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Surgical management of mammary tumor in a dog.

Introduction

In canines, mammary tumors are the second most frequently encountered spontaneous neoplasms following those derived from skin (Moulton et al., 1970). The mammary tumours tend to persist, grow and metastasize to regional lymph nodes, lungs, liver and other organs ((Lacroix and Hoskins, 1952; Nelson, 1972). Surgical removal of tumors mass is a commonly employed treatment, but one single surgical procedure may not suit all patients due to variation in tumor type and growth duration (Allen and Mahaffey, 1989). This paper reports successful management of mammary tumor in a dog.

History and Treatment

A nine year old Pomeranian female dog was presented with complaints of inappetance, reduce water intake, occasional vomiting, loss of condition and large growth seen on abdomen since last two months (Fig. 1).

Clinical examination revealed fever (102.90 F), dyspnoea, auscultation of chest revealed consolidation of lungs on either side and a large mammary tumor in left caudal abdominal gland. History revealed gradual increase in size of tumour for last two months. The primary diagnosis of mammary tumour metastasis was done. The managemental plan included stabilization of patient, surgery followed by appropriate chemotherapy on basis of histopathology.

With taking all aseptic precautions, ventral abdomen was prepared for surgery. Anaesthesia was induced with a combination of Inj. Xylazine 1 mg/kg given intramuscularly and maintained with Inj. Ketamine and Inj. Diazepam Intravenously. A elliptical incision was made on skin, separated the tumors mass with forcep. Vessels ligated with chromic catgut no. 0 and removed large tumor from base weighing about 1.9 kg (Fig. 2). After removal of growth, the site was cauterized with Silver nitrate solution. The incision was closed in routine manner using 1-0 no. chromic catgut for peritoneum and muscle. Skin incision was closed with nylon with simple interrupted suture.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Post-operatively, the animal were maintained with fluid therapy for 5 days. Inj. Intamoxa (Amoxicillin + Cloxacillin 500mg); anti-inflammatory drug, Inj. Meloxicam (Melonex (a))1ml and Inj. Vitamin B Complex (Tribivet (a))1ml intramuscularly daily for 5 days. Antiseptic dressing was done with Povidone iodine solution upto complete healing and skin sutures were removed on 10th postoperative day. The animal did not show any recurrence for six months post-operatively.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

Histopathology of tumor revealed proliferation of mesenchymal cells along with tubular epithelial type representing fibrosarcoma of mammary gland (Fig. 3).

Discussion

The canine mammary tumours mainly occurs in adult female dogs. The bitches aged 7-11 years are most frequently affected with mammary tumours (Schneider 1970). The caudal mammary glands are more often affected than cranial glands (Else and Hannat 1979) which was also observed in the present case. The risk of developing mammary gland tumors significantly decreased by ovariohysterectomy at an early age (Sorenmo et al., 2000). Khare (2000) observed that recurrence of mammary tumors was less in surgically treated dogs. According to Hoffer (1974) canine mammary gland malignancies are usually malignant with every one tumour out of four having tendency of metastasis. All mammary neoplasm should be regarded as potentially malignant regardless of size and number (Aiello 1998). Tiwari et al. (2004) reported a bitch affecting right pair of mammary gland, which was excised from base and cauterized with silver nitrate. Similar treatment was given to our animal with uneventful recovery.

References

Allen, S.W. and Mahaffey, E. A. (1989). Canine mammary neoplasia : prognostic indicators and response to surgical therapy. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 25: 540-46.

Aiello, S.E. (1998). The Merck Veterinary Manual. 8th edn. pp. 1043-45. Merck and Co. Inc., N.J., USA.

Else, R.W. and Hannant, D. (1979). Some epidemiological aspects of mammary neoplasia in the bitch. Vet Rec 104 : 296-04.

Hoffer, R.E. (1974). Skin and Adnexa, Burns. In Canine Surgery II. Ed. (ed Aechibald, J.) American Veterinary Publications Inc, California. p.107-38.

Khare, Y.B. (2000). A Study on Canine Mammary Gland Neoplasia and its Surgical Management. Post Graduate Thesis submitted to the Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli.

Lacroix, J.V. and H.P. Hoskins (1952). The Mammary Gland. In : Canine Surgery III ed. American Veterinary Publications, Evanston.pp 504-521.

Moulton, J.E., Taylor, D.O.N., Dorn, C.R. and Anderson, A.C. (1970). Canine mammary tumor. Vet. Pathology 7 : 289-20.

Nelson, L.W., Carlton, W.W. and Weikel, J.H. (1972). Canine Mammary Neoplasms and Progestogens. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 219:1601-06.

Schneider, R. (1970). Comparison of age, sex and incidence rates in human and canine breast cancer. Cancer 26 : 419-26.

Tiwari, S.K., Dubey, S. and Bhandekar, S.K. (2004). Duct carcinoma of mammary gland in a bitch and its surgical management. Indian Vet. Med. J. 28 : 393.

(a)--Brand of Intas Animal Health, Ahmedabad

Mrunali Kamble (1), M.S. Dhakate, S.V. Upadhye and S.B. Akhare

Department of Surgery and Radiology Nagpur Veterinary College Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences University (MAFSU) Seminary Hills Nagpur--440006 (Maharashtra)

(1.) Corresponding author.

E-mail: kamblemrunal21@gmail.com
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Title Annotation:Short Communication
Author:Kamble, Mrunali; Dhakate, M.S.; Upadhye, S.V.; Akhare, S.B.
Publication:Intas Polivet
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Jan 1, 2016
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