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Surgical Correction of Ankyloblepharon Filiforme Adnatum - A Congenital Abnormality of Eyelids in a Pup.

Abstract

A three months old Spitz pup was presented with history of incomplete opening of eyelids due to a fibrous band connecting the eyelids. The condition was diagnosed as Ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum and managed surgically.

Keywords: Ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum; congenital abnormality; eyelid

Introduction

The eyelid opening is almost completely closed at birth in dogs and cats. There is only a pin point opening at medial canthus. Lids open during the first 10-15 days. Delayed or incomplete opening is occasionally seen in dogs (Basher, 2003). Ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (AFA) is a rare benign congenital abnormality of eyelids characterized by single or multiple bands of fibrous tissue joining the upper and lower eyelids either unilaterally or bilaterally. These connecting strands were found to consist of vascularized central core surrounded by stratified squamous epithelium (Judge et al.,1929). It is differentiated from pathologic Ankyloblepharon which is reported to occur in pups which is characterized by failure of the eyelids to separate even after 10-14 days and in which there is complete fusion of eyelids (Basher, 2003). It can occur as an isolated finding or as part of well-defined syndromes. It may also be associated with hydrocephalus, imperforate anus, patent ductus arteriosus (Avi Rubinov et al., 2015; Gruener and Mehat, 2009 and Williams et al., 2007). Surgery to free these adhesions should be performed as soon as possible to prevent the risk of occlusional amblyopia (Gruener and Mehat, 2009 and Mohamed et al., 2003).

The aetiology of AFA is unknown, but failure of apoptosis at a critical stage in eyelid development has been suggested (Mohamed et al., 2003).

Clinical Observations and Treatment

A three months old Spitz pup was presented with history of incomplete opening of eyelids. Ophthalmic examination of right eye revealed a band of fibrous tissue connecting the eyelids. The band was severed at points of insertion using ophthalmic scissors. Minimal bleeding was noticed which was controlled with pressure with gauze sponge soaked in normal saline. The eye was flushed with warm normal saline. The pup recovered uneventfully. No other congenital abnormalities were noted.

Discussion

Ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum is a rare benign congenital abnormality of eyelids characterized by single or multiple bands of fibrous tissue joining upper and lower eyelids either unilaterally or bilaterally. In the present case, there was a single band of tissue connecting the eyelids. The aetiology of AFA is unknown, but failure of apoptosis at a critical stage in eyelid development has been suggested. Surgery to free these adhesions should be performed as soon as possible to prevent the risk of occlusional amblyopia (AviRubinov et al., 2015).

Summary

Ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum is a rare benign congenital abnormality of eyelids characterized by single or multiple bands of fibrous tissue joining upper and lower eyelids either unilaterally or bilaterally. It has been reported to occur rarely in humans. A rare case of ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum in a Spitz pup is reported. To our knowledge this is the first known report of this condition in dogs. The fibrous band was severed at points of insertion leading to uneventful recovery. The vision was normal and pup appeared healthy and no other congenital abnormalities were noted.

Conclusion

Ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum a rare benign congenital abnormality of eyelids reported to occur rarely in humans was reported in a three months old Spitz dog. Surgery to free these adhesions should be performed as soon as possible to prevent the risk of occlusional amblyopia. Its presence should also alert the clinician to look for other congenital abnormalities.

References

AviRubinov, NirSeider, EedyMezer, LironBerkovitz, Eytan Z. Blumenthal and Imad R. Makhoul. (2015). Ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum. IMAJ. 17: 16.

Basher, T. (2003). Surgery of the eyelids. Textbook of Small Animal Surgery, 3rd ed. Douglass Slatter, Saunders. p.1304.

Gruener, A.M. and Mehat, M.S. (2009). A newborn with Ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum - A case report. Cases J. 2: 8146.

Judge, H., Mott, W. and Gabriels, J. (1929). Ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum. Arch Ophthalmol. 2:702-8.

Mohamed, Y.H., Gong, H. and Amemiya, T. (2003). Role of apoptosis in eyelid development. Exp Eye Res 76:115-23.

Williams, M.A., White, S.T. and McGinnity, G. (2007). Ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum. Arch Dis Child 92:73-74.

C. Latha (1) and J. Radhakrishna Rao (2)

Veterinary Hospital P.V. Narasimha Rao Telangana Veterinary University Warangal - 506007 (Telangana).

(1.) Assistant Professor and Corresponding author. E-mail: drlatha276@gmail.com

(2.) Assistant Professor
3rd Regulators - Industry Interactive Meet at IVRI
On 6th December, Division of Standarization,
Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) organised the 3rd
consecutive 'Annual Interaction Meet' between Regulators and Veterinary
companies engaged in manufacturing and imports of Veterinary
biologicals for food producing and companion animals. The interactive
meet was held under the leadership of Dr. Ashok K. Tiwari, Head,
Biological Standardisation Division, IVRI and with the joint efforts of
Indian Federation of Animal Health Companies (INFAH). The meet was
attended by around than 70 members representing private Veterinary
biological industry; Indian Pharmacopeia Commission (IPC), Ghaziabad;
State Biological production units and other associated stakeholders.
Dr. Rishendra Verma; Dr. R.P. Singh, Dr. Pranab Dhar and Dr. D.K. Dey,
eminent Veterinarians in the history of development and
standardization of Veterinary biologicals in India also graced the
occasion and interacted during the discussion on monographs of
Veterinary biologicals for inclusion in Indian Pharmacopeia.
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Title Annotation:Short Communication
Author:Latha, C.; Rao, J. Radhakrishna
Publication:Intas Polivet
Article Type:Report
Date:Jul 1, 2016
Words:876
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