (Dirr 1990; Wyman 1973). It is a forage plant for deer in the southeastern U.S. (Stromayer et al. 1998a; Stromayer et al. 1998b; The Nature Conservancy 2004). According to Small (1933), the species was escaping from cultivation in southern Louisiana by the 1930s. A survey of appropriate herbaria reveals collection records from Georgia as early as 1900. Based on herbarium records the species became naturalized and widespread in the southeast and eastern U.S. during the 1950s, 60s, and 70s (USDA-NRCS 2002).

Chinese privet is widely believed to drastically reduce native plant biodiversity because of its ability to shade out native vegetations (USDI Fish and Wildlife Service 1992; Merriam & Feil 2002) and form dense, monospecific stands that dominate the forest understory (Dirr 1990). Recent surveys in the southeastern United States show Chinese privet completely covers 0.9 million acres and colonies of varying densities can be found on another 17.6 million acres (Rudis et al. 2006). In 1998, the U.S. Department of Agriculture listed privet as one of 14 species with the potential to adversely affect management objectives in North Carolina's National Forests. Similarly, the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council lists Chinese privet as a Category 1 invasive species (FLEPPC 2007). More recently, The Nature Conservancy ranked Chinese privet as having high potential to disrupt the ecological balance (NatureServe 2006).

In addition to privet's impact on natural landscapes, it can be directly harmful to humans. The flower of Chinese privet is toxic to humans causing symptoms such as nausea, headache, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, and low blood pressure and body temperature (USDANRCS 2002). Where Chinese privet occurs in abundance, floral odors may cause respiratory irritation (Westbrooks & Preacher 1986).

Repeated mowing and cutting will control the spread of L. sinense, but may not eradicate it (Tennessee Exotic Pest Plants Council 1996). Although modern herbicides, including glyphosate, effectively kill privet (Tennessee Exotic Pest Plants Council 1996; The Nature Conservancy 2004; Madden & Swarbrick 1990; Harrington & Miller 2005), environmental concerns will limit use of herbicides on public land or in sensitive areas. Faulkner et al. (1989) reported that in experimental trials of prescribed burning, there was no significant difference in the abundance of Ligustrum sinense in burned vs. unburned plots.

Plants unimportant in their native habitat may reach damaging levels when released from control by important natural enemies through introduction into new geographic areas (Van Driesche & Bellows 1996). This suggests that exploration for Chinese privet natural enemies in China might detect species suitable for use in a classical biological control program in the U.S. Chinese privet is considered a good candidate for classical biological control because it has no known biological control agents capable of lowering its pest status in North America (The Nature Conservancy 2004), and no native Ligustrum spp. occur there. Johnson & Lyon (1991) list at least 27 species of insects or mites that feed on Ligustrum spp. in the United States, however, none suppress populations of this plant in forests. In contrast, based on published records, China appears to have a rich complex of natural enemies that attack Ligustrum spp. (Zheng et al. 2004) and the potential for finding a biological control agent is high. However, little is known about their relative abundance and impact on their host plant. Therefore, a cooperative program was initiated in 2005 to survey for natural enemies of Chinese privet in China, with the goal of finding potential biocontrol agents. Here we report results of systematic surveys conducted in 2005 and 2006, and provide a list of the phytophagous insects found. We provide basic information about the insect community on Chinese privet in China and identify species that may have potential as biological control agents in the US. Preliminary information on impacts of different feeding guilds on Chinese privet in China is also reported.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Survey Sites

Our surveys focused primarily on 6 sites in Huangshan city (118.16, 29.43, elevation approximately 200m) in Anhui Province, China, because the climate-matching program Climex (Hearne Scientific Software, Melbourne, Australia) indicated that this was the province most similar in climate to the southeastern United States (Sun et al. 2006). The seventh site was established in Guiyang (Huaxi, 106.40, 26.25, elevation approximately 1096 m), Guizhou Province, which is another area where Chinese privet is prevalent in China, but it is much further south and warmer than the Anhui sites.

In order to collect the most natural enemies of privet, our survey sites were selected to include habitats varying from natural areas to semi-natural and planted sites. These were as follows:

(1) Pure natural sites included 1 site in Lingnan adjacent to the Jiulong Natural resource conservation area in Xiuning County in the most southern region of Anhui Province; a second site on an unnamed island in the suburb of Huangshan city; and a third site in Guiyang. Chinese privet in these 3 sites grew naturally mixed with many other plant species and most grew relatively tall (over 3 m).

(2) Semi-natural sites included 1 site in Zhanchuan, a small town south of Huangshan city, and a second site at the Institute of Forestry (IOF) located in the north of Huangshan city. Chinese privet plants in these sites grew semi-naturally but were near agricultural lands where they were more likely to be disturbed by local residents.

(3) Planted sites included 1 site in She County east of Huangshan city. The other site was in the center of Huangshan city. Chinese privets in these sites were abundant and planted as ornamental shrubs along roads. All plants were small periodically pruned shrubs less than 1.5 m tall.

Systematic Sampling

At each site, 10 Chinese privet plants were randomly selected for sampling, marked with stakes and surrounded by a circle of colored tape and a sign to prevent human disturbance and for ease of relocation. Privet plants in Zhanchuan, IOF and She county in Anhui Province were surveyed from May to Aug, 2005 and from Apr to Oct, 2006. Privet on the island near Huangshan city was sample from Jun to Aug 2005 when sampling was discontinued because it was cleared for development. Privet in Lingnan, Huangshan city, and Guiyang were surveyed for 1 year from Apr to Sep 2006. At all sites, surveys were conducted at 10-day intervals during the survey periods. Collection of insects feeding on Chinese privet was accomplished by hand-picking, aspirating, and sweep-netting each sample plant 30 times. In some cases, cages were placed over branches to capture insects as they emerged. When immature insects were found, they were collected in a plastic bag together with the plant part on which they were feeding and returned to our lab to be reared to the adult stage to confirm the species.

Most insect species were identified by Professor Yang Chuncai (Anhui Agricultural University). Some Chrysomelidae were identified by Professor Wang Shuyong (Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences [CAS]), some Lepidoptera larvae were identified by Professor Wang Linyao (Institute of Zoology, CAS), and some Homoptera were identified by Professor Liang Aiping (Institute of Zoology, CAS). Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti) was identified by Professor Xie Yingping (Shanxi University). Others were sent to the Zoological Museum of the Institute of Zoology, CAS, where they were distributed to appropriate taxonomists for identification. All phytophagous insects were evaluated based on their frequency of occurrence on Chinese privet, stage of development, and collecting site. Information on insect host range was obtained from the references "Economic Insect Fauna of China", edited by the Editorial Committee of Fauna Sinica, Academia Sinica (Chou et al. 1985; Ge 1966; Tan et al. 1985; Yu et al. 1996; Liu 1963; Liu & Bai 1977; Wang 1980; Zhang 1985; Zhang 1995; Zhao & Chen 1980).

Foliage Damage

Defoliation rate was estimated by averaging defoliation of 120 leaves per plant. Samples consisted of 10 leaves randomly selected from 3 layers (high, middle, and lower layer) and 4 cardinal directions (east, south, west, and north) in each layer, for a total of 12 sampling locations on each plant. Defoliation was estimated by placing leaves on transparent graph paper with a 1-[mm.sup.2] grid and measuring total leaf area and leaf area removed.

Stem Damage

Altogether, 900 plants of Chinese privet were investigated for signs of insect feeding within stems, oviposition, and damage at all survey sites. Stem damage was described by attributes, including physical shape, the distance of the damage from the ground, the diameter of stem with boring hole and so on.

Root and Seed Damage

Fifty roots were dug from randomly selected sample sites and examined for root damage. Adult insects found feeding on roots were collected for identification and larvae were returned to the laboratory with pieces of root for rearing to the adult stage. In order to detect insects feeding in seed, 500 immature seeds were collected randomly from survey sites and half were dissected in the laboratory. Also, 200 panicles with 25 to 58 mature seeds per panicle plus the remaining immature seeds were collected and placed in glass containers with fine gauze lids in order to collect adult seed-feeders emerging from them.

RESULTS

The phytophagous insects associated with Chinese privet in China are listed in Table 1. In all, 170 species in 5 orders and 48 families were collected from Chinese privet in Anhui and Guizhou Province from 2005 to 2006. Insects were found in 4 different feeding guilds: foliage, sap, stem, and root feeders. Among them, 95.9% of insects were collected from privet leaves, 1 species was found feeding in stems and 6 species were root feeders. In contrast, only 27 species of insects feed on Ligustrum spp. in the U.S. Table 1 also includes an estimate of host range for each insect based on published reports.

Foliage-feeding Insects

Among the foliage-feeding insects in China, Argopistes tsekooni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Leptoypha hospita (Hemiptera: Tingidae) and an unidentified sawfly appeared to have the greatest impact on the plant. The extent of defoliation varied among sites, seasons and years (Figs. 1 and 2). In Zhanchuan, defoliation remained relatively constant throughout the sampling period fluctuating only slightly from 20% to 28% (Fig. 1A). Defoliation was highest at the She county site, averaging over 50% in late Jul 2005 (Fig. 1B). At the IOF site, defoliation ranged from about 15% in early May to about 27% in mid-Aug 2005. Defoliation in 2006 was generally higher at the IOF site, averaging about 34% for the year (Fig. 1C). Guiyang, a natural area, had the lowest defoliation of all sites averaging 1.6% in 2006 (Fig. 2). Lingnan had an average defoliation of 16% for 2006. Defoliation at this site ranged from a high of about 16% in late Apr to a low of less than 5% in Sep. Defoliation at the Huangshan city site, a site consisting of planted privet, generally declined over the season from a high of ca. 30% in mid-May to a low of ca. 8% in early Oct. A natural site on a nearby island had a defoliation rate of about 30% as well (Fig. 3), suggesting that defoliation was similar in an area regardless of site condition. The mean percent defoliation for Chinese privet per year among all sites and all years of study was 20.5 [+ or -] 8.2%.

Stem Damage

Phassus excrescens (Lepidoptera: Hepialoidae) was the only stem borer found feeding on Chinese privet in our survey where 5.3% (48 of 900 privets) of the plants were damaged by it. Larvae of the insect were collected from trunks of Chinese privet where they bored in the xylem causing galls. While feeding, they created an off white mass consisting of silk, excrement, and wood scraps that covered the entrance to the larval gallery. Borer entrance holes were 29.77 [+ or -] 1.95cm (n = 48) from the ground and the average diameter of attacked stems was 2.27 [+ or -] 0.72cm (n = 48).

Root and Seed Damage

Six species of insects were found feeding on roots of Chinese privet. All 6 fed on fine roots or the root surface. Observations of the above ground plant health gave no indication root-feeders were present. No seed-feeders were found in either immature or mature seeds.

DISCUSSION

In order to collect the most natural enemies of privet, survey sites were selected to include diverse habitats varying from natural areas to semi-natural and planted sites. Anhui province was selected as the primary survey area, because it was the best climatic match to the southeastern United States. Climatic matching is important for conventional biological control to insure the selected agents are adapted to the climate where they will be released (Andres et al. 1976; Harley & Forno 1992). Guizhou province was another important survey area because it is near the center of the range of Chinese privet in China.

Chinese privet is a common ornamental shrub but not a noxious weed in China, suggesting that natural enemies suppress populations. We found 170 phytophagous insect species on Chinese privet in China. Most were foliage-feeding insects despite phenolic compounds in privet leaves that likely provide some protection against damage from generalist herbivores (Swearingen et al. 2002). In the United States, Johnson & Lyon (1991) list at least 27 species of insects or mites that feed on Ligustrum spp., however, none suppress populations of this plant in forests. Most are not specialist on Chinese privet so it seems likely that the diverse and abundant insect fauna in China is important in regulating Chinese privet populations in its native habitat. Other factors also may be involved such as disease organisms not include in this survey. Phytophagous insects were collected by hand picking or net sweeping. Most were determined as feeding on Chinese privet by observations made during surveys in the field and through the literature. However, other insects that were not privet feeders and only occasionally rested on the plants were likely included in sweep net samples. To distinguish among them, we made notes in Table 1 showing which were confirmed as feeding on privet during our surveys ([check]), were collected during our surveys and recorded as privet feeders in the literatures ([]), or collected from Chinese privet, but were not confirmed as privet feeders by personal observation or in the literature ([??]). We confirmed 81 feeding on privet by personal observation (Y. Z. Zhang), 88 were collected from privet and were reported in the literature as feeding on privet, and 1 species was collected but could not be confirmed by either method. Table 1 provides the most comprehensive listing of phytophagous insect feeding on Chinese privet to date.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

When screening potential biological control agents for invasive weeds, their host range is one of the most important factors because only host specific agents will be considered for release to control invasive weeds. Polyphagous species were included in Table 1 to provide a complete listing with no attempt to differentiate good candidates for testing.

We included all insects found on privet, not just the most common ones, because some insects that are rare in their native country and suppressed by their own natural enemies are effective biological control agents when released from their own population regulating fauna.

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

Due to host specificity and the severe damage it caused on Chinese privet (Zhang et al., unpublished data), A. tsekooni may be the most promising biological control agent. It was apparent in our field surveys that defoliation rates were high when populations of A. tsekooni were large. Also, preliminary host specificity tests suggest its host range is restricted to Ligustrum spp. (Zhang et al. unpublished data). Examples of flea beetle as biological control agents of exotic weeds include Altica carduorum Guer. (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera) on Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (Asteraceae) (Wan et al. 1996) and Agascicles hygrophila Selman et Vogt in China for control of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb., a global virulent weed from South America (Julien et al. 1995). Argopistes tsekooni feeds on most members of the genus Ligustrum. However, since no indigenous Ligustrum spp. occur in the U.S. and all Ligustrum spp. in the U.S. are listed as invasive weeds (Miller et al. 2004), A. tsekooni is a potential biological control that warrants further testing.

Leptoypha hospita could be another promising biocontrol agent because it has a limited host range in the Oleaceae (Li 2001) and often occurred in high numbers on Chinese privet in our sample areas. Likewise, the unidentified sawfly may also be an important defoliator. Thus far we have been unable to rear adults for identification so we cannot fully evaluate its potential for biological control. However, we have not observed it attacking other plant species during our field surveys.

Feeding by P. excrescens weakened the trunk resulting in breakage or, in some cases, the stems died as a result of girdling by the larvae. However, it has a broad host range and is considered an important pest of many plant species. Therefore, it is unlikely that it could be developed as a biological control agent.

Defoliation of privet varied widely among sites. The highest defoliation was recorded at the She County site which was a planted site. The lowest was on privet at the Guiyang site a natural area in Guizhou Province. That site was selected because it was near the center of the range of Chinese privet and, therefore, likely to have high number of phytophagous insects. We are uncertain why privet defoliation was low at this site but it may be the result of high numbers of defoliator natural enemies, or the more widely scattered and shaded privet population we sampled at that location. Defoliation of privet at the Lingnan site in Anhui Province, another natural area, was also relatively low compared with the She County site, or the Zhanchuan and IOF sites which we classified as semi-natural. The average 20% defoliation rate of L. sinense in China for all sites combined demonstrates that defoliating insects have a large impact on privet even when their own populations are being regulated by natural enemies. These results suggest that in the absence of natural enemies some of these insects may be effective biocontrol agents.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This research is part of an ongoing Sino-US Chinese privet biological control cooperative program funded by the USDA-Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Research Work Unit 4552, and the Natural National Science Foundation of China (30525009, 30621003). We are grateful to Ding Jianqing and Wei Wei for helpful comments on survey plan; Fang Fang, Li Li and Chen Yuhui for field assistance. We are also grateful to the many taxonomists who helped with identification of our specimens.

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YAN-ZHUO ZHANG (1), JAMES L. HANULA (2) * AND JIANG-HUA SUN (1)

(1) State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects & Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, P.R. China

(2) USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, 320 Green St., Athens, GA 30602-2044, USA

* Corresponding author
TABLE 1. PHYTOPHAGOUS INSECTS COLLECTED FROM CHINESE PRIVET IN CHINA
DURING 2005 AND 2006 WITH NOTES ON RELATIVE ABUNDANCE, STAGE OF
DEVELOPMENT OBSERVED, METHOD OF CONFIRMATION OF L. SINENSE AS A HOST,
PLANT PART ATTACKED, AND HOST RANGE.

 Relative Stage
 frequency found
Order/Family Species (a) (b)

Lepidoptera
 Hepialidae Phassus excrescens Butler C L
 Pyralidae Diaphania nigropunctalis C L,A
 (Bremer)
 Cnaphalocrocis medinalis R L
 (Guenee)
 Parapoynx diminutalis R A
 Snellen
 Parapoynx vittalis R A
 (Bremer)
 Ostrinia furnacalis R A
 (Guenee)
 Diaphania indica R A
 (Saunders)
 Pycnarmon cribrata R A
 (Fabricius)
 Hymenia recurvalis R A
 (Fabricius)
 Maruca testulais Geyer R A
 Palpita inustata R A
 (Butler)
 Endotricha theonalis R A
 (Walker)
 Diaphania perspectalis R A
 (Walker)
 Tryporyza incetulas R A
 (Walker)
 Heliodinidae Atrijuglans hitauhei Yang R A
 Scythridae Scythris sinensis Felder R A
 et Rogenhofer
 Brahmaeidae Brahmaea ledereri O L,A
 Rogenhofer
 Sphingidae Psilogramma menephron O L
 (Cramer)
 Gelechiidae Telphusa sp. R A
 Noctuidae Pseudaletia separata R L
 (Walker)
 Pangrapta cana Leech O L,A
 Helicoverpa assulta R A
 (Guenee)
 Ericeia fraterna (Moore) R L
 Arctiidae Nyctemera adversata R L
 (Schaller)
 Spilarctia subcarnea O L,A
 (Walker)
 Creatonotus transiens R A
 (Walker)
 Amsacta lactinea (Cramer) C L,A
 Miltochrista aberrans R A
 Butler
 Cyana sp. R A
 Asura sp. R A
 Psychidae Cryptothelea variegata C L
 Snellen
 Geometridae Scopula caricaria Reutti R L
 Percnia luridaria (Leech) R A
 Naxa (Psilonaxa) seriaria O L,A
 Motschulsky
 Gelasma illiturata Walker R A
 Comostola subtiliaria R A
 (Bremer)
 Tortricidae Archips seminubilis R A
 (Meyrick)
 Grapholitha delineana R A
 Walker

Hemiptera
 Tingidae Leptoypha hospita Drake C N,A
 et Poor
 Pentatomidae Nezara viridula (Linnaeus) O A
 Menida sp. C A
 Eysarcoris sp. O A
 Pentatoma sp. R A
 Homoeocerus sp. O N,A
 Erthesina fullo (Thunberg) R A
 Palomena angulosa R A
 Motschulsky
 Carbula obtusangula Reuter R A
 Coreidae Riptortus pedestris O A
 (Fabricius)
 Cletus punctiger Dallas R A
 Riptortus pedestris R A
 (Fabricius)
 Urostylidae Urochela distincta Distant O A
 Plataspidae Megacopta cribraria R A
 (Fabricius)
 Miridae Halticus minutus Reuter O A
 Adelphocoris fasiaticollis R A
 Reuter
 Scutelleridae Hyperoncus lateritius R A
 Westwood
 Lygaeidae Nysius ericae (Schilling) R A

Homoptera
 Cicadellidae Cicadella viridis O N,A
 (Linnaeus)
 Cercopidae Clovia bipunctata (Kirby) R N,A
 Abidama contigua Walker O N,A
 Membracidae Tricentrus sp. R A
 Aphrophoridae Aphrophota sp. C N,A
 Flatidae Geisha sp. O A
 Salurnis marginella Guerin C A
 Lawana sp. O A
 Ricaniidae Pochazia sp. R A
 Euricania ocellus Walker C A
 Pochazia guttifera Walker C A
 Issidae Sivaloka sp. O A
 Diaspididae Pseudaulacaspis pentagona C N,A
 (Targioni-Tozzetti)

Coleoptera
 Chrysomelidae Argopistes tsekooni Chen C L,A
 Longitarsus bimaculatus? C A
 Baly?
 Psylliodes punctifrons O A
 Baly
 Pseudodera xanthospila O A
 Baly
 Argopus balyi Harold O A
 Manobidia nipponica ChujjG R A
 Altica viridicyanea Baly R A
 Psylliodes sp. R A
 Aphthonomorpha collaris R A
 (Baly)
 Aphthona varipes Jacoby R A
 Aphthona strigosa Baly R A
 Longitarsus dorsopictus R A
 Chen
 Longitarsus lohita Maulik R A
 Hemipyxis plagideroides R A
 (Motschulsky)
 Monolepta hieroglyphica R A
 (Motschulsky)
 Cryptocephalus sp. R A
 Basiprionota bisignata R A
 (Boheman)
 Ambrostoma quadriimpressum R A
 (Motschulsky)
 Paleosepharia lequidambra R A
 Gressitt & Mmoto
 Acrothinium gaschkevits- R A
 chii (Motschulsky)
 Mimastra soreli Baly R A
 Plagiodera versicolora R A
 Laicharting
 Phaedon brassicae Baly R A
 Euliroetis ornata (Baly) R A
 Monolepta selmani Gressitt R A
 et Kimoto
 Coenobius longicornis R A
 Chfi ja
 Adiscus variabilis R A
 (Jacoby)
 Adiscus exilis (Weise) R A
 Colaspoides sp. R A
 Oomorphoides yaosanicus R A
 (Chen)
 Agetocera spp. R A
 Gastrolinoides japonica R A
 Harold
 Basilepta ruficolle Jacoby R A
 Stenoluprus cyaneus Baly R A
 Colaphellus bowringii Baly R A
 Phaedon brassicae Baly R A
 Plagiodera versicolora O A
 (Laicharting)
 Dercefina flavocincta R A
 (Hope)
 Gallerucida ornatipemmis R A
 (Duvivier)
 Cleoporus variabilis R A
 (Baly)
 Eutettix apricus Melichar R A
 Adiscus grandipalpus Tan R A
 Melixanthus pieli (Pic) R A
 Smaragdina aurita R A
 hammarstraemi (Jacobson)
 Aulacophora lewisii Baly R A
 Paridea biplagiata R A
 (Fairmaire)
 Temnaspis nankinea (Pic) R A
 Crioceridae Lilioceris maai Gressitt R A
 and Kimoto
 Lilioceris impressa R A
 (Fabricius)
 Lilioceris minima (Pic) R A
 Lema (Lema) scutellaris R A
 (Kraatz)
 Lema (Lema) concinnipennis R A
 Baly
 Lilioceris rugata (Baly) R A
 Lilioceris scapularis R A
 (Baly)
 Curculionidae Sympiezomias velatus O A
 (Chevrolat)
 Sympiezomias spp. O A
 Euops sp. R A
 Apoderus geniculatus Jekel R A
 Alcidodes sauteri (Heller) O A
 Myllocerinus aurolineatus R A
 Voss
 Anthonomus bisignifer R A
 Schenkling
 Callosobruchus chinensis R A
 (Linnaeus)
 Myllocerinus ochrolineatus R A
 Voss
 Meloidae Zonitis japonica Pic O A
 Lytta caraganae Pallas O A
 Hispidae Cassida japana Baly R A
 Laccoptera quadrimaculata R A
 (Thunberg)
 Thlaspida biramosa Boheman R A
 Cassida piperata Hope R A
 Eumolpidae Smaragdina nigrifrons R A
 (Hope)
 Coccinellidae Henosepilachna viginti- O A
 octopunctata (Fabricius)
 Epilachna freyana C A
 Beilawski
 Epilachna quadricollis C A
 (Dieke)
 Scarabaeidae Holotrichia parallela C A
 Motschulsky
 Cetoniidae Protaetia (Calo) aerata R A
 (Erichson)
 Protaetia brevitarsis R A
 Lewis
 Oxycetonia bealiae (Gory R A
 et Percheron)
 Pseudodiceros nigrocyaneus R A
 (Bourgoin)
 Rhomborrhina unicolor R A
 Motschulsky
 Oxycetonia jucunda R A
 Faldermann
 Rutelidae Anomala corpulenta R A
 Motschulsky
 Anomala olivea Lin R A
 Adoretus sinicus R A
 Burmeister
 Hoplia communis Waterhouse O L,A
 Oedemeridae Xanthochroa hilleri Harold R A
 Tenebrionidae Gonocephalum pubiferum R N
 Reitter
 Nitidulidae Librodor japonicus R A
 Motschulsky
 Elateridae Pleonomus canaliculatus R A
 Faldermann
 Agriotes subrittatus R A
 Motschulsky
 Sarpedon atratus Fleutiaux R A
 Languriidae Anadastus analis Fairmaire R A
 Lagriidae Lagria nigricollis Hope R A
 Cantharidae Cantharis violaceipemis O A
 Gorh
 Cantharis sp. R A
 Buprestidae Agrilus spp. R A

Orthoptera
 Catantopidae Oxya intricata (Stal) O N,A
 Xenocatantops brachycerus O N,A
 (Will)
 Tettigoniidae Prohimerta (Anisotima) O N,A
 guizhouensis Gorochov
 & Kang
 Mirollia formosana Shiraki R N,A
 Hexacentrus unicolor R N,A
 Serville
 Kuzicus (Kuzicus) suzukii R N,A
 Matsumura & Shiraki

Host con- Feeding Host
 firmation guild range (4)
Species (c)

Phassus excrescens Butler [check] Stem Po
Diaphania nigropunctalis [check] Foliage Ol
(Bremer)
Cnaphalocrocis medinalis () Foliage Po
(Guenee)
Parapoynx diminutalis () Foliage Po
Snellen
Parapoynx vittalis () Foliage Po
(Bremer)
Ostrinia furnacalis () Foliage Unknown
(Guenee)
Diaphania indica () Foliage Po
(Saunders)
Pycnarmon cribrata [check] Foliage Po
(Fabricius)
Hymenia recurvalis () Foliage Po
(Fabricius)
Maruca testulais Geyer () Foliage Po
Palpita inustata [check] Foliage Unknown
(Butler)
Endotricha theonalis [check] Foliage Unknown
(Walker)
Diaphania perspectalis [check] Foliage Po
(Walker)
Tryporyza incetulas () Foliage Po
(Walker)
Atrijuglans hitauhei Yang () Foliage Po
Scythris sinensis Felder () Foliage Po
et Rogenhofer
Brahmaea ledereri [check] Foliage Ol
Rogenhofer
Psilogramma menephron [check] Foliage Po
(Cramer)
Telphusa sp. () Foliage Unknown
Pseudaletia separata () Foliage Po
(Walker)
Pangrapta cana Leech [check] Foliage Unknown
Helicoverpa assulta () Foliage Po
(Guenee)
Ericeia fraterna (Moore) () Foliage Unknown
Nyctemera adversata () Foliage Po
(Schaller)
Spilarctia subcarnea [check] Foliage Po
(Walker)
Creatonotus transiens () Foliage Po
(Walker)
Amsacta lactinea (Cramer) [check] Foliage Po
Miltochrista aberrans () Foliage Unknown
Butler
Cyana sp. () Foliage Unknown
Asura sp. () Foliage Unknown
Cryptothelea variegata [check] Foliage Po
Snellen
Scopula caricaria Reutti [check] Foliage Unknown
Percnia luridaria (Leech) [check] Foliage Unknown
Naxa (Psilonaxa) seriaria [check] Foliage Ol
Motschulsky
Gelasma illiturata Walker () Foliage Po
Comostola subtiliaria () Foliage Unknown
(Bremer)
Archips seminubilis () Foliage Unknown
(Meyrick)
Grapholitha delineana () Foliage Po
Walker

Leptoypha hospita Drake [check] Sap Ol
et Poor
Nezara viridula (Linnaeus) () Sap Po
Menida sp. [check] Sap Unknown
Eysarcoris sp. [check] Sap Unknown
Pentatoma sp. [check] Sap Unknown
Homoeocerus sp. [check] Sap Unknown
Erthesina fullo (Thunberg) [check] Sap Po
Palomena angulosa [check] Sap Po
Motschulsky
Carbula obtusangula Reuter [check] Sap Po
Riptortus pedestris [check] Sap Po
(Fabricius)
Cletus punctiger Dallas [check] Sap Po
Riptortus pedestris [check] Sap Po
(Fabricius)
Urochela distincta Distant [] Sap Po
Megacopta cribraria () Sap Po
(Fabricius)
Halticus minutus Reuter () Sap Po
Adelphocoris fasiaticollis [check] Sap Po
 Reuter
Hyperoncus lateritius [check] Sap Po
Westwood
Nysius ericae (Schilling) () Sap Po

Cicadella viridis () Sap Po
(Linnaeus)
Clovia bipunctata (Kirby) [check] Sap Po
Abidama contigua Walker () Sap Unknown
Tricentrus sp. () Sap Unknown
Aphrophota sp. [check] Sap Unknown
Geisha sp. [check] Sap Unknown
Salurnis marginella Guerin [check] Sap Po
Lawana sp. [check] Sap Unknown
Pochazia sp. [check] Sap Unknown
Euricania ocellus Walker () Sap Po
Pochazia guttifera Walker () Sap Po
Sivaloka sp. () Sap Unknown
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona [check] Sap Po
(Targioni-Tozzetti)

Argopistes tsekooni Chen [check] Foliage Ol
Longitarsus bimaculatus? [check] Foliage Unknown
Baly?
Psylliodes punctifrons () Foliage Po
Baly
Pseudodera xanthospila [check] Foliage Po
Baly
Argopus balyi Harold [check] Foliage Ol
Manobidia nipponica ChujjG () Foliage Unknown
Altica viridicyanea Baly () Foliage Po
Psylliodes sp. () Foliage Unknown
Aphthonomorpha collaris () Foliage Po
(Baly)
Aphthona varipes Jacoby () Foliage Po
Aphthona strigosa Baly () Foliage Po
Longitarsus dorsopictus () Foliage Po
Chen
Longitarsus lohita Maulik () Foliage Po
Hemipyxis plagideroides () Foliage Po
(Motschulsky)
Monolepta hieroglyphica [check] Foliage Po
(Motschulsky)
Cryptocephalus sp. [check] Foliage Unknown
Basiprionota bisignata [check] Foliage Po
(Boheman)
Ambrostoma quadriimpressum () Foliage Po
(Motschulsky)
Paleosepharia lequidambra () Foliage Po
Gressitt & Mmoto
Acrothinium gaschkevits- [check] Foliage Po
chii (Motschulsky)
Mimastra soreli Baly () Foliage Po
Plagiodera versicolora [check] Foliage Unknown
Laicharting
Phaedon brassicae Baly () Foliage Po
Euliroetis ornata (Baly) () Foliage Po
Monolepta selmani Gressitt () Foliage Unknown
et Kimoto
Coenobius longicornis () Foliage Po
Chfi ja
Adiscus variabilis () Foliage Unknown
(Jacoby)
Adiscus exilis (Weise) () Foliage Unknown
Colaspoides sp. () Foliage Unknown
Oomorphoides yaosanicus () Foliage Po
(Chen)
Agetocera spp. () Foliage Unknown
Gastrolinoides japonica () Foliage Unknown
Harold
Basilepta ruficolle Jacoby () Foliage Po
Stenoluprus cyaneus Baly () Foliage Unknown
Colaphellus bowringii Baly () Foliage Po
Phaedon brassicae Baly () Foliage Po
Plagiodera versicolora () Foliage Po
(Laicharting)
Dercefina flavocincta () Foliage Unknown
(Hope)
Gallerucida ornatipemmis () Foliage Unknown
(Duvivier)
Cleoporus variabilis () Foliage Unknown
(Baly)
Eutettix apricus Melichar () Foliage Po
Adiscus grandipalpus Tan () Foliage Unknown
Melixanthus pieli (Pic) () Foliage Unknown
Smaragdina aurita [check] Foliage Po
hammarstraemi (Jacobson)
Aulacophora lewisii Baly () Foliage Po
Paridea biplagiata () Foliage Po
(Fairmaire)
Temnaspis nankinea (Pic) [check] Foliage Ol
Lilioceris maai Gressitt () Foliage Po
and Kimoto
Lilioceris impressa [check] Foliage Po
(Fabricius)
Lilioceris minima (Pic) [check] Foliage Po
Lema (Lema) scutellaris [check] Foliage Po
(Kraatz)
Lema (Lema) concinnipennis () Foliage Po
Baly
Lilioceris rugata (Baly) () Foliage Po
Lilioceris scapularis () Foliage Unknown
(Baly)
Sympiezomias velatus [check] Foliage Po
(Chevrolat)
Sympiezomias spp. [check] Foliage Unknown
Euops sp. [check] Foliage Unknown
Apoderus geniculatus Jekel [check] Foliage Po
Alcidodes sauteri (Heller) [check] Foliage Unknown
Myllocerinus aurolineatus [check] Foliage Po
Voss
Anthonomus bisignifer [check] Foliage Unknown
Schenkling
Callosobruchus chinensis () Foliage Po
(Linnaeus)
Myllocerinus ochrolineatus [check] Foliage Unknown
Voss
Zonitis japonica Pic () Foliage Unknown
Lytta caraganae Pallas () Foliage Unknown
Cassida japana Baly [check] Foliage Unknown
Laccoptera quadrimaculata [check] Foliage Po
(Thunberg)
Thlaspida biramosa Boheman [check] Foliage Po
Cassida piperata Hope [check] Foliage Po
Smaragdina nigrifrons [check] Foliage Po
(Hope)
Henosepilachna viginti- [check] Foliage Po
octopunctata (Fabricius)
Epilachna freyana [check] Foliage Po
Beilawski
Epilachna quadricollis [check] Foliage Mo
(Dieke)
Holotrichia parallela [check] Root PO
Motschulsky
Protaetia (Calo) aerata [check] Foliage Po
(Erichson)
Protaetia brevitarsis [check] Foliage Po
Lewis
Oxycetonia bealiae (Gory [check] Foliage Unknown
et Percheron)
Pseudodiceros nigrocyaneus [check] Foliage Unknown
(Bourgoin)
Rhomborrhina unicolor [check] Foliage Unknown
Motschulsky
Oxycetonia jucunda [check] Foliage Po
Faldermann
Anomala corpulenta [check] Foliage Po
Motschulsky
Anomala olivea Lin [check] Foliage Unknown
Adoretus sinicus [check] Foliage Unknown
Burmeister
Hoplia communis Waterhouse [check] Root PO
Xanthochroa hilleri Harold () Foliage Unknown
Gonocephalum pubiferum () Root PO
Reitter
Librodor japonicus [check] Foliage Unknown
Motschulsky
Pleonomus canaliculatus [check] Root Po
Faldermann
Agriotes subrittatus [check] Root Po
Motschulsky
Sarpedon atratus Fleutiaux [check] Root Unknown
Anadastus analis Fairmaire () Foliage Unknown
Lagria nigricollis Hope () Foliage Unknown
Cantharis violaceipemis () Foliage Unknown
Gorh
Cantharis sp. () Foliage Unknown
Agrilus spp. [check] Foliage Po

Oxya intricata (Stal) () Foliage Po
Xenocatantops brachycerus () Foliage Po
(Will)
Prohimerta (Anisotima) () Foliage Po
guizhouensis Gorochov
& Kang
Mirollia formosana Shiraki () Foliage Po
Hexacentrus unicolor () Foliage Po
Serville
Kuzicus (Kuzicus) suzukii () Foliage Po
Matsumura & Shiraki

(a) R, rare, taken at a few sites, usually in small numbers; O,
occasionally collected at sites; C, common, taken at most sites.

(b) L, larva; A, adult; N, nymph.

(c) "[check]" observed feeding on privet, "[]" collected from Chinese
privet and recorded as privet feeder in literature, "()" collected
from Chinese privet, but not directly observed or recorded in
literature as feeding on privet.

(d) Po, Polyphagous, feeds on plants from other families; Ol,
Oligophagous, feeds mainly on Oleaceae; Mo, Monophagous on Chinese
privet.
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Article Details
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Author:Zhang, Yan-Zhuo; Hanula, James L.; Sun, Jiang-Hua
Publication:Florida Entomologist
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9CHIN
Date:Sep 1, 2008
Words:6906
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