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Sugar industry in Indonesia.

Current Issues

The country's sugar industry has declined in the past decade both in production and plantation areas despite improvement in the past two years.

The country's sugar production in the past decade shrank by 1,8% annually on the average and the plantations have not changed from 340,000 hectares in the past five years, The sugar content is also declining--with productivity down from 76.9 tons per hectares in 1990s to 62.7 tons in the 2000s.

Hoping to improve the performance of the industry, the government has announced plan to revitalize the industry with a production target set at 1 million tons in 2009.

Revitalization is aimed at increasing the production capacity of sugar factories, productivity and content of sugarcane and expansion of plantation.

At least 20 sugar factories have been proposed by industrialists to be included in the revitalization program, which is expected to have support from the banking industry. Revitalization of the 20 factories also including expansion of plantations is estimated to cost Rp 4.13 trillion.

Meanwhile the country's products of doubled refined sugar as a basic material for food and beverage processing industries are facing imported products, which are more competitive in prices.

Large imports of cheaper in price doubled refined sugar also have impact on the market of consumption sugar in the country.

Structure of sugar industry

Acreage of sugar plantations expanded

The biggest problem faced by the country sugar industry is shortage in supply of basic material as a result of shrinking plantation areas and the productivity of plantations.

Data at the Directorate General of Plantation Produciton Development show that in the past nine years, sugar plantations and productivity have declined significantly.

Many sugar factories, therefore, have operated below their installed capacity leaving large idle capacity. The industry, therefore, has low efficiency. A number of sugar factories in Java have a milling capacity of 23.8 million tons of cane a year but they have only a supply of 12.8 million tons of cane a year. As a result they operate only at around 53.8% of their capacity.

Sugar factories outside Java have a processing capacity of 14.2 million tons of cane but annual supply of basic materials averages only 8.6 million tons leaving idle capacity of 39.4%.

Sugar plantations in areas are still dominated by smallholders plantations accounting for 50% of the total plantaiton areas.

Expansion of sugar plantations began in 2004 to 344,793 hectares up from 335,725 hectares in 2003. The plantations expanded further to 422,734 hectares in 2005 after the government set a target to achieve self sufficiency in 2007.

Sugar content of cane remains low

The sugar content of canes or the productivity of plantations has remained low in the past several years.

In 2000, cane sugar content was 7.04% down to the lowest level of 5.85% in 2001. In 2002, it began to rise to reach 7.57% in 2004, before declining slightly to 7.60% in 2006.

More than 50% of sugar factories older than 100 years

It has been a long known fact that the country's sugar industry has been outdated in technology using old machines, therefore, no longer efficient. The cane content fell to only around 6%-8% from 12% when the country was known as the world's largest sugar producer during the Ducth colonial time. Revitalization, therefore, has been too late. Around 30 units of 59 sugar factories in the country have been more than 100 years in age.

The oldest is the Gending sugar factory in East Java coming on line in 1830 now having a milling capacity of 1,300 tons of sugarcane a day.

Most sugar factories in the country use the process of carbonization and treatment with sulfite turning out sugar with color of IU (ICUMSA) around 110-370.


The country's sugar production has tended to decline in the past 13 years--from 2,453,881 tons in 1994 to 1,488,269 tons in 1998 before rising to 2,051,645 tons in 2004 and to 2,314,712 tons in 2006.

The previous target of achieving self sufficiency in 2007, however, failed. The government postponed the target year to 2009.

PTPN X and PTPN XI, largest producers

Sugar industry is dominated by state companies. There are six state companies producing sugar. They are PT Perkebunann plantationsNusantara (PTPN)--PTPN II, VII, IX, X, XI, and XIV.

The six companies contributed 70% to the country's total production of sugar in 2003. PTPN X and XI in East Java are the largest accounting for 35% of the country's total production.

In 2004, sugar production of PTPN, which operates 17 factories totaled 353,760 tons. The production increased as a result of replanting with new seedlings.

Produksi PTPN X 's produciton also increased substantially from 287,000 tons in 2003 to 350,358 tons in 2004. Increase was recorde dby both state and private companies.

Sugar production of Rajawali Nusantara Indonesia (PT Rajawali Nusantara Indonesia I) in Surabaya rose from 106,698 tons in 2003 to 126,694 tons in 2004. The increase was attributable to expansion of plantations.

Increase in the sugar production recorded by RNI helped offset losses suffered by two of its sugar factories operated by Rajawali II in Cirebon--PG Karang Suwung and PG Jati Tujuh.

PT Gunung Madu Plantation and PT Gula Putih Mataram in Lampung also posted sharp increases of 22.3% and 62% respectively in 2004.

Imports of sugar, 2002-2006

The country's imports of sugar has tended to increase since 2002 to follow growing demand on the domestic market. In 2002, imports reached 970,926 tons, up to 1,119,790 tons in 2004 and to a peak of 1.98 million tons in 2005 before falling to 1,543,284 tons, valued at US$ 589,976,000 in 2006.

Imports 2007 only 47% of plan

The government allows imports up to 2.91 million tons this year but realization has only reached 47% or 1.38 million tons.

Based on data at the Trade Ministry, by Sept. 1, 2007, imports of refined sugar reached 99.71% of the import quota of 450,000 tons.

Imports of double refined sugar totaled only 552,650 tons or 48% of the quota set for it.

Imports of raw sugar has also been not yet up to target. Raw sugar import is needed to utilizie idle capacity of sugar factories in the country. Raw sugar is divided into three categories--as basic material for white crystal sugar, as basic material for double refined sugar and for MSG industry. See the following table.

Sugar Exports

Sugar exports have increased in the past several years to peak at 9,933 tons in 2004 after declining to 695 tons in 2003 from 816 tons in 2002.

Replanting and good prices in international market contributed to the surge in the exports in 2004. See the following table.

Government's policy

The government has issued series of regulations on sugar trade and industry including import duties as it is categoriuzed as a strategic commodity in the country.

It is not easy to issue regulations on sugar sector as it concerns growers and consumers representing large groups of people with conflicting interests. See the following table.

World's sugar industry and trade

In general, the world's sugar production has continued to increase since 2003. Brazil is he world's largest producer with production rising from 26.4 million tons in 2003, to 28.175 million tons in 2005 and 28.7 million tons in 2006--or 19.42% of the world's total production.

The European Union has recorded a decline in production lagely because of shrinking plantation areas and consumption. Similarly a decline has been recorded by the United States and Australia.

The United States recorded a decline in production from 7,146 million tons in 2005 to 6,824 million tons in 2006 and Australia from 5,388 million tons to 5.2 million tons. India, which is the second largest producer of sugar in the world has a 14.37% share of the world's total production increased its produciton from 14,2 million tons in 2005 to 18.4 million tons in 2006 and China from 9.8 million tons to 10.5 million tons. See the following table.

Sugar Consumption in developing nations tends to rise

Sugar consumption in India, China, Pakistan, Indonesia and other developing nations has increased to follow the population and economic growth.

World's sugar policy protective

Sugar producing countries in the world including Indonesia have their own policies to protect their sugar industry. Major producers and consumers provide heavy subsidy and protection causing market distortion in the the world. Sugar prices in the world averaged US$ 8.36/lb in he past decade far below the production cost of US$ 17.46/lb.

Subsidy in the Unted States accounts for 67% of income of sugar producers. The United State uses Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (2002 Farm Act) as the legal basis for its subsidy policy. Among important policies used to protect sugar farmers include price support loan, tariff-rate quota, export subsidy, re-export programs, and payment-in-kind.

West Europe has worst distortion in sugar market. Government's interventions is found in almost all aspects in industry and trade. High import duties are slapped to protect domestic farmers.

Marketing aspects

Market size

The market size of sugar industry in Indonesia has expanded from year to year--from 2,725,543 tons in 2002 to 2,628,124 in 2003 and to a peak of 4,221,056 tons in 2005.

Sugar consumption low

Sugar consumers are households as direct consumers and industries as indirect consumers. Industries need sugar as basic material for their manufactured products such as food and beverage products.

Consumption of househod sugar in the country is low compared with in other neighboring countries. Per capita consumption in the country is only 13-14 kg a year as agains the world's average of 20 kg a year.

The low per capita consumption is attributable to weak purchasing power of the people.

Higher increase in sugar consumption in the country is recorded in the manufacturing sector. See the following table.

Sugar stocks

The prices of sugar in local market average Rp 6,500 per kg. The price is relatively expensive for the low income people. The high prices on the domestic market followed the prevailing prices in internaitonbal market when the price rose becasue of shortfall in supply.

The increase in the price of sugar in international market followed a decline in production in major producing countries like the Philippines, Thailand, China and India.

Long drought last year also caused a decline in domestic production. The trade director general of the home affairs ministry said the country's stock is sufficient until the end of this year despite a deficit of 600,000 tons including 200,000 tons for the industry.

In order to cover the deficit the government issued two decisions to import white sugar for buffer stock until May 2008. Stock by Sept. 1, 2007 totaled 700,050 tons, including 52% held by sugar factories, 34% held by traders and 9% held by farmers.

Sugar trade regulation maintained

Because of the strategic function of sugar, the government always intervenes in sugar marketing especially in imports. In the past the government's intervention was even greater by giving the monopoly of sugar imports to state-run Board of Logistics (Bulog).

Since 1998, the government launched a series of deregulation measures such as abolition of sugar subsidy and the use of sugar basic price.

In February 1999, the import duty on sugar was abolished at the same time with the abolition of Bulog's import monopoly.

In September 2002, the trade and industry minister issued a decision regulating again sugar trade by imposing import restriction.

Under the regulation, imports are allowed only by sugar producers and registered importers licensed by he trade minister. Importer producers are sate sugar factories and registered importers are companies needing sugar for basic material. The regulation was maintained with a new decision of the trade minister in September, 2007 that imports by sugar factories and registered importers are allowed only when the price of sugar on the domestic market exceeds Rp4,900 a kg.

Double refined sugar a threat to stability of consumer sugar market

Producers of cane based sugar repeated their opposition to entry of double refined sugar to the market of sugar consumption. The protest came with the marketing problem faced by local producers of double refined sugar because of imports of double refined sugar with low prices.

According to Corporate Secretary of PT Perkebunan Nusantara (PTPN) XI Adig Suwandi, the decline in the price of double refined sugar will likely result in penetration of imported double refined sugar to the market of consumption sugar.

Local products of double refined sugar utilizing the processing facility of imported raw sugar is fit only as basic material for food and beverage industries. However, as the price of sugar is low in the world market, food and beverage producers tend to import refined sugar directly from producers abroad especially as the quality of imported products is superior.

Currently domestic production of double refined sugar average 1.1 million tons a year exceeding domestic requirement. Therefore, even without import, the local producers have to compete tightly on the domestic market.

Sugar distribution

Sugar produced in the country is generally sent to the market via sugar distributors. Private sugar factories use their won distributors and state sugar factories hold tender to selec distributors.

Distribution is also made through networks of modern retail outlets such as hypermarkets, supermarkets and minimakets. Hero supermarket for example, which has 60 outlets, buys 80 tons of sugar every month to be distributed through its chain stores. Indomaret, which has 600 minimarts outlets buys around 200 tons a month, Carrefour Hypermarket needs or sells around 8 tons of sugar a month for each of its outlets. However, distribution via the modern market outlets is still much smaller than distribution by traditional retailers. See the following diagram.


As already said that the government has issued a regulation restricting distribution of imported sugar and bans interisland trade of sugar in a bid to prevent smuggling into the country.

Sugar factories owned by the state such as PTP Nusantara, which is licensed to import sugar are required to hold tender to select distributors for its imported sugar.

The state company often cooperates with whole traders in financing sugar imports. The compensation for the trader is the right to handle the distribution of imported sugar on the domestic market.

In 2004, PTPN IX and X cooperated with INKUD, and PT RNI cooperated with PT Citra Gemini Mulia. Other sugar distributors such as PT Kentjana Makmur dan PT Berlian Penta, often cooperate in importing sugar with state sugar factories.


Sugar price developments

Sugar is an important commodity in international market. Major sugar producers in the world include Brazil, India, the United States, West Europe, Australia, and Thailand.

Major consumers or importing countries include China, Indonesia, and svereal former Soviet republics. The prices of sugar in the world market tend to fluctuate. The prices fell to the rock bottom in 2002. Later with shortfall in supply the price scaled up to peak in 2005.

Deficit in production was recorded in three succeeding years until 2005 and growing demand from ethanol industry in Brazil was said to be the cause of the surge in the price.

FAO in 2004, predicted that until 2010, the price of that commodity will remain high at around US$ 17-21 per kg in international market.


Sugar price development on the domestic market

The condition in international market has strong impact on the domestic market despite government's attempt to control the price with a series of regulations. The policies are not effective enough to control the prices on the domestic market after the monopoly of Bulog was abolished in 1998.


The price of sugar at the level of farmers are often controlled by the government through a type of basic price.

Currently the basic price has been modified into a kind of minimum price guaranteed by private investors. If the price of farmers' sugar through an auction is higher than the minimum price, the excess is divided equally between the farmers and the investor.

In the milling season of 2005, the minimum price was set at Rp 3,800/kg. Meanwhile, the prices on the domestic market soared to exceed the government set price. For example, the retail price in 2005 was Rp 5,744 per kg.

Analysis of business in cane sugar industry

Construction of a sugar factory with a processing capacity of 4,000 to 10,000 tons of sugarcane per day (TCD) will cost around Rp 900 billion to Rp1 trillion with annual operating cost of Rp 45 billion--Rp 50 billion.

Construction of an ethanol factory with a production capacity of 60 kiloliters per day will cost Rp 133 billion to Rp 200 billion. Building a particle board factory with machines from Europe or China with a capacity of 72 square meters per hour will cost around Rp 95 billion to Rp 157 billion with operaitng cost of Rp 25 billion to Rp 34 billion a year.

Industry that also follows the growing trend is cogeneration (electricity) industry. Construciton of cogeneration plant with a capacity of 6,000 kwh, will cost Rp 45 billion with annual operating cost of Rp 9 billion.

Program to increase sugar production 1 million tons a year

In a bid to meet the target fo self sufficient in sugar supply in 2009, the government and sugar producers and consumers have drafted a plan to increase the country's sugar production by 1.3 million tons.

The additional production of 1.3 million tons is estimated based on the production capacity of the existing sugar factories, sugar plantations and sugar content.

The existing factories are expected to be able to increase production by 705,000 tons and new factories to be built will produce around 600,000 tons. In order to increase production, sugar plantations will be expanded from 409,000 hectares to 463,000 hectares or an addition of 54,000 hectares.

The expansion of plantations will include 33,000 hectares in Java and 21,000 hectares outside Java.

Investment requirement to increase productivity

Investment will be needed in the smallholder plantation, sugar factories and factories producing sugar derivatives and investment by the government.

Investment in the primary business sector is made by smallhodlers and companies. Investment by smallholders are expected in Java.

Based on a survey, Java has the potential to open 41,000 hectares of new sugar plantations mainly by smallholders with a total investment of Rp 599.4 billion.

Companies are expected to open plantations outside Java. The Sampoerna Group plans to build 40,000 hectares of sugar plantations in Merauke, Papua with an investment of around Rp 426 billion bringing the total investment in the primary business sector to more than Rp 1 trillion.

Total investment needed in sugar sector is estimated to reach Rp 6.817 trillion and the bulk or Rp 6.278 trillion of which are expected to be made by the corporate sector. The largest component of the investment is for two factories outside Java (likely in Merauke) to process cane produced from 40,000 hectares of plantation to be built by the Sampoerna Group with an investment of Rp 2 trillion.

Meanwhile, investment needed for the revitalization of 52 sugar factories in Java is estimated to reach Rp 2.163 trillion. Construciton of two ethanol plants, particle board plant and electric energy plant will need additional investment of more than Rp 1 trillion.

The investment needed by smallholders mainly for pumps and tractors, transport facility and procurement of seedlings will cost around Rp 538 billion.

Investment for infrastructure in roads and irrigation systems will be made by the government and companies totaling around Rp 208 billion and Rp 200 billion respectively or a total of Rp 408 billion.

Altogether, total investment needed will reach Rp 8.25 trillion. The largest part or Rp 6.9 trillion will be contributed by companies with smallholders contirbuting Rp 1.13 trillion and the government Rp 208 billion.

Largest investment potential in Papua

The largest investment of Rp3.437 trillion is more likely in Merauke, Papua to build 40,000 hectares of sugar plantation and two new sugar plants.

Considerable amount of investment is also needed in East Java for expansion of plantations by 29,235 hectares and construction of an ethanol plant, electric energy plant and particle board plant.

Investment for ethanol plant, energy plant and particle board plant is also potential in Lampung.

In West Java and Central Java investment will likely needed more for plantation expansion respectively 6,801 hectares and 3,964 hectares.

New Investment

PTPN IX to restructure 4 factories

PT Perkebunan Nusantara IX(PTPN IX) plans to restructure four of its eight sugar factories in 2008. The restructuring is expected to increase the selling value of the shares of the state company when it launches initial public offering (IPO) planned in 2010, its president said.

The processing capacity of the Mojor sugar factory in Sragen and the Rendeng factory Kudus, Central Java, will be expanded to 4,000 tons of cane and 2,600 tons of cane per day respectively.

The two other factories will have their old equipment replaced to be more efficient.

Investment for the capacity expansion of the two factories will be around Rp 190 billion and investment for the modernization of the equipment of the two other factories is around Rp 410 billion.

The state company also plans to build four units of bioethanol processing plants with a capacity of 18,000 liters per day and facility to process raw sugar into white sugar with a capacity of 400 tons per day.

PT Gunung Madu Plantations (GMP) to expand production capacity

PT Gunung Madu Plantation plans to invest Rp 200 billion this year to increase its sugar production capacity. Expansion of its factory in Gunung Batin, Central Lampung, is to be completed in 2008.

The processing capacity of the factory will be expanded to 2.2 million tons of cane a year in 2008 or equivalent to 205,500 tons of white sugar. The expansion will contribute significantly to the government's program to reach sugar self sufficiency in 2009. In 2010, the company's sugar production capacity is projected to reach 224,250 tons per year, with annual cane production of 2.4 million tons.

PT Sumatera Tonggi to build sugar plant in North Sumatra.

PT Sumatera Tonggi has been licensed by the Capital Investment Coordinating Board (BKPM) to build a sugar plant in North Sumatra with an investment of Rp 1.2 trillion.

Construction is already in progress and it is expected to be completed and operaitonal in 2008. The factory will have an annual production capacity of 500,000 tons. The company also plans to build its own power plant to guarantee power supply for the factory. North Sumatra is known to have serious shortage of power supply.

The company plans to import raw sugar as basic material from Australia and Thailand, to produce white sugar. It production is expected to be enough to supply sugar for the nothern part of Sumatra.

Meanwhile a number of other companies such as the Astra Group, and the Sinar Mas Group, also plan to build new sugar factories. Astra Group and Sinar Mas group plan to build integrated sugar industry to be operational in 2009. See the following table.

Prospects and Conclusion

An increase in the productivity of sugarcane could sitll be made through improvement of cultivation system and expantion of plantation. The country still has ample lands suitable for sugar plantations. The country has even the potential to become a major supplier of sugar to the world market. A number of foreign sugar experts have said Indonesia has that potential.

Indonesia is one of 33 countries lying in the IOR (Indian Ocean Rim), which accounts for 34% of the world's sugar production, 29% of the world's sugar consumption and 33% of the world's sugar exports.

Among the 33 countries 14 are sugar exporting countries. They are India, Pakistan, Madagascar, South Africa, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Sudan, Switzerland, Vietnam, Thailand, Mauritius, Australia, and Indonesia.

Indonesia, however, has become a major net importer of sugar. The climate in Indonesia is suitable for sugar plantation and the country is one of the richest in sugar genetic resources (germ plasm). The country, besides India, is believed to be the origin of the world's sugarcane.

According to the Indoensian Sugar Association (AGI), an initial study shows that the country has 2 million hectares of lands suitable for sugar plantations in its eastern regions. The lands include 800,000 hectares in Papua, 816,000 hectare sin Maluku and 198,000 hectares in Central Kalimantan.

Indonesia was once the world's second largest sugar suppliers to the world second only to Cuba.

The country also has a sugar factory in Lampung ranked among the most efficient sugar factiories in the world. The fact should encourage development of sugar industry in the country.
Table - 1
Sugar plantation areas by owners,

Year Plantation areas Ha

 Smallholders Government Private Total

1999 176,733 82,106 83,372 342,211
2000 171,279 64,133 105,248 340,660
2001 178,887 87,687 77,867 344,441
2002 196,509 79,975 74,238 350,722
2003 172,015 87,251 76,459 335,725
2004 184,283 78,205 82,305 344,793
2005 252,427 80,383 89,924 422,734
2006 262,093 80,593 90,636 433,322

Source: Agriculture Ministry

Table - 2
Sugar content of cane in Indonesia,
2000 - 2006

Year Content

2000 7.04
2001 5.85
2002 6.88
2003 7.21
2004 7.57
2005 7.65
2006 17.60

Source: Agriculture Ministry

Table - 3
Sugar factories, milling capacity, processing system
and operating start up

No. Companies / Sugar Milling Start Processing Milling
 factories capacity -up systems start


1. 1. PG Kuala Madu 4,000 1982 Treatment Jan/Feb
 with sulfite
2. 2. PG Sei 4,000 1983 Treatment Jan/Feb
 Semayang with sulfite
 Subtotal 18,000


3. 1. PG Bunga 6,000 1984 Treatment Apr/May
 Mayang with sulfite
4. 2. PG Cinta Manis 5,000 1984 Treatment Apr/May
 with sulfite
 Subtotal 11,000


5. 1. PG Jatibarang 2,050 1842 Treatment May/June
 with sulfite
6. 2. PG Pangka 1,830 1836 Treatment May/June
 with sulfite
7. 3. PG Sourceharjo 2,050 1861 Treatment May/June
 with sulfite
8. 4. PG Sragi 3,700 1836 Treatment May/June
 with sulfite
9. 5. PG Rendeng 2,850 1840 Treatment May/June
 with sulfite
10. 6. PG Gondang 1,620 1860 Carboni- May/June
 Baru zation
11. 7. PG Tasikmadu 3,650 1874 Carboni- Ma /June
12. 8. PG Mojosragen 2,950 1883 Treatment May/June
 with sulfite
 Subtotal 20,700


13. 1. PG Lestari 3,750 1909 Treatment June
 with sulfite
14. 2. PG Mrican 2,750 1939 Treatment June
 with sulfite
15. 3. PG Pesantren 5,250 1976 Treatment June
 Baru with sulfite
16. 4. PG Ngadirejo 5,250 1912 Treatment June
 with sulfite
17. 5. PG Mojo 2,250 1882 Treatment June
 panggung with sulfite
18. 6. PG Watutulis 2,000 1839 Treatment June
 with sulfite
19. 7. PG Tulagan 1,250 1848 Treatment June
 with sulfite
20. 8. PG Kremboong 1,350 1847 Treatment June
 with sulfite
21. 9. PG Gempolkrep 5,250 1912 Treatment June
 with sulfite
22. 10. PG Jombang 2,000 1895 Treatment June
 Baru with sulfite
23. 11. PG Cukir 2,750 1884 Treatment June
 Subtotal 33,850 with sulfite


24. 1. PG Sudhono 2,200 1888 Treatment May/June
 with sulfite
25. 2. PG Purwodadi 2,000 1832 Carboni- Ma /June
26. 3. PG Rejosari 2,000 1890 Treatment May/June
 with sulfite
27. 4. PG Pagottan 2,300 - Treatment May/June
 with sulfite
28. 5. PG Kanigoro 1,650 1894 Treatment June
 with sulfite
29. 6. PG Kedawung 3,000 1898 Treatment June
 with sulfite
30. 7. PG Wonolangan 1,250 1832 Treatment June
 with sulfite
31. 8. PG Gending 1,300 1830 Treatment June
 with sulfite
32. 9. PG Pajarakan 1,200 1885 Treatment June
 with sulfite
33. 10. PG Jatiroto 7,000 1905 Treatment June
 with sulfite
34. 11. PG Semboro 4,800 1938 DNKS June
35. 12. PG Wringin 1,100 1881 Treatment June
 Anom with sulfite
36. 13. PG Olean 1,000 1846 SISJ June
37. 14. PG Panji 1,800 1886 Treatment June
 with sulfite
38. 15. PG Asembagus 2,400 1891 Treatment June
 with sulfite
39. 16. PG Prajekan 2,450 1883 Treatment June
 with sulfite
 Subtotal 37,450


40. 1. PG Takalar 3,000 1987 Treatment Jul/Aug.
 with sulfite
41. 2. PG Bone 2,000 1975 Treatment Jul/Aug.
 with sulfite
42. 3. PG Caming 3,000 1986 Treatment Jul/Aug.
 with sulfite
 Subtotal 8,000



43. 1. PG Krebet 3,000 1906 Treatment June
 Baru I with sulfite
44. 2. PG Krebet 4,000 1976 Treatment June
 Baru II with sulfite
45. 3. PG Rejo Agung 4,500 1894 Carboni- June
 Baru zation
46. 4. PG Candi 2,000 1832 Treatment June
 with sulfite
 Subtotal 13,500


47. 1. PG Madukismo 3,500 1955 Treatment May/June
 with sulfite

48. 1. PG Sindanglaut 2,000 1896 Treatment May/June
 with sulfite
49. 2. PG Karang 1,400 1859 Treatment May/June
 suwung with sulfite
50. 3. PG Tersana 3,500 1896 Treatment May
 Baru with sulfite
51. 4. PG Jatitujuh 4,000 1975 Treatment May
 with sulfite
52. 5. PG Sindanglaut 3,500 1981 Treatment May
 with sulfite
 Subtotal 14,400


53. 1. PG Tolangohulo 8,000 1988 Treatment August
 with sulfite



54. 1. PG Kebon Agung 5,000 1905 Treatment May/June
 with sulfite
55. 2. PG Trangkil 3,000 1835 Treatment May/June
 with sulfite
 Subtotal 8,000


56. 1. PG Gunung Madu 12,000 1975 Treatment Apr/Car
 with sulfite boni


57. 1. PG Gula Putih 10,000 1983 Treatment Apr/May
 Mataram with sulfite
58. 2. PG Sweet Indo 9,000 1995 Treatment Apr/May
 Lam un with sulfite
59. 3. PG Indo Lam- 8,000 1996 Treatment Apr/May
 pung Perkasa with sulfite
 Subtotal 127,000

Source: AGI

Table - 4
Indonesia's sugar production, 1994 - 2006

Year Production Growth
 (tons) (%)

1994 2,453,881 -
1995 2,059,576 -16.06
1996 2,094,195 1.68
1997 2,191,986 4.66
1998 1,488,269 -32.10
1999 1,493,933 0.38
2000 1,690,004 13.12
2001 1,725,467 2.09
2002 1,755,433 1.73
2003 1,631,615 -7.05
2004 2,051,643 25.74
2005 2,241,742 9.26
2006 2,314,712 3.25

Source: Indonesian Sugar Council

Table - 5
Sugar production by companies,
2002 - 2006


Year 2002 2003

PG Rajawali II PT, 96,500 84,626
Jawa Barat
PTPN IX, 89,606 121,953
Jawa Tengah
PTPN X, Jawa 340,156 287,088
PTPN XI, Jawa 358,562 320,599
Kebon Agung, PT, 73,413 79,835
Madu Baru, PT 35,706 24,681
Rajawali I, PT 99,087 106,698
Subtotal 1,093,030 1,024,481

Outside Java
PTPN II, 52,226 26,786
North Sumatra
PTPN VII, Lampung 84,080 100,532
PTPN XIV, 34,646 29,161
South Sulawesi
PG Rajawali III, 27,263 34,937
Gunung Madu 147,287 151,737
Plantation, PT
Gula Putih 108,872 93,230
Mataram, PT
Sweet Indo 100,360 71,015
Lampung, PT
Indo Lampung 107,669 99,736
Perkasa, PT
Subtotal 662,403 607,134
Total 1,755,433 1,631,615

Year 2004 2005 2006

PG Rajawali II PT, 114,222 130.000 140,922
Jawa Barat
PTPN IX, 135,602 148.000 170,869
Jawa Tengah
PTPN X, Jawa 350,358 387.000 410,905
PTPN XI, Jawa 363,760 390.000 415,292
Kebon Agung, PT, 91,847 110.000 122,066
Madu Baru, PT 23,690 27.000 31,500
Rajawali I, PT 126,694 137.917 145,655
Subtotal 1,206,173 1,456,554

Outside Java
PTPN II, 13,456 42.000 70,465
North Sumatra
PTPN VII, Lampung 134,933 165.000 174,487
PTPN XIV, 27,614 32.000 36,292
South Sulawesi
PG Rajawali III, 185,644 30.000 47,085
Gunung Madu 151,294 185.000 197,000
Plantation, PT
Gula Putih 37,970 60.000 91,886
Mataram, PT
Sweet Indo 148,652 120,470
Lampung, PT
Indo Lampung 145,908 120,472
Perkasa, PT
Subtotal 845,470 975,329
Total 2,051,643 2,241,742 2,314,712

Source: AGI

Table - 6
Imports of refined sugar,

Year Sugar

 Volume Tons Value (US$ 000)

2002 970,926 198,638
2003 997,204 215,777
2004 1,119,790 262,813
2005 1,980,487 585,263
2006 1,543,284 589,876

Source: BPS, Plantation Directorate General of Agriculture Ministry

Table - 7
Imports of sugar, 2007

Type Import quota Realization (%)

White sugar 450,000 448,681 99.71
Double refined sugar 552,650 269,222 48
Raw sugar for
* White sugar 292,563 97,441 33.31
* Double refined sugar 1,419,700 510,113 35
* MSG industry 194,500 56,900 29
Subtotal 1,906,763 664,454 34.5
Total 2,909,413 1,382,357 47.5

Source: Various official sources

Table - 7
Exports of sugar,
2002 - 2006

Year Sugar
 Volume Value
 (tons) (US$ 000)

2002 816 503
2003 695 561
2004 9,933 1,922
2005 1,173 602
2006 1,480 982

Source: BPS, Plantation Directorate General

Table - 8
Government's policies on sugar industry

 SK/Keppres/Kepmen on Goals

Presidential decree Sugar procurement, To keep price
No, 43/1971, 14 July distribution, and stability of the
1971 marketing essential product

Letter of minister/ Controlling, Details about
state secretary No, supervision and Oresidential decree
B, 136/ABN distribution of No, 43/1971 covering
SEKNEG/3/74, 27 refined sugar state company sugar
March 1974 produced by non state

Presidential Sugar intensification To increase in sugar
Instruction No, (TRI) production and income
9/1975, 22 April 1975 of farmers

Decision of trade and Sugar domestic trade To guarantee
cooperative minister procurement and
No, 122/Kp/III/81, 12 distribution of sugar
March 1981 and increase in
 income of farmers

Decision of finance Determination of To guarantee price
minister No. 342/KMK, price of domestic and stability, foreign
011/1987 imported products of exchange and
 refined sugar adjustment of
 farmers' and factory

Law No, 12/1992 Plant cultivation To give freedom for
 farmers to grow crops
 with good market

Presidential Program to develop Providing role for
Instruction No. smallholders sugar business players in
5/1997, 29 December plantations free trade

Presidential Termination of Freedom for farmers
Instruction No. implementation of to select crop in
5/1998, 21 January Pres. Instruction No, line with the law No,
1998 5/1997 12/1992

Decision of trade Commodities of Improving efficiency
min. No, which imports are and distribution of
25/MPP/Kep/1/1998 regulated goods

Decision of forestry Determination of To prevent losses to
and plantation min. price of farmers' farmers and boost
No. 282/Kpts-IX/1999, share of sugar production
7 May 1999 production

Decision of trade Import regulation Reducing government's
minister No, budget through
363/MPP/Kep/8/1999, imports by sugar
'5 August 1999 producers

Decision of the trade Revoking decision of Abolition of import
min. No. 230/MPP/ the trade min. No. duty on sugar to
Kep/6/1999, 5 June 363/MPP/Kep/8/1999 protect domestic
1999 industry

Decision of finance Change in import Improvement of
minister No, duty effectiveness of
324/KMK,01/2002 import duties

Decision of trade Sugar import Import restriction by
minister No. Regulation allowing only
643/MPP/Kep/9/2002, producers and
'23 September 2002 registered importers
 to import that

Decision of the trade Improvement of Registered importers
min. No. sugar import required to forer-
527/MPP/Kep/9/2004 regulation stall the market and
 imports allowed only
 when the price is no
 less than Rp 3,410/kg

Source: Agriculture ministry, industry ministry

Table - 9
Production, share and production growth recorded
by main producers, 2004-2006

 Production (000 tons)

Countries 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06

Brazil 26,400 28,175 28,700
Union (EU) 17,132 21,825 21,233
India 15,150 14,210 18,430
China 10,734 9,826 10,500
USA 7,847 7,146 6,824
Thailand 7,010 5,187 4,330
Mexico 5,330 6,149 6,000
Australia 5,178 5,388 5,200
Pakistan 4,047 2,937 2,890
Cuba 2,300 2,100 2,300
World 14,100 142,500 147,800

 Share Growth (%)
 2003/04- 2004/05-
Countries (%) 2004/05 2005/06

Brazil 19.42 6.7 1.9
Union (EU) 14.37 27.4 -2.7
India 12.47 -6.2 29.7
China 7.10 -8.5 6.9
USA 4.62 -8.9 -4.5
Thailand 2.93 -26.0 -16.5
Mexico 4.06 15.4 -2.4
Australia 3.52 4.1 -3.5
Pakistan 1.96 -27.4 -1.6
Cuba 1.56 -8.7 9.5
World 100.00 1.0 3.7

Source: USDA

Table - 10
Sugar consumption, share and growth in
major consuming countries, 2004 - 2006

Countries Production (000 tons)

 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06

India 18,810 19,500 19,800
EU 14,358 17,626 17,525
China 11,600 11,600 11,700
Brazil 10,400 10,600 10,800
USA 8,971 9,269 9,267
Russia 6,100 6,300 6,450
Mexico 5,600 5,424 5,482
Pakistan 3,600 3,750 3,850
Indonesia 3,400 3,550 3,800
Japan 2,247 2,263 2,250
World 143,300 145,100 148,000

Countries Share Growth (%)
 2003/04- 2004/05-
 (%) 2004/05 2005/06

India 13.38 3.7 1.5
EU 11.84 22.8 -0.6
China 7.91 0.0 0.9
Brazil 7.30 1.9 1.9
USA 6.26 3.3 0.0
Russia 4.36 3.3 2.4
Mexico 3.70 -0.3 1.1
Pakistan 2.60 4.2 2.7
Indonesia 2.57 4.4 7.0
Japan 1.52 0.7 -0.6
World 100 1.3 2.0

Source: USDA

Table - 11
Policy in sugar industry in several countries

 Countries Basic policies Policy essence

Brazil Domestic/price Support Price support (1998)
 (US$ 743 million/year)

India Essential Commodities
 ACT 1,955

 Production Allocation and produciton
 control i (levy sugar)

 Distribution Priceds within reach of
 consumers (ration card)

 Partial Price Control Cane and sugar price
 guarantee (levy price and
 market price)

Thailand Price support Price support

 Production management Production control/quota

Japan Price guarantee (Y 71

 High import duty Restricting imports

West Europe CAP

 Price support Price guarantee

 Production Production control/quota

 TRQ Import control

 Safe guards Mechanism Import control

 Export Subsidy Reducing offer on
 domestic market

United States 2002 Farm Act and FAIR
 ACT of 1996 (US$ 1.9

 Price Support Price guarantee & credit

 Tariff-Rate Quota Import control

 Export Subsidy

 Re-export program Compensation for industry
 using sugar basic

 Payment-in-Kind Reducing distortion in

Source: Agriculture Ministry, Industry Ministry

Table - 12
Market size of sugar, 2002 - 2006

Year Production Imports Exports
 (Tons) (Tons) (Tons)

2002 1,755,433 970,926 816
2003 1,631,615 997,204 695
2004 2,051,643 1,119,790 9,933
2005 2,241,742 1,980,487 1,173
2006 2,314,712 1,543,284 1,480

Year Market size
 (Tons) * (US$ 000)

2002 2,725,543 1,678,934
2003 2,628,124 2,120,896
2004 3,161,500 2,213,050
2005 4,221,056 2,165,402
2006 3,856,516 2,556,870

Source: Industry ministry

* equivalent to export price

Table - 13
Estimate of consumption by sectors, 2006

 (000 tons)

Description 2006

Direct consumption by household/ people 2,695,705
Consumption by industry
--Food and beverage industry 898,568
--Other industry 262,243
Consumption by industrial sector 1,160,811
Total consumption of sugar 3,856,516

Source: Data Consult

Table - 14
Average retail prices of sugar in Indonesia

Year Sugar prices on the average

2000 3,027
2001 3,822
2002 3,636
2003 4,319
2004 4,243
2005 5,744
2006 5,975

Source: Agriculture Ministry

Table - 15
Analysis of several cane-based industries

Industries Capacity Cost (Rp billion)
 Investment Operating cost

Sugar plant 4,000-10,000 TCD 900 - 1000 45 - 50

Ethanol 60 kl/day 133 - 200 39

Particle Board (Ex 72 m3 per hour 95 - 157 25 - 34
Europe or China)

Cogeneration 6,000 kWh 45 9

Source: Agriculture ministry

Table - 16
Targets for expansion of plantation, increase in production
and productivity, 2007-2009

 Description Java Outside Indonesia
Harvest area (Ha)
Year2007 264,532 144,353 408,885
Year2009 297,754 165,097 462,851

Cane milled (Tons)
Year2007 20,250,182 10,060,359 30,310,541
Year2009 25,103,950 12,072,886 37,176,836
Addition 4,853,768 2,012,527 6,866,295

Plantation productivity
(Tons of cane /Ha)
Year2007 76.6 69.7 74.1
Year2009 84.4 73.1 80.3
Addition 7.8 3.4 6.2

Sugar content (%)
Year2007 7.53 8.25 7.77
Year2009 8.31 8.44 8.23
Addition 0.60 0.19 0.46

Crystal production (Tons)
Year2007 1,524,479 830,375 2,354,854
Year2009 2,040,849 1,019,281 3,060,130
Addition 516,370 188,906 705,276

Crystal productivity (Tons/Ha)
Year2007 5.76 5.75 5.76
Year2009 6.85 6.17 0.85
Addition 1.09 0.42 0.85

Source: Agriculture Ministry

Table - 17
Estimate of investment needed in Java and Papua,
2005 - 2010

 Sectors Small-
 holders Companies Government Total
 1) 2) 2)

 (Rp billion)

1. Business investment

a. Land 205.0 200.0 0.0
b. Farm equipment 6.6 6.4 0.0
c. Buildings 0.0 100.0 0.0
d. Working capital 387.9 120.0 0.0
Total 599.4 426.4 0.0 1,026

2. Investment in
 business areas

2.1 Business in
 farm equipment
a. Pumps 41.5 40,5 0,0 82
b. Tractors 150.3 146,7 0,0 297
2.2 Breeding of 61.5 60,0 0,0 121,5
2.3 Post harvest 284.7 277,8 0,0 562,5
2.4 Processing
a. New sugar 0.0 2,000,0 0,0 2,000
 (2 units)
b. Rehabiliation 0.0 2,163,7 0,0 2,163,7
 of factories
 (52 units)
c. Ethanol plant 0.0 500,0 0,0 500
d. Electric Energy 0.0 500,0 0,0 500
e. Particle Board 0.0 200,0 0,0 200
2.5. Marketing and

Source: Agriculture ministry

Table - 18
Investment needed in sugar industry, 2005-2010

Province By By companies By Total
 smallholders government

 (Rp billion)

East Java 831,4 2,259,4 0,0 3,090,8
Central Java 193,4 445,8 0,0 639,2
West Java 112,7 292,4 0,0 405,2
Papua 0,0 3,229,4 208,0 3,437,4
Lampung 0,0 678,0 0,0 678,0
TOTAL 1,137.5 6,905 208 8,250.6

Table - 19
Expansion and new investment in sugar industry

Companies Planned Cane
 investment processing
 (RP billion) capacity

PTP IX 410 2,800 tons

PT Gunung 200 2.2 million tons
Madu cane/year

PT Sumatera 1,200 500,000 tons
Tonsggi sugar/year
 (prod. cap.)

Group Sinar 700 7,000 tons/day

Astra Agro 1,000 10,000 tons/day

 Locations Construction/

PTP IX Sragen & Construction to
 Kudus, Central start in 2008

PT Gunung Central Lampung Operational in
Madu 2008

PT Sumatera North Sumatra Operational in
Tonsggi 2008

Group Sinar Sinjai, South Operational
Mas Sulawesi in 2009

Astra Agro Goa and Operational
Lestari Takalar, South in 2009

Source: Investment Coordinating Board
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Publication:Indonesian Commercial Newsletter
Geographic Code:9INDO
Date:Sep 1, 2007
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