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Surgical Management of Obstructive Urolithiasis in a Ongole calf.


Obstructive urolithiasis is a painful condition in calves and animals with prolonged obstruction have high morbidity and associated with mortality due to subsequent uraemia. Young goats and calves are frequently affected with the condition (Amarpal et al., 2005). Tube cystostomy together with medical dissolution of calculi is considered as an effective technique for resolution of obstructive urolithiasis in small ruminants (Ewoldt et al., 2006).

Clinical Presentation and Treatment

A three months old Ongole calf with history of urinary retention for forty eight hours was presented for treatment. Animal was dehydrated with abdominal distension and alkaline pH of abdominal fluid (aspirated with 16G needle) (Fig. 1). The calf was diagnosed to be case of obstructive urolithiasis and animal was prepared for tube cystotomy. Animal was placed in right lateral recumbency with flexed and abducted left hind limb. Tube cystostomy procedure was performed using Foley's catheter FG 14a (uro-cath) under lumbosacral spinal anaesthesia and linear infiltration using 2% Lignocaine hcl in the left caudal paramedian site. A linear skin incision was made anterior to the rudimentary teat; peritoneal cavity was entered by separating the abdominal muscles and incising the peritoneum. Bladder was located and found intact (Fig. 2). A subcutaneous tunnel parallel to prepuce was made through which Foleys catheter was passed from outside into the abdominal cavity where the catheter tip was held in a stilette and stabbed into the bladder. And when the urine flow noticed through the catheter, catheter's bulb was inflated with Normal Saline and a purse string suture placed around the site of insertion of the Foleys catheter into the bladder. And the abdominal muscles closed with chromic catgut and skin closed with nylon.

Post-operatively the calf was medicated with [Intacef.sup.a] @ 20mg/kg. b.wt. I/M, [Melonex.sup.a] (Meloxicam) @ 0.24 mg/kg b.wt. I/M, along with Ammonium chloride @15gm orally for seven days.

Results and Discussion

The calf started passing urine from penis on eighth day and made an uneventful recovery and catheter was removed on the tenth day. The advantages of tube cystostomy are immediate evacuation of urinary bladder and relief from pain with intact urinary bladder and urethra and immediate dribbling of urine from catheter with ruptured urinary bladder (Kushwaha et al., 2011). Ammonium chloride acts as urinary acidifier to prevent recurrence of the urolithiasis.


The authors are thankful to the Director of Animal Husbandry, Andhra Pradesh for providing the necessary facilities to carry out the work.


Kushwaha, R.B., Gupta, A.K., Dwivedi, D.K. and Sharma, A. (2011). Obstructive Urolithiasis in Small Ruminants and its Surgical management. Intas Polivet 12: 359-62.

Amarpal, Kinjavdekar, P., Aithal, H.P., Singh, T.,Singh, M., Kushwaha, R.B., Thakur, K.Pathak, R., Pawde, A.M., Pratap, K. and Singh, G.R. (2005). Evaluation of tube cystotomy for the management of obstructive urolithiasis in buffalo calves. Indian J. Vet. Surg. 26: 134.

Ewoldt, J.M., Anderson, D.E., Miesner, M.D. and Saville, W.J. (2006). Short-and long-term outcome and factors predicting survival after surgical tube cystostomy for treatment of obstructive urolithiasis in small ruminants. Vet. Surg. 35: 417-22.

Dr. Ranganath resumes charge as Dean, Veterinary College, Hassan

Sridhar Remala, Srinivas Yeturi and S. Bhaskara RamaRaju Sagi (1)

Disease Diagnostic Laboratory State Institute of Animal Health (SIAH) Department of Animal Husbandry Tanuku - 534211 (Andhra Pradesh)

(1.) Veterinary Assistant Surgeon and Corresponding author. E-mail:

(a) - Brand of Intas Animal Health, Ahmedabad

On 29th September' 2017, Dr. L. Ranganath resumed charge as Dean, Veterinary College, Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University (KVAFSU), Hassan, Karnataka. Prior to the same, he was Professor and Head, Department of Surgery and Radiology, Veterinary College, KVAFSU, Bengaluru. Prof. Ranganath did his graduation and post graduation in Veterinary Surgery form University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Bengaluru and doctorate from Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (TANUVAS), Chennai. He is Fellow of Indian Society of Veterinary Surgery (FISVS) and Indian Society of Advancement of Canine Practice (FISACP). He has guided more than forty postgraduate and five doctorate students and has about 200 research publications to his credit.

Intas Polivet and the Indian Veterinary community congratulates him for his endeavors for development of Veterinary clinical practice in Bengaluru city as well as Karnataka and wishes him all the best for all future efforts for strengthening Hassan Veterinary College in particular and KVAFSU in general.
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Title Annotation:Short Communication
Author:Remala, Sridhar; Yeturi, Srinivas; Sagi, S. Bhaskara RamaRaju
Publication:Intas Polivet
Article Type:Clinical report
Date:Jul 1, 2017
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