Sufism Peace and Harmony Promoting.
The Black Muslim Movement (BMM) is a largely black urban movement in the US that has many of the attributes of a syncretic Sufi movement. One driving force was a rejection of Christianity as the religion of the historically oppressing white race. The Moorish Science Temple of America was organized in 1913 in Newark, New Jersey by Timothy Drew. H his followers believed he had been ordained Prophet Noble Drew Ali by Allah. Although the truth is difficult to know, He is reported to have been born in North Carolina in 1886 the son of a Moroccan Muslim father and a Native American mother. It is said that at age sixteen Drew began his wanderings as a circus magician, which eventually took him to Egypt where he learned about Islam. Drew advocated a "return" to Islam, teaching was that blacks were of Moorish, and thus Muslim, origins. His followers refused to fight in World War I. In 1940 and FBI investigation was conducted to determine if the Moorish Science Temple of America was committing subversive activities by adhering to and spreading Japanese propaganda.
The investigation failed to substantiate that members were pro-Japanese in their attitude. The Temple was investigated in 1953 for violation of the Selective Service Act of 1948 and sedition. In September of 1953, the Department of Justice, concluded that prosecution for violation of the Selective Service Act was not warranted. The Nation of Islam was started by Wallace Fard, who built the first temple in Detroit. Fard was an immigrant from New Zealand, born to Pakistani parents. He had joined Noble Drew Ali's Moorish Science Temple in the late 1920s, and gradually made his way to the group's leadership when Drew died under obscure circumstances in 1929. Elijah Muhammad (born Elijah Poole) established a second temple in Chicago and later supervised the creation of temples in most large cities with significant black populations. Fard disappeared in 1931, and Elijah Muhammad assumed the leadership of The Lost Found Nation of Islam - known in the news media as the 'Black Muslims'.
They taught that blacks were racially superior to whites and that a racial war is inevitable. The charismatic Malcolm X was perhaps their most famous spokesperson; he played an important role in reversing the BMM's anti-white beliefs. In its earlier years, the movement deviated significantly from traditional Islamic beliefs (particularly over matters of racial tolerance and the status of the BMM leaders as prophets). After the death of Elijah Muhammad in 1975, there were unsuccessful attempts to shed the idiosyncratic elements of belief by Wallace Muhammad, Elijah's seventh (legitimate) child, who formed the Muslim American Society. He shed the Nation's core beliefs that Elijah Muhammad was a divine messenger and that W. Fard Muhammad, was God incarnate. Mainstream Sunni Islam teaches that the prophet Muhammad was God's final messenger, and rejects the idea of human divinity. The Nation of Islam was opened to those of the white race and members were encouraged to participate in the civic and political life of the country.
The Nation of Islam became the World Community of Islam in the west and then the American Muslim Mission. Minister Louis Farrakhan, long regarded as a race-baiter and Jew-hater, heads spin-off movement from the old Nation of that continued espousing the movements idiosynratic views. Under the leadership of minister Louis Farrakhan a group of Blacks broke with the American Muslim Mission and returned to the original teaching and ideals of Elijah Muhammad and readopted the old name, Nation of Islam. Black Muslims are to live by a strict ethical code that excludes alcohol, drugs, tobacco, sports, movies, and cosmetics. Pork is not to be eaten. Orthodox Islam rejects Nation of Islam as heretical because its doctrines are contrary to the Islamic Qur'an. (email@example.com)