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Surgical Management of Cervical Tumour in a Cow.


The incidence of mesenchymal tumors arising from reproductive tract of large animals is relatively low (Anderson and Sandison, 1969). Among them leiomyoma is a nodular tumor, of firm consistency, brown colour, being reported in cattle and cats, more frequently in dogs. In general, cervical tumors are identical to uterine neoplasms. These are classified as fibroma, leiomyoma, sarcoma and unclassified tumors (Kennedy and Miller, 1993). Tumors of cervix occur vary occasionally. Leiomyomas and to lesser extent fibromas are the most common of these lesions. These cervical tumours are benign tumors and cause mechanical interference.

History and Clinical Observations

A four years old indigenous cow was presented with large hanging mass from vagina (Fig.1). History revealed that the cow normally parturited a calf without any obstacle and placenta was detached from uterus within three hours of delivery. After that the mass was protruded from the vagina. Per-vagianl examination revealed that the mass was attached with cervix of cow. The mass was solid, nearly rectangular in shape, well circumscribed, brownish coloured and encapsulated. Tentatively, it was diagnosed as a tumor mass and surgical correction was planned.

Treatment and Discussion

The animal was restrained in standing position and epidural anaesthesia was given with 10 ml of 2% Lignocaine hydrochloride solution. The mass was washed with 1% Potassium permanganate solution. The mass was retracted outside and clamped using artery forceps on the caudal aspect of mass. The major blood vessels were ligated by chromic catgut no. 2. Then circumferential incision was given around the base of the tumor mass and the mass was surgically removed (Fig. 2). A small section of tumor mass was fixed in 10% formaline saline and sent for histopathological examination. Post-operatively antibiotic Ceftriaxone (Intacef (a))@10mg/kg b. wt was given for 6 days and Meloxicam (Melonex (a)) @ 0.2mg/kg b. wt. for 3 days parenterally. The Haematoxylin and Eosin staining of the sections of the mass revealed whorls and bundles of elongated smooth muscle cells that have oval shaped nuclei and acidophilic cytoplasm which confirmed it as leiomyoma (Fig. 3).

Leiomyomas of genitalia occurs far more frequently in females than males (Meuten, 2002). A cervical leiomyoma is also described within the reproductive tract of a Holstein cow (Sendag et al., 2008). Macroscopically, leiomyoma can reach up to 10-12 cm in diameter without being invasive. Initially, when the tumor is small, it has a fleshy consistency which becomes firm or even hard as it develops due to stromal connective tissue (Noakes et al., 2009). In the present case, the dimension of tumor mass was 18 cm x 14 cm x 9.5 cm and weight about 1.5 kg. Histologically, the tumor is formed by smooth muscle fibers, anarchically arranged in mass of stromal connective tissue. Muscle fibers can have a vortex arrangement, under the form of nests, being covered with normal epithelium at surface (Roberts, 1971). In most cases, leiomyoma projects like nodular tumor into the uterine, vaginal or cervical lumen (Kennedy and Miller, 1993). Further, genital leiomyosarcomas in cattle are more frequently observed within the uterus (Cooper and Valentine, 2002). The most common clinical sign of vulvar, vaginal and cervical leiomyoma is protruding mass and blood discharge (Ramadan et al, 1993). In the present case, no blood discharge was observed. In this case, the tumor mass was still inside the reproductive tract which was not diagnosed earlier. Fortunately the mass was protruded after calving which made easier for diagnosis and treatment. There is no evidence that leiomyoma within female reproductive tract have a hormonal basis (Meuten, 2002). Leiomyomas are benign tumors which are non-invasive and do not metastasize (Hamali and Ashrafihelan , 2010).


Anderson, L.J. and Sandison, A.T. (1969). Tumours of the female genitalia in cattle, sheep, and pigs found in a British abattoir survey. J. Comparat. Pathol. 79: 53-63.

Cooper, B.J. and Valentine, B.A. (2002). Tumors of muscle. Tumors in Domestic Animals. Iowa State University. p.319-63.

Hamali, H. and Ashrafihelan, J. (2010). Vaginal fibrosarcoma in cow. Internat'l J. Vet. Res. 4: 225-28.

Kennedy, P.C. and Miller, R.B. (1993). The Female Genital System. In: Jubb, Kennedy, Palmer, editors. Pathology of Domestic Animals. Academic Press; New-York. p. 349-70.

Meuten, J.D. (2002). Tumors in Domestic Aanimals. 4th Eds., Blackwell Publishing Company, Iowa State Press, USA. p. 334.

Noakes , D.E., Parkinson, T.J. and England, G.C.W. (2009). Maternal dystocia: Causes and Treatment. In: Arthur's Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics, 9th Edition, W.B. Saunders Company, Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

Ramadan, R.O., Abu-El Fadle, W.S. , Hassan, A.M.E., Bindary, M. and Gomaa, A. (1993). Vaginal leiomyoma in a cow. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 28: 39.

Roberts, S.J. (1971). Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital Diseases, 2nd Edn., CBS Publishers, New Delhi, India.

Sendag, S., Cetina. Y., Alana, M., Ilhana, F., Eskia, F. and Wehrendb, A. (2008). Cervical leiomyoma in a dairy cattle. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 103:355.

Swagat Panda (1), Sidhartha Sankar Behera (2) and Sadananda Nayak (3)

Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology (OUAT) Bhubaneswar - 751003 (Odisha)

(1.) Veterinary Officer, Mobile Veterinary Unit, Balisankara, Sundargarh, Odisha

(2.) Assistant Professor, Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology,

(3.) Retired Professor/ Head and Corresponding author. E-mail: prof_snayak

(a) - Brand of Intas Animal Health, Ahmedabad
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Author:Panda, Swagat; Behera, Sidhartha Sankar; Nayak, Sadananda
Publication:Intas Polivet
Article Type:Report
Date:Jul 1, 2017
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