Printer Friendly

Studying the effect of relation-based marketing tactics affect on the quality of relations, word of mouth advertising, customer loyalty to the mobile operators in Tehran.

INTRODUCTION

Statement of the Problem: Nowadays, the shoppers have a lot of choices for shopping. On one hand, the companies have also found that the cost of attracting new customers have been five times more than maintaining the old ones and losing one customer is not only losing selling a product but it is means losing the whole process of the stoppings which the customer could do during his life [10]. So, according to the fact that competitive environments are more disordered and customers are the only source of profit for the companies now and in future. The most important issue that seller face with is not providing the highly qualified services and products but is to create and maintain customers who are royal and have long term profits for the company [11].

However, a good customer who has higher profit for the company always has the possibility to be lost since the competition is tense for having such a customer [5]. In this condition, relation-based marketing can be a replacing tool for creating continuous relationship with the customer. Relation-based marketing both in academic and practical area has been widely considered during the last decades and at the end of 20th it began to dominate the marketing field [3]. Communication services companies are not exception and are looking for different management techniques for maintaining their customers, since these companies created a positive image of their brands and improved and developed their selling services to have distinguished costs for their customers who in most cased do oral advertising due to their satisfaction of the services and products and are loyal to the brand. So, the main issue of this present research is investigating the effect of relation-based marketing tactics on relation quality, customer loyalty and oral advertising of the customers receiving the operating services of Hamrahaval and Irancell.

Theoretical Bases:

Various definitions of the researches and theorists are suggested for relation-based marketing including: relation-based marketing is a combination of the activities which aim at creating the long term link between an organization and its customers for providing the mutual advantages [7]. Relation-based marketing is for the customers who consider mutual advantages and these advantages are divided during the life of the customer. Different views exist about relation-based marketing. Relation-based marketing is defined as attracting, maintaining and increasing the customer relations. Based on the definition given by Beeri and Parasorman, relation-based marketing points to marketing activities for developing and maintaining the beneficial contractions.

There are various ways for marketers to perform relation-based marketing tactics which affect customer maintenance and loyalty. James Taylor suggests that relation-based marketing can be followed through quality, price perceptions, valuable suggestions, replaced attractions and others. Tseng [11] stated that tactics of direct post electronic, tangible awards, interpersonal relations, preferred behavior and membership can increase the long lasting relation and satisfaction, trust and commitment. Pand & Mang [9] also provided using the relation tactics in service quality, brand, price perception and valuable suggestions. Gummesson [4] defined relationbased marketing in managing the relations, interactions and networking. These relations should be developed and the benefits of the stakeholders should be provided. In fact all the internal and external partners including staff, customers, sponsors and sellers are considered in the definition given by Gummesson.

Gronors defines relation-based marketing as recognizing, maintaining and increasing the relationship with customers and other stakeholders so that the goals of all is provided. It is not surprising that in this disordered environment with fast changes, the companies had to change their strategies toward the market and focus on long lasting relations which are very important in maintaining the customers. In the present era, customerorientation has strategic role in maintaining the customers. In this research, the researcher studies the perceived services, price perceptions, brand image and value orders.

Conceptual Model:

Research Method:

Population of the study includes all the customers of telephone operators of Hamrahaval and Irancell in Tehran and random sampling was used for collecting the data. Sample volume was used for unlimited population. Based on this formula, 384 people were selected as the research sample. In order to extract the questionnaire, standard international questionnaires were used. Spss.16 was used for analyzing the data. The Cronbach alpha for all the questions was 0.779. So, it can be concluded that the questionnaire had acceptable reliability. One way t-test was applied for testing the research hypotheses.

Service quality variable:

As can be seen in table 1 the significant of 0.000 is less than [alpha]=0.05 so the research hypotheses is accepted.

Table 1: one way t-test.

          Test = 3

            T      df     sf     The mean   Confidence
                                            level%95

                                            lower    upper

Service   -8/938   379   0/000    -0/342    -0/417   -0/266
quality


Price perception:

As can be seen in table 2 the significant of 0.000 is less than [alpha]=0.05 so the research hypotheses is accepted.

Table 2: one way t-test.

              Test = 3

                 T      df     sf     The mean   Confidence
                                                 level%95

                                                 lower    upper

Price         -12/895   379   0/000    -0/441    -0/508   -0/374
perception


Brand Image:

As can be seen in table 3 the significant of 0.000 is less than [alpha]=0.05 so the research hypotheses is accepted.

Table 3: one way t-test.

               Test=3

                  T      df     sf     The mean   Confidence
                                                  level%95

                                                  lower    upper

Brand Image    -14/693   379   0/000    -0/561    -0/636   -0/485


Value offers:

As can be seen in table 4 the significant of 0.000 is less than [alpha]=0.05 so the research hypotheses is accepted.

Table 4: one way t-test.

              Test = 3

                T      df     sf     The mean   Confidence
                                                level%95

                                                lower    upper

Value         -5/269   379   0/000    -0/257    -0/353   -0/161
suggestion


Customer Trust:

As can be seen in table 5 the significant of 0.000 is less than [alpha]=0.05 so the research hypotheses is accepted.

Table 5: one way t-test.

            Test = 3

              T      df     sf     The mean   Confidence
                                              level%95

                                              lower    upper

Customer    -9/411   379   0/000    -0/371    -0/449   -0/394
trust


Customer satisfaction:

As can be seen in table 6 the significant of 0.000 is less than [alpha]=0.05 so the research hypotheses is accepted.

Table 6: one way t-test.

                Test = 3

                   T      df     sf     The mean   Confidence
                                                   level%95

                                                   lower    upper

Customer        -13/174   379   0/000    -0/556    -0/639   -0/473
satisfaction


Customer Commitment:

As can be seen in table 7 the significant of 0.000 is less than [alpha]=0.05 so the null hypotheses is not accepted.

Table 7 : one way t-test.

                Test = 3

                   T      df     sf     The mean   Confidence
                                                   level%95

                                                   lower    upper

Customer        -12/201   379   0/000    -0/416    -0/484   -0/349
satisfaction


Switching cost:

As can be seen in table 9 the significant of 0.000 is less than [alpha]=0.05 so the null hypotheses is not accepted.

Table 9: one way t-test.

             Test = 3

                T      df     sf     The mean   Confidence
                                                level %95

                                                lower    upper

Switching    -14/817   379   0/000    -0/464    -0/526   -0/402
cost


Oral Advertising:

As can be seen in table 10 the significant of 0.000 is less than [alpha]=0.05 so the null hypotheses is not accepted.

Table 10: one way t-test.

               Test = 3

                  T      df     sf     The mean   Confidence
                                                  level% 95

                                                  lower   upper

Oral           -16/862   379   0/000    -0/434     5-     -0/384
advertising


Customer Loyalty:

As can be seen in table 11 the significant of 0.000 is less than [alpha]=0.05 so the null hypotheses is not accepted.

Table 11: one way t-test.

                                   Test = 3

              T      df     sf     The mean   Confidence
                                              level %95

                                              lower    upper

Customer    -8/193   379   0/000    -0/333    -0/413   -0/253
loyalty


Structural Equation Modeling:

Figures 1, 2 and Table 1 illustrate the results of testing the main research hypothesis using structural equation modeling. The model in Figure 1 shows significant numbers and figure 2 represents standardized coefficients (R) and causal relationship between the variables. Table 1 shows R, t values and the results of testing the hypotheses.

GOF index is used to fit the model. GOF amount of research model is 0.52, indicating a strong fit of the model.

Hypothesis 1: Perceived service quality has a significant impact on the quality of relationships.

Table 12: Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: trust in the brand).

Predictor Variable    The coefficient    t-statistics
                      of determination
                        ([R.sup.2])

Perceived quality          0.609            4.994

Predictor Variable    Correlation       Path Coefficient
                      coefficient       ([beta])

Perceived quality        0.640              0.394


Based on the t statistics of perceived quality is at the 99 percent of confidence level and has significant impact on relation quality, so the first hypothesis is confirmed.

Hypothesis 1-1: The quality of perceived service by customers has a significant impact on customer satisfaction.

Table 13: Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: trust in the brand).

Predictor Variable    The coefficient    Correlation
                      of determination   coefficient
                        ([R.sup.2])

Perceived quality          0.374            0.410

Predictor Variable    t-statistics   Path Coefficient
                                         ([beta])

Perceived quality        0.257            2.41 *


Based on the t statistics of perceived quality is at the 95 percent of confidence level and has significant impact on customer satisfaction, so the hypothesis 1-1 is confirmed.

Hypothesis 1-2: The quality of perceived service by customers has a significant impact on customer trust.

Table 14: Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: trust in the brand).

Predictor Variable    The coefficient    Correlation
                      of determination   coefficient
                        ([R.sup.2])

Perceived quality          0.504            0.550

Predictor Variable    t-statistics   Path Coefficient
                                         ([beta])

Perceived quality       4.240 **          0.405


Based on the t statistics of perceived quality is at the 99 percent of confidence level and has significant impact on customer trust, so the hypothesis 1-3 is confirmed.

Hypothesis 1-3: The quality of perceived service by customers has a significant impact on customer commitment.

Table (15) Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: trust in the brand)

Predictor Variable    The coefficient    Correlation
                      of determination   coefficient
                        ([R.sup.2])

Perceived quality          0.477            0.467

Predictor Variable    t-statistics   Path Coefficient
                                         ([beta])

Perceived quality       3.470 **          0.298


Based on the t statistics of perceived quality is at the 99 percent of confidence level and has significant impact on customer commitment, so the hypothesis 1-2 is confirmed.

Hypothesis 1-4: The perceived quality of service by customers has a significant impact on switching cost.

Table 17: Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: trust in the brand)

Predictor Variable    The coefficient    Correlation
                      of determination   coefficient
                        ([R.sup.2])

Perceived quality          0.466            0.564

Predictor Variable    t-statistics   Path Coefficient
                                         ([beta])

Perceived quality       3.424 **          0.366


Based on the t statistics of perceived quality is at the 99 percent of confidence level and has significant impact on switching cost, so the hypothesis 1-4 is confirmed.

Hypothesis 2: The price perception has a significant impact on relation quality.

Table 18: Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: trust in the brand)

Predictor Variable    The coefficient    Correlation
                      of determination   coefficient
                        ([R.sup.2])

Price quality             0.609            0.598

Predictor Variable    t-statistics   Path Coefficient
                                         ([beta])

Price quality           3.469 **          0.267


Based on the t statistics of price perception is at the 99 percent of confidence level and has significant impact on relation quality, so the hypothesis 2 is confirmed.

Hypothesis 2-1: The price perception has a significant (dependent variable: trust in the brand)

Table 19: Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: trust in the brand)

Predictor Variable    The coefficient    Correlation
                      of determination   coefficient
                        ([R.sup.2])

Price quality             0.504            0.509

Predictor Variable    t-statistics   Path Coefficient
                                         ([beta])

Price quality           2.463 **          0.201


Based on the t statistics of price perception is at the 99 percent of confidence level and has significant impact on customer trust, so the hypothesis is confirmed.

Hypothesis 2-3: The price perception has a significant impact on customer commitment.

Table 20: Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: trust in the brand)

Predictor Variable    The coefficient    Correlation
                      of determination   coefficient
                        ([R.sup.2])

Price quality             0.477            0.525

Predictor Variable    t-statistics   Path Coefficient
                                         ([beta])

Price quality            3.251 **          0.281


Based on the t statistics of price perception is at the 99 percent of confidence level and has significant impact on customer commitment, so the hypothesis is confirmed.

Hypothesis 2-4: The price perception has a significant impact on brand change.

Table 21: Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: trust in the brand)

Predictor Variable    The coefficient    Correlation
                      of determination   coefficient
                        ([R.sup.2])

Price quality             0.446            0.459

Predictor Variable    t-statistics   Path Coefficient
                                         ([beta])

Price quality             1.669            0.162


Based on the t statistics of is at the limit of -1.69 and + 1.69, the price perception does not have significant impact on brand change, so the hypothesis is not confirmed.

Hypothesis 3: The brand image has a significant impact on relation quality.

Table 22: Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: trust in the brand)

Predictor Variable    The coefficient    Correlation
                      of determination   coefficient
                        ([R.sup.2])

Brand Image                0.609            0.417

Predictor Variable    t-statistics   Path Coefficient
                                         ([beta])

Brand Image              0.970            0.075


Based on the t statistics of is at the limit of -1.69 and + 1.69, the brand image does not have significant impact on relation quality, so the hypothesis is not confirmed.

Hypothesis 3-1: The brand image has a significant impact on customer satisfaction.

Table 23: Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: customer trust)

Predictor Variable    The coefficient    Correlation
                      of determination   coefficient
                        ([R.sup.2])

Brand Image               0.374            0.304

Predictor Variable    t-statistics   Path Coefficient
                                         ([beta])

Brand Image              0.251            0.024


Based on the t statistics of is at the limit of -1.69 and + 1.69, the brand image does not have significant impact on customer satisfaction, so the hypothesis is not confirmed.

Hypothesis 3-2: The brand image has a significant impact on customer satisfaction.

Table 24: Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: customer trust)

Predictor Variable    The coefficient    Correlation
                      of determination   coefficient
                        ([R.sup.2])

Brand Image                0.504            0.399

Predictor Variable    t-statistics   Path Coefficient
                                         ([beta])

Brand Image              0.861           0.080


Based on the t statistics of is at the limit of -1.69 and + 1.69, the brand image does not have significant impact on customer trust, so the hypothesis is not confirmed.

Hypothesis 3-3: The brand image has a significant impact on customer commitment.

Table 25: Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: customer commitment)

Predictor Variable    The coefficient    Correlation
                      of determination   coefficient
                        ([R.sup.2])

Brand Image               0.477            0.327

Predictor Variable    t-statistics   Path Coefficient
                                         ([beta])

Brand Image                0.1            0.008


Based on the t statistics of is at the limit of -1.69 and + 1.69 impact on customer trust, so the hypothesis is not confirmed.

Hypothesis 3-4: The brand image has a significant impact on switching cost.

Table 26: Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: switching cost)

Predictor Variable    The coefficient    Correlation
                      of determination   coefficient
                        ([R.sup.2])

Brand Image                0.446            0.360

Predictor Variable    t-statistics   Path Coefficient
                                         ([beta])

Brand Image              0.838           0.089


Based on the t statistics of is at the limit of -1.69 and + 1.69, the brand image does not have significant impact on switching cost, so the hypothesis is not confirmed.

Hypothesis 4: The value suggestion has a significant impact on relation quality.

Table 27: Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: relation quality)

Predictor Variable    The coefficient    Correlation
                      of determination   coefficient
                        ([R.sup.2])

Value suggestion           0.609           0.518

Predictor Variable    t-statistics   Path Coefficient
                                         ([beta])

Value suggestion        4.590 **          0.320


Based on the t statistics and confidence level of 99, the value suggestion has significant impact on relation quality, so the hypothesis is confirmed.

Hypothesis 4-1: The value suggestion has a significant impact on customers' satisfaction.

Table 28: Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: customer satisfaction)

Predictor Variable    The coefficient    Correlation
                      of determination   coefficient
                        ([R.sup.2])

Value suggestion           0.504           0.443

Predictor Variable    t-statistics   Path Coefficient
                                         ([beta])

Value suggestion        3.483 **          0.280


Based on the t statistics and confidence level of 99, the value suggestion has significant impact on customer trust, so the hypothesis is confirmed.

Hypothesis 4-2: The value suggestion has a significant impact on customers' trust.

Table 29: Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: customer trust)

Predictor Variable    The coefficient    Correlation
                      of determination   coefficient
                        ([R.sup.2])

Value suggestion           0.374           0.413

Predictor Variable    t-statistics   Path Coefficient
                                         ([beta])

Value suggestion        3.532 **          0.280


Based on the t statistics and confidence level of 99, the value suggestion has significant impact on customer satisfaction, so the hypothesis is confirmed.

Hypothesis 4-3: The value suggestion has a significant impact on customers' commitment.

Table 30: Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: customer commitment)

Predictor Variable    The coefficient    Correlation
                      of determination   coefficient
                        ([R.sup.2])

Value suggestion           0.477           0.490

Predictor Variable    t-statistics   Path Coefficient
                                         ([beta])

Value suggestion        5.052 **          0.348


Based on the t statistics and confidence level of 99, the value suggestion has significant impact on customer satisfaction, so the hypothesis is confirmed.

Hypothesis 4-4: The value suggestion has a significant impact on switching cost.

Table 31: Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: switching cost)

Predictor Variable    The coefficient    Correlation
                      of determination   coefficient
                        ([R.sup.2])

Value suggestion           0.446           0.445

Predictor Variable    t-statistics   Path Coefficient
                                         ([beta])

Value suggestion        3.361 **          0.297


Based on the t statistics and confidence level of 99, the value suggestion has significant impact on customer satisfaction, so the hypothesis is confirmed.

5: customer satisfaction has a significant impact on oral advertising.

Table 32: Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: oral advertising)

Predictor Variable      The coefficient    Correlation
                        of determination   coefficient
                           ([R.sup.2])

Customer satisfaction       0.602            0.554

Predictor Variable      t-statistics   Path Coefficient
                                          ([beta])

Customer satisfaction       0007           0.001


Based on the t statistics at the limit of -1.69 and +1.69, the customer satisfaction has no significant impact on oral advertising, so the hypothesis is not confirmed.

Hypothesis 6: The customer satisfaction has a significant impact on customer royalty.

Table 33: Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: customer royalty)

Predictor Variable      The coefficient    Correlation
                        of determination   coefficient
                           ([R.sup.2])

Customer satisfaction       0.744            0.654

Predictor Variable      t-statistics   Path Coefficient
                                          ([beta])

Customer satisfaction      0.262           -0.028


Based on the t statistics at the limit of -1.69 and +1.69, the customer satisfaction has no significant impact on customer royalty, so the hypothesis is not confirmed.

Hypothesis 7: The customer trust has a significant impact on oral advertising.

Table 34: Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: oral advertising)

Predictor Variable      The coefficient    Correlation
                        of determination   coefficient
                           ([R.sup.2])

Customer trust               0.602            0.554

Predictor Variable      t-statistics   Path Coefficient
                                          ([beta])

Customer trust             3.085 **        0.335


Based on the t statistics and confidence level of 99, the customer trust has significant impact on oral advertising, so the hypothesis is confirmed.

Hypothesis 8: The customer trust has a significant impact on customer royalty.

Table 35: Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: customer royalty)

Predictor Variable      The coefficient    Correlation
                        of determination   coefficient
                           ([R.sup.2])

Customer trust              0.446            0.445

Predictor Variable      t-statistics   Path Coefficient
                                          ([beta])

Customer trust            3.361 **         0.297


Based on the t statistics and confidence level of 99, the customer trust has significant impact on customer royalty, so the hypothesis is confirmed.

Hypothesis 9: The customer commitment has a significant impact on oral commitment.

Table 36: Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: switching cost)

Predictor Variable      The coefficient    Correlation
                        of determination   coefficient
                           ([R.sup.2])

Customer commitment         0.602            0.641

Predictor Variable      t-statistics   Path Coefficient
                                          ([beta])

Customer satisfaction       1.846           0.220


Based on the t statistics at the limit of -1.69 and +1.69, the customer commitment has no significant impact on oral advertising, so the hypothesis is not confirmed.

Hypothesis 10: The customer commitment has a significant impact on customer loyalty.

Table 37: Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: customer royalty)

Predictor Variable      The coefficient    Correlation
                        of determination   coefficient
                           ([R.sup.2])

Value suggestion            0.744            0.719

Predictor Variable      t-statistics   Path Coefficient
                                          ([beta])

Value suggestion           2.750 *          0.292


Based on the t statistics and confidence level of 99, the customer commitment has significant impact on customer royalty, so the hypothesis is confirmed.

Hypothesis 11: The switching cost has a significant impact on oral advertising.

Table 38: Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: oral advertising)

Predictor Variable      The coefficient    Correlation
                        of determination   coefficient
                           ([R.sup.2])

Switching cost               0.602           0.641

Predictor Variable      t-statistics   Path Coefficient
                                          ([beta])

Switching cost              4.362           0.387


Based on the t statistics and confidence level of 99, the switching cost has significant impact on oral advertising, so the hypothesis is confirmed.

Hypothesis 12: The switching cost has a significant impact on customer royalty.

Table 39: Path coefficients, t-statistics and the coefficient
of determination (dependent variable: customer royalty)

Predictor Variable      The coefficient    Correlation
                        of determination   coefficient
                           ([R.sup.2])

Value suggestion            0.744            0.719

Predictor Variable      t-statistics   Path Coefficient
                                          ([beta])

Value suggestion           1.207 *          0.083


Based on the t statistics at the limit of -1.69 and +1.69, the customer commitment has no significant impact on oral advertising, so the hypothesis is not confirmed.

Results and Suggestions:

The results of the present study showed that the perceived quality of the service has significant effect on relation quality, customer satisfaction, customer commitment and switching cost. In addition price perception affects the relation quality, customer satisfaction, trust and commitment. The price perception does not impact the switching cost. The image of the brand does not affect the relations with the customers, satisfaction, trust to the customers, customer commitments and switching cost.

So according to the results, it is suggested that the operator agents of Irancell in Tehran pay more attention to customer relationship and its quality or marketing tactics so that they could change their customers to royal ones and gain competitive advantage for the related companies. In addition, it is suggested that the researchers study the case without the limits of sampling. Future researches could consider various services such as airlines and railways with wider sampling.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 25 March 2014

Received in revised form 20 April 2014

Accepted 15 May 2014

Available online 5 June 2014

REFERENCES

[1] Ravald, A., C. Gronroos, 1996 "The value concept and relationship marketing" European journal of marketing, 30(2): 19-30.

[2] Annika Ravald, Christian Gronroos, 1996. "The value concept and relationship marketing", European Journal of Marketing, 30(2): 19-30.

[3] Egan, J., 2001. Relationship Marketing: Exploring Relationship Startegies in Marketing, Pearson Education Limited. ISBN 0273-64612-5.

[4] Evert Gummson, 1994. "making relationship operational", International journal of service industry management, 5(5): 5-20.

[5] Gary, P. and J. Byun, 2001. "Customer Relationship Managemenf'. University of California, pp.1-57, How many dimensions?" journal of services marketing, 21.

[6] Jones, T., S. Taylor, 2007. "The conceptual domain of services loyalty,

[7] Lovelock, 1983. Christopher H. Lovelock; Classifying Services to Gain Strategic Marketing Insights. Journal of Marketing, 47: 9-20.

[8] Parasuraman, et al., 1991. A. Parasuraman, Leonard L. Berry, Valarie A. Zeithaml." Alternative scales for measuring service quality: a comparative assessment based on psychometric and diagnostic criteria", 420-450.

[9] Peng, Leong yow & Wang, Qing, 2006. " Impact or Relationship Marketing Tactics (RMTs) on switchers and stayers in a competitive Service Industry", Journal of Marketing Management, 22: 25-59.

[10] Philip kotler, Gary Armstrong, 1999. marketing: introduction, person us Imports & Phipes, paper back, 736 pages.

[11] Tseng, Yi Ming, 2007. "The Impacts of Relationship Marketing Tactics on Relationship Quality in Service Industry", The Business Review, Cambridge. summer, 7(23): 10-314.

(1) Somayyeh Hosseini, (2) Elham Faridchehr, (3) Nader Gharibnavaz

(1) Student of Master Degree in Business Management/Minor Marketing Department of Business, Faculty of Management, Shahre Ghods Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahre Ghods, Iran.

(2) Assistant Professor, Department of Business, Faculty of Management, Shahre Ghods Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahre Ghods, Iran.

(3)Assistant Professor, Department of Business, Faculty of Management, Shahre Ghods Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahre Ghods, Iran.

Corresponding Author: Elham Faridcheh, Assistant Professor, Department of Business, Faculty of Management, Shahre Ghods Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahre Ghods, Iran.
COPYRIGHT 2014 American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2014 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Hosseini, Somayyeh; Faridchehr, Elham; Gharibnavaz, Nader
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Jun 20, 2014
Words:4150
Previous Article:The effects of covalent treated graphene nanoplatelets surface modification to cure characteristic, mechanical, physical and morphological properties...
Next Article:A comparative study and translation of linguistic taboos in Persian, English and Yemeni language.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2020 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters