Surgical Management of Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Dog.
A male crossbred dog was presented with soft, pink, multinodular growth on mucocutaneous junction protruding from right medial canthus of lower eye lid since 2 month. The mass was surgically excised. The tumour was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) based on histopathological evaluation which revealed anaplastic keratinocytes, multiple mitotic figures and epithelial pearl formation. The report describes successful surgical management and diagnosis of ocular SCC in a dog.
Keywords: Dog; eye; squamous cell carcinoma
Skin of canines is most common seat for tumors. Unlike cats, skin tumors in dog are more likely to be benign than malignant (Kashyap et al., 2013). Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a malignant neoplasia affecting squamous epithelial cells and usually superficial (Song et al., 2012). SCC is generally reported in cattle in India affecting the horn and eye (Singh et al., 2013). In general, ocular SCCs affecting any structure of eye globe and adnexa are less frequent in dogs (Pigatto et al., 2010). Successful surgical management and histopathological diagnosis of ocular SCC in a crossbred dog is placed on record.
History and Diagnosis
A six years old male crossbred dog was presented with multi nodular growth on mucocutaneous junction protruding from right lower eye lid (Fig. 1) and visual impairment. Further anamnesis revealed that the mass grew rapidly within a short span of last 2 months. Clinical and haematological parameters were in the normal range. Faecal examination was negative for endoparasites/ova. Upon palpation, superficial lymph nodes were normal in size. Based on gross observation and history of sudden growth, the case was tentatively diagnosed as ocular SCC and radicle surgery was undertaken to relieve the condition.
The owner was advised to withhold food for 12 hours and water for 6 hours prior to the surgical procedures.
Ethical considerations were given due priority to minimize pain and sufferings of animal. The dog was pre-medicated with Atropine sulphate (0.04 mg/kg b.wt., intramuscularly) and sedated using Xylazine (1 mg/kg b.wt., intramuscularly). The area of spontaneous growth was cleaned and scrubbed with Povidone iodine. Routine aseptic precautions were observed throughout the procedure. General anaesthesia was induced and maintained intravenously with Ketamine hydrochloride (5 mg/kg b.wt.). An elliptical skin incision was given near the tumor growth, subcutaneous tissues were bluntly separated and haemostasis, if any was achieved by forci pressure. Being a sessile and non-capsulated growth, a part of healthy tissues involving 0.5 cm at margins were also included to avoid likelihood of recurrence. The growth was removed, weighed and representative tissue samples were preserved directly in 10% neutral buffered formalin. The surgical wound was closed by approximation of skin layer in horizontal mattress suturing pattern using vicryl size 1. Routine post-operative care with antibiotics, analgesics and surgical wound dressing were performed. Skin sutures were removed, 12th day post-operatively. The dog witnessed sound health without recurrence during a follow up period of 1 year. Following fixation and overnight washing the tissues were dehydrated in ascending grades of alcohol cleared in xylene and embedded in paraffin at 58[degrees]C. The paraffin embedded tissue sections of 5um were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin as described by Luna (1972) with slight modifications. The stained sections were examined under light microscope and lesions were recorded. Macroscopically the broad based neoplastic growth was soft in consistency pink in color measured 3x2x1.5cm and weighed 45 grams. Microscopically, tissue section showed cords of hyperchromatic squamous epithelial cell masses surrounded by connective tissue stroma. Multiple mitotic figures, loss of polarity, cellular pleomorphism (round to polygonal), abundant cytoplasm with irregularly shaped immature nuclei characterized by high grade of anisokaryosis (Fig. 2) were also recorded. The neoplastic cells showed downward penetration and mild infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells and some lymphocytes. The carcinoma was well differentiated and exhibited keratohyalinisation in form of epithelial pearl.
The clinical, gross and microscopic findings in the present case simulated well with previous reports (Song et al., 2012; Kashyap et al., 2013; Singh et al., 2013). Being a malignant neoplastic condition, a part of adjacent tissues were incorporated in excision so as to minimize chances of recurrence. However, Withrow and Vail (2007) documented that ocular SCC do not metastasize to distant locations which might be because of meagre chances of entry through vessel wall by tumorous cells. The normal size of superficial lymph nodes in present case corroborates the observations of Withrow and Vail (2007).
Among all species, SCC may occur in young animals but incidence increases with age usually 9-14 years in cats and between 6-10 years in dogs (Dayananda et al., 2009; Kashyap et al., 2013). In the present case too, the dog was in the most susceptible age for neoplastic growth. Increased exposure to solar radiation, lack of adnexal pigmentation, chronic ocular surface irritation (microtrauma), viral agents, hormonal, genetic and immunologic factors may precipitate ocular SCC in case of dogs and cats (Pigatto et al., 2010; Takiyama et al., 2010).
This report clearly indicates that ocular SCC can be successfully managed by timely surgical excision of neoplastic growth and confirmatory diagnosis could be achieved by histopathological evaluation.
The histopathological diagnosis and surgical management of ocular SCC in a dog has been presented and discussed.
Dayananda, T.S., Rao, S., Byregowda, S.M., Satyanarayana, M.L.,Jayachandra, K.C. and Shilpa, V.T. (2009). Prevalence of skin and subcutaneous tissue neoplasms in dogs. Indian Vet. J. 86: 671-73.
Kashyap, D.K., Tiwari, S.K., Giri, D.K., Dewangan, G. and Sinha, B. (2013). Cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue neoplasms in canines Occurrence and histopathological studies. African J. Agri. Res. 8: 6569-74.
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Pigatto, J.A.T.,Hunning, P.S.,Pereira, F.Q., Almeida, A.C.R.V.,Gomes, C., Albuquerque, L. and Driemeier, D. (2010). Corneal squamous cell carcinoma in a dog. Acta. Sci. Vet. 38: 197-200.
Singh,K.P.,Aswathy, G.,Singh, R.,Chandra, D. and Somavansi,R.(2013). Squamous cell carcinoma of eye in horse-Acase report. Indian J.Vet. Pathol. 37: 87-88.
Song, C.H., Ku, S.K.Jang, H.S.,Kye, E.Y.,Yun, S.H.,Jang, K.H. and Kwon, Y.S. (2012). Eyelid squamous cell carcinoma in a dog. Pak. Vet. J. 32: 474-76.
Takiyama, N.,Terasaki, E. and Uechi, M. (2010). Corneal squamous cell carcinoma in two dogs. Vet. Opthalmol. 13: 266-69.
Withrow S.J. and Vail, D.M. (2007). Ocular tumors. In: Withrow & MacEwen's Small Animal Clinical Oncology. 4th Edn., Saunders Elsevier, St Louis, USA, p. 686-98.
Neeraj Kumar Gangwar (1), Vivek Malik (2) and Rahul Kumar (3)
Department of Veterinary Pathology
College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry
Pt. Deen Dayal Upadhyay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalaya
Avam Go Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU)
Mathura - 281001 (Uttar Pradesh)
(1.) Assistant Professor and Correspionding author.
(2.) Assistant Professor, Department of Veterinary Surgery
(3.) Assistant Professor
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|Title Annotation:||Short Communication|
|Author:||Gangwar, Neeraj Kumar; Malik, Vivek; Kumar, Rahul|
|Article Type:||Clinical report|
|Date:||Jul 1, 2016|
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